Zeila

What is Zeila known for?


oil making

of Aden.jpg thumb right A dhow in the Gulf of Aden. The Gulf of Aden is a vital waterway for shipping, especially for Persian Gulf oil (Petroleum), making it an integral waterway in the world economy. Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


character independent

Zeila, finally capturing the city and killing Sultan Sa'ad ad-Din. Early Islamic States in Western Somaliland With the introduction of Islam in the 7th century in what are now the Afar (Afar people)-inhabited parts of Eritrea and Djibouti, the region began to assume a political character independent of Ethiopia. Three Islamic sultanates were founded in and around the area named Shewa (a Semitic-speaking sultanate in eastern Ethiopia, modern Shewa province and ruled by the Mahzumi


period main

route between Tadjoura and Shewa cut further into Zeila's historic position as the main regional port. Abir, ''Era of the Princes'', p. 16 Ottoman period thumb left 175px Flag of Zeila#Ottoman period Ottoman Zeila (File:Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1844).svg) (1559–1867) Although part of the Ottoman Empire since 1559, between 1821 to 1841, Muhammad Ali (Muhammad Ali of Egypt), Pasha of Egypt, came


Circumcision

to Zeila (then the capital of Adal) when he recounts how the Sultan of Aden seized a bishop of Abyssinia traveling through his realm, attempted to convert the man by force, then had him circumcised (circumcision) according to Islamic practice. This action provoked the Abyssinian Emperor into raising an army and capturing the Sultan's capital. Pankhurst, p. 55. Through extensive trade with Abyssinia and Arabia, Adal attained its height of prosperity during


early centuries

the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners. With the migration of Muslim families from the Islamic world to Somalia in the early centuries of Islam, and the peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars (Islam in Somalia) in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa and Merka, which were part of the ''Berber'' (the medieval Arab

, and Bosaso in Somalia. The birth of Islam (History of Islam) opposite the Horn's Red Sea coast meant that local merchants and sailors living on the Arabian Peninsula gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners. With the migration of Muslim families from the Islamic world to the Horn in the early centuries of Islam, and the peaceful conversion of the local population by Muslim scholars in the following centuries

that Somali merchants, sailors and expatriates living in the Arabian Peninsula gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners. With the migration of fleeing Muslim families from the Islamic world to Somalia in the early centuries of Islam and the peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars (Islam in Somalia) in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed


centuries quot

, according to Trimingham, "without encountering any resistance except for some from the Galla tribes. So ended the independence of the petty city-state of Harar after less than two centuries." J. Spencer Trimingham, ''Islam in Ethiopia'' (Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press, 1952), pp 120f. Two letters of Emir Muhammad survive, both dated 6 October 1875, to Ra'uf Pasha, which discuss the terms of the city's surrender. Printed


historic position

route between Tadjoura and Shewa cut further into Zeila's historic position as the main regional port. Abir, ''Era of the Princes'', p. 16 Ottoman period Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


time significant

, modern Somalia A history of Arabic literature‎ pg 423 by Clément Huart and visited the ''Riwaqs'' of the Jabarti communities in Mecca and Medina before making it to Egypt where he became Sheikh of the ''Riwaq'' there and head of the Jabarti community. - Salal (Salal, Somalia) Zeila Awdal - It took until 1897 before the necessary permission from French authorities was received, by which time

significant opposition in Ethiopia had materialised. Elements of the traditional nobility were opposed to the construction, and there were popular demonstrations against it. There was also opposition from the British (United Kingdom) legation in Addis Ababa, which feared a reduction in traffic to the port of Zeila in British Somaliland. The 9th-century Islamic writers Al-Masudi and Yaqub Ibn Abudllah Al-Hamawi wrote in their book ''Aqeeliyoon'' (which describes the lives and lineages of the descendants of the prophet Mohammed's young cousin, Aqeel Ibn Abu Talib) that several Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)) sub-clans moved to the city of Zeila in present day Somalia, around the ninth century A.D. Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


military victory

Sultanate based at Zeila and the Solomonic Dynasty, the Abyssinian Emperor (Emperor of Ethiopia) had one of his court officials compose a hymn celebrating a military victory over the Sultan of Ifat's eponymous troops. I.M. Lewis, ''A modern history of the Somali: nation and state in the Horn of Africa'', 4, illustrated edition, (James Currey: 2002), p.25. The birth of Islam (History of Islam) on the opposite side of Somalia's Red Sea coast meant that Somali merchants, sailors and expatriates living in the Arabian Peninsula gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners. With the migration of fleeing Muslim families from the Islamic world to Somalia in the early centuries of Islam and the peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars (Islam in Somalia) in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa and Merca, which were part of the Berberi civilization. The city of Mogadishu came to be known as the ''City of Islam'', Society, security, sovereignty and the state in Somalia - Page 116 and controlled the East African gold trade for several centuries. East Africa: Its Peoples and Resources - Page 18 The Ifat Sultanate, led by the Walashma dynasty with its capital at Zeila, ruled over parts of what is now eastern Ethiopia, Djibouti, and northern Somalia. The historian al-Umari (Al-Omari) records that Ifat was situated near the Red Sea coast, and states its size as 15 days travel by 20 days travel. Its army numbered 15,000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers. Al-Umari also credits Ifat with seven "mother cities": Belqulzar, Kuljura, Shimi, Shewa, Adal, Jamme and Laboo. G.W.B. Huntingford, ''The Glorious Victories of Ameda Seyon, King of Ethiopia'' (Oxford: University Press, 1965), p. 20. thumb right 200px Mohamoud Ali Shire (File:Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire 2.jpg), a prominent Somali anti-imperialist leader and the 20th Sultan of the Warsangali Sultanate. Wikipedia:Zeila Commons:Category:Zeila


ancient red

the wealthy Arabian port cities was to protect and hide the exploitative trade practices of the Somali and Arab merchants in the extremely lucrative ancient Red Sea-Mediterranean Sea commerce. The Indian merchants for centuries brought large quantities of cinnamon from Ceylon and the Far East to Somalia and Arabia. This is said to have been one of the most remarkable secrets of the Red Sea port cities of Arabia and the Horn of Africa in their trade with the Ancient Rome Roman

Zeila

'''Zeila''' ( ), also known as '''Zaila''', As in the 1911 Britannica--see the External links below and a quote from it later in this article--and also more currently in writings . The Most Historical City" . is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia.

In antiquity, it was identified with the commercial port of Avalites described in the 1st century Greco-Roman travelogue the ''Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'', an area that was situated in the historic northern Barbara (Barbara (region)) region. The town evolved into an early Islamic center with the arrival of Muslims shortly after the hijra (Hijra (Islam)). By the 9th century, Zeila would be described as the capital of an already-established Adal kingdom (Adal Sultanate), and would attain its height of prosperity a few centuries later in the 1300s. The city subsequently came under Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) and British (British Empire) protection.

In the post-independence period, Zeila was administered as part of the official Zeila District in the Awdal region of Somalia. It serves as the province's commercial capital and is a major seaport within the autonomous Awdalland region.

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