Works Progress Administration

What is Works Progress Administration known for?


black musical

buildings. Today, the Kansas City Riverfront Bicycle Trail, a 20-mile bicycle route along the Missouri River around downtown Kansas City, also runs through the park and along the bluff. ''Porgy and Bess'', the WPA, ''The Swing Mikado'', and ''Carmen Jones'' George Gershwin's ''Porgy and Bess'' (1935) – starring Will Marion Cook's wife Abbie Mitchell among many others – is the most famous black musical of the 1930s. It is called a black musical because of the African American cast, even though neither the music or plot is of the “Negro inspiration” like the creators proclaim. "''Porgy and Bess'' marked the nadir in the history of black musical comedy, symbolizing the end of tradition and experimentation in black musical theater on Broadway". Woll, 175. This also led the Works Progress Administration to start the Federal Theater Project that established the Negro Unit with programs in twenty-two cities. This gave a new break to the struggling artists. The Negro Unit avoided musical comedies, but had a few musicals with black cast including Eubie Blake’s ''Swing It'', which closed in 1937 and lessened hope for the Federal Theater Project. right thumb Bill Robinson (File:HotmikadoBill.jpg) in ''The Hot Mikado'''''''The Hot Mikado''''' was a 1939 musical theatre adaptation of Gilbert and Sullivan's ''The Mikado'' with an African-American cast. Mike Todd originally produced it after the Federal Theatre Project turned down his offer to manage the WPA (Works Progress Administration) production of ''The Swing Mikado'' (another all-black adaptation of ''The Mikado''). The school's main hallway features a large Works Progress Administration mural entitled "Community Life in the 19th Century," by Ralph (Ralf) Henricksen and Emmanuel Jacobson, probably completed in 1936. The school also includes a library and a technology center. Horace Mann owns a large property called Field Park, which includes a blacktop, three playgrounds, and a center at which students play football (American football) and other after-school activities. * Reporting (Pulitzer Prize for Reporting): ** Thomas Lunsford Stokes of Scripps-Howard (E.W. Scripps Company) Newspaper Alliance for his series of articles on alleged intimidation of workers for the Works Progress Administration in Pennsylvania and Kentucky during an election. The articles were published in ''The New York World-Telegram''. * Correspondence (Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence): History The Savannah Arts Academy building is located on a site that was originally planned as a luxury tourist hotel called the Hotel Georgia. The Works Progress Administration, in the midst of the Great Depression, expressed interest in the site for use as the new Savannah High School, which was dedicated on June 15, 1937. After 61 years on Washington Avenue, Savannah High School (Savannah High School (Georgia)) classes were moved to a new building on Pennsylvania Avenue, leaving the structure available for the newly formed Savannah Arts Academy for the school year beginning August 1998. Natrona County High School was originally known as Casper High School in its early days. The current building was constructed between 1924 and 1941 in Collegiate Gothic (Gothic Revival architecture) style. It was partially built under the authority of the Works Progress Administration; the crest of the WPA visible in the sidewalks on the front campus. In exchange for the federal assistance, male student participation in the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps was mandatory until a few years after Kelly Walsh High School opened in 1965. The JROTC at NCHS is the second oldest unit in the nation and will be celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2014. The 1933 programs, called "the First New Deal" by historians, represented a broad consensus; Roosevelt tried to reach out to business and labor, farmers and consumers, cities and countryside. By 1934, however, he was moving toward a more confrontational policy. After making gains in state governorships and in Congress, in 1934 Roosevelt embarked on an ambitious legislative program that came to be called "The Second New Deal." It was characterized by building up labor unions, nationalizing welfare by the WPA (Works Progress Administration), setting up Social Security (Social Security (United States)), imposing more regulations on business (especially transportation and communications), and raising taxes on business profits. Roosevelt's New Deal programs focused on job creation through public works projects as well as on social welfare programs such as Social Security (Social Security (United States)). It also included sweeping reforms to the banking system, work regulation, transportation, communications, and stock markets, as well as attempts to regulate prices. His policies soon paid off by uniting a diverse coalition of Democratic voters called the New Deal Coalition, which included labor unions, southerners, minorities (most significantly, Catholics and Jews), and liberals (political liberalism). This united voter base allowed Democrats to be elected to Congress and the presidency for much of the next 30 years. What distinguished Wheatraw’s recordings most of all is the quality of his lyrics. Like other successful performers, he sang of the concerns of urban African Americans removed from their rural roots. Some of his most memorable songs deal with the Repeal of Prohibition, a New Deal WPA (Works Progress Administration) Project, and slum clearance for urban renewal. His “stomps” project a unique personality, boastful and demonic. His songs on more mundane themes are extraordinarily varied. His lyrics, though seeming at times slap-dash or improvised, are at their best direct and vivid evocations of the black experience. Wheatstraw's significance as a poet is discussed at length by Paul Garon. Garon (ibid) Early life and career Crichlow was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1914 to Caribbean immigrants. He studied art at the School of Commercial Illustrating and Advertising Art in New York and New York University. Crichlow started work as an artist in a studio sponsored by Works Progress Administration's (Works Progress Administration) Federal Art Project. Augusta Savage was an early patron of his work as was the case for many of the artists of the Harlem Renaissance. It was built from 1939–42 (despite emergency building restrictions during World War II) on the farmland of the Catholic Protectory, a home for orphaned and troubled boys conducted by the Brothers of the Christian Schools, which relocated to Lincolndale (and still exists in) Westchester County. In 1974, approximately one-third of the complex was converted (Condo conversion) to condominiums, with the remaining portion, now ''Parkchester South Condominium'' converted later, in 1986. The complex is best known for its broad, tree-lined walkways between the distinctive red-brown buildings, and for its Works Progress Administration-style terracotta decorations on the buildings, that represent animal and human figures of many types. Many of these are the work of sculptor Joseph Kiselewski. thumb In 1919, Mora created this plaque memorial to Bret Harte (File:Detail of Bret Harte sculpture.jpg), mounted on the external wall of the Bohemian Club In 1907, Mora returned to California and married Grace Needham. Their son, Joseph Needham Mora, was born on March 8, 1908. The Moras moved to San Jose, California, where Mora continued his work. By 1919, he was sculpting for the Bohemian Club, including a memorial plaque dedicated to Bret Harte, completed in August 1919 and mounted on the outside of the private men's club building in San Francisco. In 1925, he designed the commemorative half dollar for the California Diamond Jubilee. During this period he also illustrated a number of books, made large murals, and published charts, maps (cartes) and diagrams of the West and Western themes. Beginning in 1937, Mora wrote and illustrated children's books about the West. In 1939, a Works Progress Administration project was completed, with Mora bas-relief sculpture adorning the King City High School theater building. Mora died October 10, 1947 in Monterey, California. thumb alt Poppy Girl, 1915 (File:J Mora - Poppy Girl.jpg) thumb The facade of the Robert Stanton Theater at King City High School (File:KingCityHS-RobertStantonTheater.jpg) in King City, California. Completed in 1939, this Works Progress Administration project featured bas-relief sculpture by Jo Mora Construction and history The building was opened in 1937 to replace the original library building (the "Old Libe," Fenton Hall, completed in 1907), which the University's collections had outgrown. Construction of the library was financed as a Depression-era (Great Depression) Works Progress Administration (WPA) project, spearheaded by Oregon senator (United States Senate) Frederick Steiwer and took more than two years to complete. "The New Libe" as the ''Oregon Daily Emerald'' student newspaper had christened the building, was designed by Ellis F. Lawrence of the Oregon-based architectural firm Lawrence, Holford, and Allyn. Lawrence was also a driving force in much of the core architecture of the UO campus and was the first Dean of the School of Architecture and Allied Arts (University of Oregon School of Architecture and Allied Arts). The rich architecture of the building reflects an Art Deco aesthetic with "modernized Lombardy and Greco-Roman" elements as well as many integrated artistic embellishments including "the fifteen stone heads by Edna Dunberg and Louise Utter Pritchard, ornamental memorial gates by O. B. Dawson, carved wooden panels by Arthur Clough, and two large murals painted by Albert and Arthur Runquist." http: libweb.uoregon.edu knight history.html ...that the '''Nivelle Offensive''' during World War I involved around 1.2 million French (France) troops and over 7,000 guns? ...that American (United States) comics writer and artist '''Don Rico''' started his creative career in the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project during the Great Depression? History The first building to house Lake Orion students was built in 1893 and served grades K-12. It was demolished in the 1930s by a Works Progress Administration project as part of the program designed by the Franklin Roosevelt administration as a way to provide jobs. In 1927 a new building was constructed that would house students for the next 30 years. Located within the Village of Lake Orion (Lake Orion), that building is still in use today as the Ehman Center, and is used by various businesses. In 1938, the WPA (Works Progress Administration) photographer Marion Post Wolcott took a photo of Geneva Varner Clark of Varnertown, the only area resident who at the time identified as Native American, and her three children. Theirs is the only photo of Lowcountry Indians in the Library of Congress. Its caption is "Indian (mixed breed -- 'brass ankles (Brass Ankles)') family near Summerville, South Carolina." She stands, her arms wrapped around her in the cold, with three children and a dog in the dirt and rocks in front of a pine-board house with a roof of tattered wooden shingles and thin stick porch columns that lean in on each other holding it up. Marion Post Wolcott, "Indian (mixed breed - brass ankle) family near Summerville, South Carolina", Library of Congress History Initially built in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration, over old tennis courts. It has undergone many renovations. In 1951 a lunchroom and 2 classrooms were added. In 2001 a renovation of Clairemont was completed. Improvements included new heating and air conditioning, a new media center, new classrooms and paving over most of the athletic field to expand the parking lot. In 2005, four new classrooms were added. Currently the school enrolls students in kindergarten through the third grade. History The area around Roxana began offering education in 1802 with the construction of '''Gilham's Pasture School''' on the northeast corner of what is now 13th Street and Edwardsville Road in Wood River, the current site of a Dairy Queen. Other general schools opened and closed throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century; these include '''Brushy Grove School''' (not to be confused with its later incarnation, '''Brushey Grove School''') from 1858 to 1969, '''Roxana School''' from 1918 to 1926, '''Edison School''' from 1926 to 1936, and '''Burbank School''' starting in 1936. Burbank was built as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project, and was named after botanist Luther Burbank. thumb 250px right Saint Paul Central High School, Marshall Ave and Lexington Parkway, 1912–1980 (Image:CHS-Marshall-Lexington-1912-1980-2-Approx-1912-opt10.jpg) A new school, designed by Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was built in 1912 on the corner of Marshall Avenue and Lexington Parkway, and was attempted to be renamed Lexington High School; alumni, however, wanted to keep the moniker '''Central High School'''. A compromise was reached when the Minuteman (Minutemen) was adopted as a logo and mascot. In other words, the name of the school was retained, but for those who wanted the school to be named "Lexington," its logo and mascot were named after the colonial militia men of 1775 at Lexington, Massachusetts, who fought against the British in the first skirmishes of the War of Independence, and were required to be ready at a minute's notice. The adjacent stadium was built in the early 1940s by the WPA (Works Progress Administration), as denoted by a plaque on the brick facade of the stands. It was renamed James Griffin Stadium in 1998. Relief While local relief before 1932 focused on providing small sums of cash or baskets of food and coal for the neediest, the federal programs launched by Hoover and greatly expanded by the New Deal tried to use massive construction projects with prevailing wages to jumpstart the economy and solve the unemployment crisis. ERA, FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and PWA (Public Works Administration) built and repaired the public infrastructure in dramatic fashion but did little to foster the recovery of the private sector. In sharp contrast to Britain, where private housing construction pulled the country out of depression, American cities saw little private construction or investment, and so they languished in the economic doldrums even as their parks, sewers, airports and municipal buildings were enhanced. The problem in retrospect was that the New Deal's investment in the public infrastructure had only a small "multiplier" effect, in contrast to the high multiplier for jobs that private investment might have created. Richard J. Jensen, "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression." There were also small camps called hoovervilles that had very poor people living in them. , ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'' (1989) 19:553-83. *1928: A home economics building is added to the campus. *1934: Depression-era WPA (Works Progress Administration) funding allows Chamblee High School to add eight new classrooms, a new gymnasium, a canning plant and a machine shop. The school becomes the first in DeKalb County to be accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. *December 8, 1941: the entire campus burns to the ground after fire breaks out. Classes are relocated to the area hospitals and Baptist and Methodist churches. In January 1937, Voorhis's first legislative initiative was to propose a dramatic increase in spending for the Works Progress Administration in order to increase employment. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


national theme

in 2008. thumb left Thomas Hart Benton (painter) Thomas Hart Benton (Image:People-of-Chilmark-Benton-1920-lrg.jpg), ''People of Chilmark (Figure Composition),'' 1920, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC. When the Great Depression hit, president Roosevelt’s (Franklin D Roosevelt) New Deal created several public arts programs. The purpose of the programs was to give work to artists and decorate public buildings, usually with a national theme. The first


nearby stone

Bowman's Hill and nearby stone fences. Quarries in Lumberville, Pennsylvania and Lawrenceville, New Jersey provided cut stone to be used for the sills and balustrades. Over 2,400 tons of materials were used in its construction, including; 1,200 perch (perch (volume)) of stone, 517 tons of sand and 225 tons of cement. In order to provide a solid foundation for the tower, the base was excavated 15 feet (4.57&nbsp


main+athletic

CCC , contributed aid and manpower to the effort. Flooding of roads isolated the city for a time. When the water receded, it left behind silt-caused mud which in places was plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


support program

be happy in the theater." Ritt then went to work with the Roosevelt administration's New Deal Works Progress Administration as a playwright for the Federal Theater Project, a federal government-funded theater support program. History In 1939 the Works Progress Administration created a road enabling widespread access to Mount Jefferson (Mount Jefferson (North Carolina)). Local citizens donated land and money in efforts to attain state park status for the local park, which required the park to have a minimum of plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


unique personality

performers, he sang of the concerns of urban African Americans removed from their rural roots. Some of his most memorable songs deal with the Repeal of Prohibition, a New Deal WPA (Works Progress Administration) Project, and slum clearance for urban renewal. His “stomps” project a unique personality, boastful and demonic. His songs on more mundane themes are extraordinarily varied. His lyrics, though seeming at times slap-dash or improvised, are at their best direct and vivid evocations of the black experience. Wheatstraw's significance as a poet is discussed at length by Paul Garon. Garon (ibid) Early life and career Crichlow was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1914 to Caribbean immigrants. He studied art at the School of Commercial Illustrating and Advertising Art in New York and New York University. Crichlow started work as an artist in a studio sponsored by Works Progress Administration's (Works Progress Administration) Federal Art Project. Augusta Savage was an early patron of his work as was the case for many of the artists of the Harlem Renaissance. It was built from 1939–42 (despite emergency building restrictions during World War II) on the farmland of the Catholic Protectory, a home for orphaned and troubled boys conducted by the Brothers of the Christian Schools, which relocated to Lincolndale (and still exists in) Westchester County. In 1974, approximately one-third of the complex was converted (Condo conversion) to condominiums, with the remaining portion, now ''Parkchester South Condominium'' converted later, in 1986. The complex is best known for its broad, tree-lined walkways between the distinctive red-brown buildings, and for its Works Progress Administration-style terracotta decorations on the buildings, that represent animal and human figures of many types. Many of these are the work of sculptor Joseph Kiselewski. thumb In 1919, Mora created this plaque memorial to Bret Harte (File:Detail of Bret Harte sculpture.jpg), mounted on the external wall of the Bohemian Club In 1907, Mora returned to California and married Grace Needham. Their son, Joseph Needham Mora, was born on March 8, 1908. The Moras moved to San Jose, California, where Mora continued his work. By 1919, he was sculpting for the Bohemian Club, including a memorial plaque dedicated to Bret Harte, completed in August 1919 and mounted on the outside of the private men's club building in San Francisco. In 1925, he designed the commemorative half dollar for the California Diamond Jubilee. During this period he also illustrated a number of books, made large murals, and published charts, maps (cartes) and diagrams of the West and Western themes. Beginning in 1937, Mora wrote and illustrated children's books about the West. In 1939, a Works Progress Administration project was completed, with Mora bas-relief sculpture adorning the King City High School theater building. Mora died October 10, 1947 in Monterey, California. thumb alt Poppy Girl, 1915 (File:J Mora - Poppy Girl.jpg) thumb The facade of the Robert Stanton Theater at King City High School (File:KingCityHS-RobertStantonTheater.jpg) in King City, California. Completed in 1939, this Works Progress Administration project featured bas-relief sculpture by Jo Mora Construction and history The building was opened in 1937 to replace the original library building (the "Old Libe," Fenton Hall, completed in 1907), which the University's collections had outgrown. Construction of the library was financed as a Depression-era (Great Depression) Works Progress Administration (WPA) project, spearheaded by Oregon senator (United States Senate) Frederick Steiwer and took more than two years to complete. "The New Libe" as the ''Oregon Daily Emerald'' student newspaper had christened the building, was designed by Ellis F. Lawrence of the Oregon-based architectural firm Lawrence, Holford, and Allyn. Lawrence was also a driving force in much of the core architecture of the UO campus and was the first Dean of the School of Architecture and Allied Arts (University of Oregon School of Architecture and Allied Arts). The rich architecture of the building reflects an Art Deco aesthetic with "modernized Lombardy and Greco-Roman" elements as well as many integrated artistic embellishments including "the fifteen stone heads by Edna Dunberg and Louise Utter Pritchard, ornamental memorial gates by O. B. Dawson, carved wooden panels by Arthur Clough, and two large murals painted by Albert and Arthur Runquist." http: libweb.uoregon.edu knight history.html ...that the '''Nivelle Offensive''' during World War I involved around 1.2 million French (France) troops and over 7,000 guns? ...that American (United States) comics writer and artist '''Don Rico''' started his creative career in the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project during the Great Depression? History The first building to house Lake Orion students was built in 1893 and served grades K-12. It was demolished in the 1930s by a Works Progress Administration project as part of the program designed by the Franklin Roosevelt administration as a way to provide jobs. In 1927 a new building was constructed that would house students for the next 30 years. Located within the Village of Lake Orion (Lake Orion), that building is still in use today as the Ehman Center, and is used by various businesses. In 1938, the WPA (Works Progress Administration) photographer Marion Post Wolcott took a photo of Geneva Varner Clark of Varnertown, the only area resident who at the time identified as Native American, and her three children. Theirs is the only photo of Lowcountry Indians in the Library of Congress. Its caption is "Indian (mixed breed -- 'brass ankles (Brass Ankles)') family near Summerville, South Carolina." She stands, her arms wrapped around her in the cold, with three children and a dog in the dirt and rocks in front of a pine-board house with a roof of tattered wooden shingles and thin stick porch columns that lean in on each other holding it up. Marion Post Wolcott, "Indian (mixed breed - brass ankle) family near Summerville, South Carolina", Library of Congress History Initially built in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration, over old tennis courts. It has undergone many renovations. In 1951 a lunchroom and 2 classrooms were added. In 2001 a renovation of Clairemont was completed. Improvements included new heating and air conditioning, a new media center, new classrooms and paving over most of the athletic field to expand the parking lot. In 2005, four new classrooms were added. Currently the school enrolls students in kindergarten through the third grade. History The area around Roxana began offering education in 1802 with the construction of '''Gilham's Pasture School''' on the northeast corner of what is now 13th Street and Edwardsville Road in Wood River, the current site of a Dairy Queen. Other general schools opened and closed throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century; these include '''Brushy Grove School''' (not to be confused with its later incarnation, '''Brushey Grove School''') from 1858 to 1969, '''Roxana School''' from 1918 to 1926, '''Edison School''' from 1926 to 1936, and '''Burbank School''' starting in 1936. Burbank was built as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project, and was named after botanist Luther Burbank. thumb 250px right Saint Paul Central High School, Marshall Ave and Lexington Parkway, 1912–1980 (Image:CHS-Marshall-Lexington-1912-1980-2-Approx-1912-opt10.jpg) A new school, designed by Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was built in 1912 on the corner of Marshall Avenue and Lexington Parkway, and was attempted to be renamed Lexington High School; alumni, however, wanted to keep the moniker '''Central High School'''. A compromise was reached when the Minuteman (Minutemen) was adopted as a logo and mascot. In other words, the name of the school was retained, but for those who wanted the school to be named "Lexington," its logo and mascot were named after the colonial militia men of 1775 at Lexington, Massachusetts, who fought against the British in the first skirmishes of the War of Independence, and were required to be ready at a minute's notice. The adjacent stadium was built in the early 1940s by the WPA (Works Progress Administration), as denoted by a plaque on the brick facade of the stands. It was renamed James Griffin Stadium in 1998. Relief While local relief before 1932 focused on providing small sums of cash or baskets of food and coal for the neediest, the federal programs launched by Hoover and greatly expanded by the New Deal tried to use massive construction projects with prevailing wages to jumpstart the economy and solve the unemployment crisis. ERA, FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and PWA (Public Works Administration) built and repaired the public infrastructure in dramatic fashion but did little to foster the recovery of the private sector. In sharp contrast to Britain, where private housing construction pulled the country out of depression, American cities saw little private construction or investment, and so they languished in the economic doldrums even as their parks, sewers, airports and municipal buildings were enhanced. The problem in retrospect was that the New Deal's investment in the public infrastructure had only a small "multiplier" effect, in contrast to the high multiplier for jobs that private investment might have created. Richard J. Jensen, "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression." There were also small camps called hoovervilles that had very poor people living in them. , ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'' (1989) 19:553-83. *1928: A home economics building is added to the campus. *1934: Depression-era WPA (Works Progress Administration) funding allows Chamblee High School to add eight new classrooms, a new gymnasium, a canning plant and a machine shop. The school becomes the first in DeKalb County to be accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. *December 8, 1941: the entire campus burns to the ground after fire breaks out. Classes are relocated to the area hospitals and Baptist and Methodist churches. In January 1937, Voorhis's first legislative initiative was to propose a dramatic increase in spending for the Works Progress Administration in order to increase employment. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


training partnership

of federally controlled job training programs, giving more power to the individual state governments. Nine years later, it was replaced by the Job Training Partnership Act. left thumb The Figueroa Street Viaduct (File:North Figueroa Bridge 1938.jpg), 1938 (Riverside Drive is to the left, and its bridge is in the left background) Although many South Pasadena residents opposed the division of the city that the parkway would bring, the city's voters elected supporters in the 1936 elections


traditional fine

endeavors. His correspondence with his former classmate (and recently elected president) Franklin Roosevelt. Ladis, Andrew (Andrew Ladis), “George Biddle, Raphael Soyer, and the Genius with a Thousand Faces” Traditional Fine Arts Organization 2005: 2-. Resource Library. March 8, 2006 even contributed to the establishment of the Federal Art Project, David Cook Fine Art


medical drawing

WPA Federal Art Project in the Cleveland area. During World War II mapmaking (cartography) and medical drawing (Medical illustrator) were added to the usual curriculum in drawing, painting and sculpture. In 1936, California artist Edith Anne Hamlin was commissioned under the Works Progress Administration's (Works Progress Administration) Federal Art Project to create a series of western-themed murals for the school. Noted artist Maynard Dixon consulted


commercial illustrating

of the black experience. Wheatstraw's significance as a poet is discussed at length by Paul Garon. Garon (ibid) Early life and career Crichlow was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1914 to Caribbean immigrants. He studied art at the School of Commercial Illustrating and Advertising Art in New York and New York University. Crichlow started work as an artist in a studio sponsored by Works Progress Administration's (Works Progress Administration) Federal Art Project

Works Progress Administration

thumb Typical sign on a WPA project (File:WPAsign.JPG) The '''Works Progress Administration''' (renamed in 1939 as the '''Work Projects Administration'''; '''WPA''') was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, Eric Arnesen, ed. ''Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History'' (2007) vol. 1 p. 1540 including the construction of public buildings and roads. In a much smaller but more famous project, the Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.

Almost every community in the United States had a new park, bridge or school constructed by the agency. The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion (about 6.7 percent of the 1935 GDP), and in total it spent $13.4 billion. Jason Scott Smith, ''Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956'' (2006) p. 87

thumb right Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772 (File:Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772.jpg) At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. Between 1935 and 1943, the WPA provided almost eight million jobs. Full employment, which was reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the WPA goal. It tried to provide one paid job for all families in which the breadwinner (Breadwinner model) suffered long-term unemployment. Robert D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment: The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal'' (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2007), 64, 184. Robert D. Leighninger asserts that “The stated goal of public building programs was to end the depression or, at least, alleviate its worst effects. Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance (the dole) because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, and kept skills sharp." Leighninger, Robert D. “Cultural Infrastructure: The Legacy of New Deal Public Space.” Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 4 (1996).

The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. Usually the local sponsor provided land and often trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages (and for the salaries of supervisors, who were not on relief). WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) or Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) programs. D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 63

It was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II (United States home front during World War II). The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for 8 years. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 71. Most people who needed a job were eligible for at least some of its positions. Hourly wages were typically set to the prevailing wages in each area. Bradford A. Lee, "The New Deal Reconsidered," ''The Wilson Quarterly'' 6 (1982): 70.

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