Works Progress Administration

What is Works Progress Administration known for?


made large

building in San Francisco. In 1925, he designed the commemorative half dollar for the California Diamond Jubilee. During this period he also illustrated a number of books, made large murals, and published charts, maps (cartes) and diagrams of the West and Western themes. Beginning in 1937, Mora wrote and illustrated children's books about the West. In 1939, a Works Progress Administration project was completed, with Mora bas-relief sculpture adorning the King City High School theater building. Mora died October 10, 1947 in Monterey, California. thumb alt Poppy Girl, 1915 (File:J Mora - Poppy Girl.jpg) thumb The facade of the Robert Stanton Theater at King City High School (File:KingCityHS-RobertStantonTheater.jpg) in King City, California. Completed in 1939, this Works Progress Administration project featured bas-relief sculpture by Jo Mora Construction and history The building was opened in 1937 to replace the original library building (the "Old Libe," Fenton Hall, completed in 1907), which the University's collections had outgrown. Construction of the library was financed as a Depression-era (Great Depression) Works Progress Administration (WPA) project, spearheaded by Oregon senator (United States Senate) Frederick Steiwer and took more than two years to complete. "The New Libe" as the ''Oregon Daily Emerald'' student newspaper had christened the building, was designed by Ellis F. Lawrence of the Oregon-based architectural firm Lawrence, Holford, and Allyn. Lawrence was also a driving force in much of the core architecture of the UO campus and was the first Dean of the School of Architecture and Allied Arts (University of Oregon School of Architecture and Allied Arts). The rich architecture of the building reflects an Art Deco aesthetic with "modernized Lombardy and Greco-Roman" elements as well as many integrated artistic embellishments including "the fifteen stone heads by Edna Dunberg and Louise Utter Pritchard, ornamental memorial gates by O. B. Dawson, carved wooden panels by Arthur Clough, and two large murals painted by Albert and Arthur Runquist." http: libweb.uoregon.edu knight history.html ...that the '''Nivelle Offensive''' during World War I involved around 1.2 million French (France) troops and over 7,000 guns? ...that American (United States) comics writer and artist '''Don Rico''' started his creative career in the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project during the Great Depression? History The first building to house Lake Orion students was built in 1893 and served grades K-12. It was demolished in the 1930s by a Works Progress Administration project as part of the program designed by the Franklin Roosevelt administration as a way to provide jobs. In 1927 a new building was constructed that would house students for the next 30 years. Located within the Village of Lake Orion (Lake Orion), that building is still in use today as the Ehman Center, and is used by various businesses. In 1938, the WPA (Works Progress Administration) photographer Marion Post Wolcott took a photo of Geneva Varner Clark of Varnertown, the only area resident who at the time identified as Native American, and her three children. Theirs is the only photo of Lowcountry Indians in the Library of Congress. Its caption is "Indian (mixed breed -- 'brass ankles (Brass Ankles)') family near Summerville, South Carolina." She stands, her arms wrapped around her in the cold, with three children and a dog in the dirt and rocks in front of a pine-board house with a roof of tattered wooden shingles and thin stick porch columns that lean in on each other holding it up. Marion Post Wolcott, "Indian (mixed breed - brass ankle) family near Summerville, South Carolina", Library of Congress History Initially built in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration, over old tennis courts. It has undergone many renovations. In 1951 a lunchroom and 2 classrooms were added. In 2001 a renovation of Clairemont was completed. Improvements included new heating and air conditioning, a new media center, new classrooms and paving over most of the athletic field to expand the parking lot. In 2005, four new classrooms were added. Currently the school enrolls students in kindergarten through the third grade. History The area around Roxana began offering education in 1802 with the construction of '''Gilham's Pasture School''' on the northeast corner of what is now 13th Street and Edwardsville Road in Wood River, the current site of a Dairy Queen. Other general schools opened and closed throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century; these include '''Brushy Grove School''' (not to be confused with its later incarnation, '''Brushey Grove School''') from 1858 to 1969, '''Roxana School''' from 1918 to 1926, '''Edison School''' from 1926 to 1936, and '''Burbank School''' starting in 1936. Burbank was built as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project, and was named after botanist Luther Burbank. thumb 250px right Saint Paul Central High School, Marshall Ave and Lexington Parkway, 1912–1980 (Image:CHS-Marshall-Lexington-1912-1980-2-Approx-1912-opt10.jpg) A new school, designed by Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., was built in 1912 on the corner of Marshall Avenue and Lexington Parkway, and was attempted to be renamed Lexington High School; alumni, however, wanted to keep the moniker '''Central High School'''. A compromise was reached when the Minuteman (Minutemen) was adopted as a logo and mascot. In other words, the name of the school was retained, but for those who wanted the school to be named "Lexington," its logo and mascot were named after the colonial militia men of 1775 at Lexington, Massachusetts, who fought against the British in the first skirmishes of the War of Independence, and were required to be ready at a minute's notice. The adjacent stadium was built in the early 1940s by the WPA (Works Progress Administration), as denoted by a plaque on the brick facade of the stands. It was renamed James Griffin Stadium in 1998. Relief While local relief before 1932 focused on providing small sums of cash or baskets of food and coal for the neediest, the federal programs launched by Hoover and greatly expanded by the New Deal tried to use massive construction projects with prevailing wages to jumpstart the economy and solve the unemployment crisis. ERA, FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration), WPA (Works Progress Administration) and PWA (Public Works Administration) built and repaired the public infrastructure in dramatic fashion but did little to foster the recovery of the private sector. In sharp contrast to Britain, where private housing construction pulled the country out of depression, American cities saw little private construction or investment, and so they languished in the economic doldrums even as their parks, sewers, airports and municipal buildings were enhanced. The problem in retrospect was that the New Deal's investment in the public infrastructure had only a small "multiplier" effect, in contrast to the high multiplier for jobs that private investment might have created. Richard J. Jensen, "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression." There were also small camps called hoovervilles that had very poor people living in them. , ''Journal of Interdisciplinary History'' (1989) 19:553-83. *1928: A home economics building is added to the campus. *1934: Depression-era WPA (Works Progress Administration) funding allows Chamblee High School to add eight new classrooms, a new gymnasium, a canning plant and a machine shop. The school becomes the first in DeKalb County to be accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. *December 8, 1941: the entire campus burns to the ground after fire breaks out. Classes are relocated to the area hospitals and Baptist and Methodist churches. In January 1937, Voorhis's first legislative initiative was to propose a dramatic increase in spending for the Works Progress Administration in order to increase employment. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


year works

intrigued enough to travel to Somervell County to see the Glen Rose area for himself. Bird's visit resulted in a 2-year WPA (Works Progress Administration) project to uncover the dinosaur prints. The American Museum of Natural History, the University of Texas, the Smithsonian Institution, and several local museums retain samples of what are said to be the best-preserved tracks in the United States.


numerous+wooden

, and a stone-tiered reflecting pond built by the Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps in the late 1930s. Four Pole Creek runs the entire length of Ritter Park and is crossed by numerous wooden and stone footbridges. There are currently three sites in the county that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. They include the St. Nicholas Orthodox Church, located in Caribou Township (Caribou Township, Minnesota), the burial mounds


field paintings

that moved abstract expressionist painting forward in a new direction toward Color Field and Minimalism. Among Louis's major works are his various series of color field paintings. Some of his best known series' are the ''Unfurleds,'' the ''Veils,'' the ''Florals'' and the ''Stripes'' or ''Pillars''. From 1929 to 1933, Louis studied at the Maryland Institute of Fine and Applied Arts (now Maryland Institute College of Art). He worked at various odd jobs to support himself while painting and in 1935 was president of the Baltimore Artists’ Association. From 1936 to 1940, he lived in New York and worked in the easel division of the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project. During this period, he knew Arshile Gorky, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Jack Tworkov, returning to Baltimore in 1940. In 1948, he started to use Magna (Magna paint) - oil based acrylic paints. In 1952, Louis moved to Washington, D.C. Living in Washington, D.C., somewhat apart from the New York scene and working almost in isolation. He and a group of artists that included Kenneth Noland were central to the development of Color Field painting. The basic point about Louis's work and that of other Color Field painters, sometimes known as the Washington Color School in contrast to most of the other new approaches of the late 1950s and early 1960s, is that they greatly simplified the idea of what constitutes the look of a finished painting. Background The Hatch Act grew out of a long tradition of civil service reform. It removed political patronage from government jobs and blocked office holders from using their power for partisan ends. The immediate need came from the widespread allegation that Works Progress Administration (WPA) workers had been used by local Democratic Party (History of the Democratic Party (United States)) politicians during the congressional elections of 1938. After leaving Groton, Rickey worked at various schools throughout the country as part of the Carnegie Corporation's Visiting Artists Artists in Residence program (partially funded by the Works Progress Administration). His focus was primarily on painting. While taking part in these programs, he painted portraits, taught classes, and created a set of murals at Knox College (Knox College (Illinois)), Galesburg, IL. Upon finishing college he was accredited as a painter by Burgoyne Diller, which allowed him to work from 1936 until 1940 for the WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Art Project, easel division. Sponsored by Holty he became a member of the American Abstract Artists group, with whom he exhibited for the next decade. Reinhardt described his association with the group as "one of the greatest things that ever happened to me". He participated in group exhibitions at the Peggy Guggenheim Gallery, and he had his first one man show at the Artists Gallery in 1943. He then went on to be represented by Betty Parsons, exhibiting first at the Wakefield Bookshop, the Mortimer Brandt Gallery and then when she opened her own gallery on 57th street. Reinhardt had regular solo exhibitions yearly at the Betty Parsons Gallery beginning in 1946. He was involved in the 1940 protest against MoMA, designing the leaflet that asked ''How modern is the Museum of Modern Art''? His works were displayed regularly throughout the 1940s and 1950s at the Annual Exhibitions held at the Whitney Museum of American Art. He was also part of the protest against the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1950 which became known as "The Irascibles." In the Vineyard Theatre revival, the story is told as though in a presentation by the Federal Theatre Project, part of the WPA (Works Progress Administration) established by President Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt) (voiced by Art Carney). A company of actors played all the roles, with obvious props and scenery, not trying to hide the 'amateur' look and feel of the show. During the 1930s he worked as a Works Progress Administration (WPA) artist. Throughout his career Stewart frequently was employed to create architectural sculptures. In 1939, he was appointed head of the sculpture program at Scripps College in Claremont, California at the invitation of Millard Sheets. He moved to California and stayed there the rest of his life. The cemetery went into decline over the following decades, however, because of confusion over land title, the failure in 1939 to secure a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project, the imposition during World War II of the Coast Artillery on the grounds, and so on. In 1960 an attempt was made to transfer maintenance to the Veterans Administration (United States Department of Veterans Affairs), either in place or by moving the graves to Fort Lawton in Magnolia (Magnolia, Seattle, Washington), now Discovery Park (Discovery Park (Seattle)), but the VA was unable to spend money on cemeteries owned by others, and the graves were never moved. The land surrounding the graves came under the jurisdiction of Seattle's Department of Parks and Recreation. White earned a degree in botany with a minor in English from the University of Minnesota in 1933. His first creative efforts were in poetry, as he took five years thereafter to complete a sequence of 100 sonnets while working as a waiter and bartender at the University Club. In 1938, White moved to Portland, Oregon. There he began his career in photography, first joining the Oregon Camera Club, then taking on assignments from the Works Progress Administration and exhibiting at the Portland Art Museum. During the mid 1930s, Lassaw worked briefly for the Public Works of Art Project cleaning sculptural monuments around New York City. He subsequently joined the WPA (Works Progress Administration) as a teacher and sculptor until he was drafted into the army in 1942. Lassaw's contribution to the advancement of sculptural abstraction went beyond mere formal innovation; his promotion of modernist styles during the 1930s did much to insure the growth of abstract art in the United States. He was one of the founding members of the American Abstract Artists group, Gregory Gilbert, "Ibram Lassaw," in ''Beyond the Plane, American Constructions 1930-1965, exhibition catalogue'', ed. Jennifer Toher (Trenton, NJ: New Jersey State Museum, 1983), 71. and served as president of the American Abstract Artists organization from 1946 to 1949. During the Great Depression, Resnick was in the Easel and Mural Division of the WPA of the Works Progress Administration. By 1938, he had his own studio on West 21st Street, and there was nearby Willem de Kooning with whom he formed a close friendship in the 1940s. However, Resnick's art career was interrupted by World War II, and he served five years in the Army, stationed in Iceland and Europe. After the war he lived for three years in Paris, where among others, he associated with modernist sculptors Alberto Giacometti and Constantin Brâncuşi. He endured near-starvation during this period only to have the one show of his work created in Paris canceled by an unsavory dealer. Most of Brown's later San Francisco works employed a stripped-down classicism. The poured-concrete Art Moderne (Art Deco) Coit Tower (1932), that crowns Telegraph Hill (Telegraph Hill, San Francisco) is an important Modernist landmark in the Bay Area. Coit Tower was the site of some of the first public works murals executed under the Public Works Administration (Works Progress Administration), later known as the WPA. "The primitive nature of Coit Tower would lend itself better to that sort of thing than other public buildings," was Arthur Brown's first reaction to the project. Diego Rivera included Brown among the designers and craftsmen in his fresco mural of ''The Making of a Fresco Showing the Building of a City'' (1931). thumb right A century-old apple tree in Piper Orchard (Image:Piper-Orchard-Old-apple-tree-3369.jpg) Most of the existing site was purchased by the City of Seattle in the later 1920s, with 20% donated by Carkeek, following citizen petition over vigorous City opposition. The park went through a few themes over years, from outdoor performance venue, to farm for zoo animal feed, to pasturage rental, to park with WPA (Works Progress Administration) Civilian Conservation Corps construction (1933-–36, removed in 1938), to U.S. Army camp (just in 1942), to sewage treatment plant (over vigorous opposition by neighborhoods groups). Bond funds in the late 1940s allowed reconstruction of park facilities, including a planned large equestrian academy and concession to reduce chronic rowdyism in the park, but a tight city budget in spite of generous donations forced indefinite postponement. An archery field was built (c. 1955), and ended in 1963 as fencing become prohibitive. Treated sewage outfall ended in the early 1960s with closure of the treatment plant and replacement with a Metro sewage pumping station near the parking lot for the beach. Leon Bibel was born in Poland, growing up in the shtetl of Szczebrzeszyn . He immigrated to the United States with his family. After graduating from Polytechnic High School in San Francisco (San Francisco, California), he trained at the California School of Fine Arts and apprenticed under the German Impressionist Maria Riedelstein and assisted Bernard Zakheim (a student of Diego Rivera), on the frescoes of the San Francisco Jewish Community Center and the University of California at San Francisco's Toland Hall. He resided in New York (New York City) beginning in 1936 as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) artist of the Federal Art Project at the Harlem Art Center in New York City. He also taught art at both P.S. 94 and Bronx House. At the start of the Second World War (World War II), he and a number of other New York artists moved to South Brunswick, New Jersey, to make a living as chicken farmers. By the 1960s, Bibel returned to art, focusing on wood-based sculptures. He died in 1995. History By the early 1930s, commercial airlines and airports began to be developed in the United States as a result of the Federal government's use of private contractors for postal transport, inspired by Charles Lindbergh's (Charles Lindbergh) famous transatlantic flight in 1927. New York was in dire need of a new airport by 1934 when Fiorello H. LaGuardia was elected mayor. Plans for the airport, which was to be federally sponsored and funded through the Works Progress Administration (WPA), were approved by President Roosevelt (Franklin Delano Roosevelt) on September 3, 1937. Just six days later, the Mayor presided over groundbreaking ceremonies and construction proceeded rapidly. At plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


works

!-- thumb Typical sign on a WPA project (File:WPAsign.JPG) The '''Works Progress Administration''' (renamed in 1939 as the '''Work Projects Administration'''; '''WPA''') was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, ref name "arnesen">

by the agency. The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion (about 6.7 percent of the 1935 GDP), and in total it spent $13.4 billion. Jason Scott Smith, ''Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956'' (2006) p. 87 File:Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772.jpg thumb right Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project


helping poor

, especially for minorities who endured poor facilities and tight-fisted budgets from local taxes. Bernstein, ''Guns or Butter: The Presidency of Lyndon Johnson'' (1994) pp 183-213. He made education a top priority of the Great Society, with an emphasis on helping poor children. After the 1964 landslide brought in many new liberal Congressmen, he had the votes for the ''Elementary and Secondary Education Act'' (ESEA) of 1965. For the first time, large amounts of federal money went


coining

Party (United States) Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt promised "a New Deal for the American people", coining the enduring label for his domestic policies. The desperate economic situation, along with the substantial Democratic victories in the 1932 elections, gave Roosevelt unusual influence over Congress in the "First Hundred Days" of his administration. He used his leverage to win rapid passage of a series of measures to create welfare


numerous part

to 1943. Childhood Risner was born in Mammoth Spring, Arkansas, but moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma in 1931. His father was originally a sharecropper, then during the Great Depression became a day laborer for the Works Progress Administration. By the time Risner entered high school, his father was self-employed, selling used cars. Risner worked numerous part-time jobs in his youth to help


photographs art

;Dunn82" A CCC crew built a fire tower in 1937. As additional properties were added, St. Croix Recreational Demonstration Area grew to plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


massive complex

Progress Administration projects included construction of stadiums in Jersey City and Union City. Both were named for President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who attended the opening of the largest project of them all, The Jersey City Medical Center, a massive complex built in the Art Deco Style. During this era the "Hudson County Democratic Machine", known for its cronyism and corruption, with Jersey City mayor Frank Hague at its head was at its most powerful. Industries in Hudson were crucial to the war effort during WWII, including the manufacture PT boats by Elco (Electric Launch Company) in Bayonne. Military Ocean Terminal at Bayonne (MOTBY) was opened in 1942 as a U.S. military base and remained in operation until 1999. The city's primary public recreation center is Ritter Park (named for Charles L. Ritter who donated the land). The park area encompasses a walking and cycling path, tennis courts, an outdoor amphitheater, a multi-terraced rose garden, and a stone-tiered reflecting pond built by the Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps in the late 1930s. Four Pole Creek runs the entire length of Ritter Park and is crossed by numerous wooden and stone footbridges. There are currently three sites in the county that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. They include the St. Nicholas Orthodox Church, located in Caribou Township (Caribou Township, Minnesota), the burial mounds referred to as the "Lake Bronson Site" which is located in Norway (Norway Township, Kittson County, Minnesota) & Percy (Percy Township, Minnesota) Twps. and the Lake Bronson State Park WPA (Works Progress Administration) Rustic Style Historic Resources which include an observation tower and several buildings. The Lake Bronson State Park also has interpretive sites for the tower, a pioneer cemetery and the WPA camp. This 18-hole golf course was established on September 27, 1929, making it one of the oldest golf courses in Eastern Kentucky (Eastern Mountain Coal Fields). Johnson County History:1900-1950 Retrieved on 2010-2-26 The country club was built in 1930 by the WPA (Works Progress Administration) and is on the National Register of Historic Places. Powell, Helen National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form for Paintsville Country Club 26 January 1989. Retrieved on 2010-2-26 Located on Kentucky Route 1107 in Paintsville. History In the first days of Baldwin County, the Town of McIntosh Bluff, Alabama (McIntosh Bluff) (now in Mobile County, Alabama, west of Baldwin County) on the Tombigbee River was the County Seat. After being transferred to the Town of Blakeley in 1810, the county seat was later moved to the City of Daphne (Daphne, Alabama) in 1868. In 1900, by an Act of the Legislature of Alabama, the county seat was authorized for relocation to the City of Bay Minette; however, the City of Daphne resisted relocation. The citizens of Bay Minette moved the county records from Daphne in the middle of the night on October 11–12, 1901 plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.

Works Progress Administration

thumb Typical sign on a WPA project (File:WPAsign.JPG) The '''Works Progress Administration''' (renamed in 1939 as the '''Work Projects Administration'''; '''WPA''') was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, Eric Arnesen, ed. ''Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History'' (2007) vol. 1 p. 1540 including the construction of public buildings and roads. In a much smaller but more famous project, the Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.

Almost every community in the United States had a new park, bridge or school constructed by the agency. The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion (about 6.7 percent of the 1935 GDP), and in total it spent $13.4 billion. Jason Scott Smith, ''Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956'' (2006) p. 87

thumb right Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772 (File:Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772.jpg) At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. Between 1935 and 1943, the WPA provided almost eight million jobs. Full employment, which was reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the WPA goal. It tried to provide one paid job for all families in which the breadwinner (Breadwinner model) suffered long-term unemployment. Robert D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment: The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal'' (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2007), 64, 184. Robert D. Leighninger asserts that “The stated goal of public building programs was to end the depression or, at least, alleviate its worst effects. Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance (the dole) because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, and kept skills sharp." Leighninger, Robert D. “Cultural Infrastructure: The Legacy of New Deal Public Space.” Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 4 (1996).

The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. Usually the local sponsor provided land and often trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages (and for the salaries of supervisors, who were not on relief). WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) or Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) programs. D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 63

It was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II (United States home front during World War II). The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for 8 years. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 71. Most people who needed a job were eligible for at least some of its positions. Hourly wages were typically set to the prevailing wages in each area. Bradford A. Lee, "The New Deal Reconsidered," ''The Wilson Quarterly'' 6 (1982): 70.

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