Works Progress Administration

What is Works Progress Administration known for?


social art

. Until April 2010, the Museum was located in the airport's original 1932 hangar, built by the Works Progress Administration. In April 2010, the Museum moved into a new facility at the Charlotte-Douglas International Airport at 4672 First Flight Drive. The new facility has enabled the majority of the aircraft to be inside a climate-controlled (HVAC) facility along with new displays. In the 1930s, Biddle became a champion of social art and strongly advocated government funding for artistic


distinctive red

, 493 3-Digit ZCTA - Reference Map - American FactFinder , U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 census Paris Park, north of town, was the site of the second fish hatchery in the state of Michigan. The Paris Fish Hatchery opened in 1881, and from 1913 to 1938, salmon and brown trout fingerlings were shipped by rail baggage cars in milk cans painted a distinctive red. The Works Progress Administration renovated and expanded the facility in the mid 1930s. The hatchery operated until 1964

was converted to condominiums, with the remaining portion, now ''Parkchester South Condominium'' converted later, in 1986. The complex is best known for its broad, tree-lined walkways between the distinctive red-brown buildings, and for its Works Progress Administration-style terracotta decorations on the buildings, that represent animal and human figures of many types. Many of these are the work of sculptor Joseph Kiselewski. File:Detail of Bret Harte sculpture.jpg thumb


public works

!-- thumb Typical sign on a WPA project (File:WPAsign.JPG) The '''Works Progress Administration''' (renamed in 1939 as the '''Work Projects Administration'''; '''WPA''') was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, ref name "arnesen">

by the agency. The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion (about 6.7 percent of the 1935 GDP), and in total it spent $13.4 billion. Jason Scott Smith, ''Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956'' (2006) p. 87 File:Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772.jpg thumb right Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project

of the criticism of the distribution of projects and funding allotment is a result of the view that the decisions were politically motivated. The South, as the poorest region of the United States, received 75 percent less in federal relief and public works funds per capita than the West. Critics would point to the fact that Roosevelt’s Democrats could be sure of voting support from the South, whereas the West was less of a sure thing; swing states took priority over the other states. Lee, "


quot photographs

in 1929, Nevelson studied art full-time under Kenneth Hayes Miller and Kimon Nicolaides at the Art Students League. Nevelson credited an exhibition of Noh kimonos at the Metropolitan Museum of Art as a catalyst for her to study art further. In 1931 she sent her son Mike to live with family and went to Europe, paying for the trip by selling a diamond bracelet that her now ex-husband had given her

on the occasion of Mike's birth. In Munich she studied with Hans Hofmann before visiting Italy and France. Returning to New York in 1932 she once again studied under Hofmann, who was serving as a guest instructor at the Art Students League. She met Diego Rivera in 1933 and worked as his assistant on his mural ''Man at the Crossroads'' at Rockefeller Plaza. The two had an affair which caused a rift

between Nevelson and Rivera's wife, Frida Kahlo, an artist Nevelson greatly admired. Shortly thereafter, Nevelson started taking Chaim Gross's sculpture classes at the Educational Alliance. She continued to experiment with other artistic mediums, including lithography and etching, but decided to focus on sculpture. Her early works were created from plaster, clay and tattistone. During the 1930s Nevelson began exhibiting her


largest contribution

by President Franklin D. Roosevelt which was created to put people back to work and helped many artists, musicians and writers survive during the Great Depression. He lived for a time in the French Quarter; first at 722 Toulouse Street, the setting of his 1977 play ''Vieux Carré (Vieux Carré (play))''. (The building is now part of The Historic New Orleans Collection). HNOC.org Perhaps the largest contribution to the public works system in the U.S. came out of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal initiatives particularly the creation of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in 1935. At a time of a deep economic crisis, the WPA employed at its peak 3.35 millions unemployed heads-of-households to work in rebuilding the country. The program helped construct millions of roads, bridges, parks, schools, hospitals, and levees while also providing educational programs, childcare, job training, and medical services. The overall public spending (government spending) level for the program, unprecedented at the time, was $4.8 billion ($76 billion in 2008 dollars), and helped to stimulate the economy through public works projects. Gabriel, J. (2008). A Twenty-First Century WPA. Social Policy, 38(2), 38-43. Pioneer Omaha Before it was legal to claim land in Indian Country, William D. Brown was operating the Lone Tree Ferry to bring settlers from Council Bluffs, Iowa to the area that became Omaha. Brown is generally credited as having the first vision for a city where Omaha now sits. Federal Writers Project of the Works Progress Administration. (1970) ''Nebraska: A Guide to the Cornhusker State.'' Nebraska State Historical Society. p. 241. The passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854 was presaged by the staking out of claims around the area to become Omaha by residents from neighboring Council Bluffs. On July 4, 1854, the city was informally established at a picnic on Capital Hill, current site of Omaha Central High School. Hickey, D.R., Wunder, S.A. and Wunder, J.R. (2007) ''Nebraska Moments: New Edition.'' University of Nebraska Press. p. 147. Soon after, the Omaha Claim Club was formed to provide vigilante justice for claim jumper (land claim)s and others who infringed on the land of many of the city's founding fathers (Founding figures of Omaha, Nebraska). Sheldon, A.E. (1904) "Chapter VII: Nebraska Territory," ''Semi-Centennial History of Nebraska''. Lincoln, NE: Lemon Publishing. p. 58. Some of this land, which now wraps around Downtown Omaha, was later used to entice Nebraska Territorial legislators (Nebraska Territorial Legislature) to an area called Scriptown. Andreas, A.T. (1882) "Douglas County", ''History of the State of Nebraska''. Chicago, IL: Western Historical Company. p. 841. The Territorial capitol was located in Omaha, but when Nebraska became a state in 1867, the capital was relocated to Lincoln (Lincoln, Nebraska), plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


good work

for alumni to get a job because employers said they had "formed poor work habits" on the WPA. Wood, p. 61 A Senate committee reported that, "To some extent the complaint that WPA workers do poor work is not without foundation. ... Poor work habits and incorrect techniques are not remedied. Occasionally a supervisor or a foreman demands good work."


architectural+sculptures

' look and feel of the show. During the 1930s he worked as a Works Progress Administration (WPA) artist. Throughout his career Stewart frequently was employed to create architectural sculptures. In 1939, he was appointed head of the sculpture program at Scripps College in Claremont, California at the invitation of Millard Sheets. He moved to California and stayed there the rest of his life. The cemetery went into decline over the following decades, however, because


largest popular

: arkansashistory.arkansas.com photo gallery reunion.asp Civil War veterans, the largest popular gathering in the history of the city up to that time, attended and were housed in the building or camped in the park, which had also become a popular camping area. Later the building served as an armory for the Arkansas National Guard. In 1912, the second floor of the Tower Building became Little Rock's first public library. In 1917, Little Rock built a fire station in the park, that building is now gone. A band shell named for H. H. Foster also was built in the park during this time, but also no longer exists. In 1936, Works Progress Administration built the Museum of Fine Arts, now called the Arkansas Arts Center, just south of the Tower Building. The paths along the west side are lined with gutters built by WPA (Works Progress Administration) workers out of broken headstones from the City's Victorian cemeteries at Lone Mountain (i.e. Laurel Heights), which were moved to Colma (Colma, California) in 1930s. Details of the dismantlement of the Lone Mountain cemeteries in the Encyclopedia of San Francisco. In a few cases the inscriptions were placed facing up and can be discerned (''Cf.'' the Wave Organ). The Commissioner's Plan of 1811 called for strict use of a grid in Manhattan, but Stuyvesant Street was an exception in the plan. Into the 20th century, Stuyvesant Street ran east all the way through to Second Avenue, fronting St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, but the portion of the street between 10th Street and Second Avenue, directly in front of the church, is now Abe Lebewohl Park. For street-pattern reasons this small plot of land had been turned into a sitting area in 1938 by the Works Progress Administration and called St. Mark’s Park, but by the 1970′s it had become filthy and drug-ridden. Marilyn Appleberg, president of the 10th and Stuyvesant Streets Block Association, found that this land was actually under the auspices of the city's Parks Department (New York City Parks Department), which was responsible for its upkeep. In 1980 she, along with Beth Flusser and Abe Lebewohl, the owner of the nearby Second Avenue Deli, began a petition to save the park. On March 4, 1996, Lebewohl was shot and killed while handling a bank transaction at a neighborhood bank. That same year the park underwent a long awaited renovation by the Parks Department. Appleberg fought to have the name of the park changed to honor Lebewohl and she again won. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


fashion career

was built during the Great Depression with help from the federal government’s Works Progress Administration. The building was completed and the school opened just after Thanksgiving in 1936. Jeakins got her start working on WPA (Works Progress Administration) projects and as a Disney artist in the 1930s. Her fashion career began as a designer at I. Magnin's, where she was spotted by director Victor Fleming. Hired as a sketch artist for ''Joan of Arc (Joan of Arc (1948 film))'' (1948), Jeakins worked on the costumes along with Barbara Karinska and shared an Oscar (Academy Awards) with her. This was the first Oscar ever awarded for costumes. thumb right 150px "Fountain of the Winds", detail, New Orleans Lakefront Airport, 1930s (Image:AlfarezOwlgal1.jpg) The son of a sculptor, young Enrique spent some time in the army of Pancho Villa in the Mexican Revolution before coming to the United States. He studied with Lorado Taft in Chicago, Illinois in the 1920s, then from 1929 on lived in New Orleans, Louisiana. His sculptures and reliefs adorn many parks, buildings, and landmarks in New Orleans and south Louisiana. In a Works Progress Administration program, he created many sculptures for City Park (City Park (New Orleans)). As the Great Depression (Great Depression in the United States) started, unspent funds initially allocated for military construction were diverted into programs to stem the unemployment. Construction on the permanent facilities slowed, but in 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt allocated Works Progress Administration (WPA) funds for Fort McClellan. In the next three years, an estimated $1,785,000 in WPA funds was used for constructing new roads, an airfield, and additional permanent buildings. Included was a radio facility with a high-power transmitter (call letters WUR) for Morse-code (Morse code) communications, Most of the buildings were Spanish Colonial Revival architecture in style. * employment status * if at work, whether in private or non-emergency government work, or in public emergency work (WPA (Works Progress Administration), CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), NYA (National Youth Administration), etc.) ** if in private or non-emergency government work, hours worked in week Background By the spring of 1937, production, profits, and wages had regained their 1929 levels. Unemployment remained high, but it was considerably lower than the 25% rate seen in 1933. In June 1937, some of Roosevelt's advisors urged spending cuts to balance the budget. WPA (Works Progress Administration) rolls were drastically cut and PWA (Public Works Administration) projects were slowed to a standstill. ''The Great Depression'', Robert Goldston, Fawcett Publications, 1968, page 228 The American economy took a sharp downturn in mid-1937, lasting for 13 months through most of 1938. Industrial production declined almost 30 percent and production of durable goods fell even faster. Facts & procedural history On April 28, 1936, the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia mailed a check (Cheque) for $24.20, drawn on the Treasurer of the United States, to Clair Barner. The check was Barner's paycheck from the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Barner never received the check, which was stolen by an unknown party. The thief forged Barner's signature (forgery) and cashed the check at the J.C. Penney department store in Clearfield, Pennsylvania, where the thief assumed the identity (Identity theft) of Mr. Barner. J.C. Penney then turned the check over to Clearfield Trust Co. as its collection agent. Clearfield Trust Co. collected the check from the Federal Reserve Bank, knowing nothing about the forgery. When Holtzman returned to New York City in 1935, he joined the WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Art project, but was first assigned to write for the public relations department, since his art was considered too extreme for public placement. When Diller was promoted as managing supervisor of the Mural Division in New York, he appointed Holtzman as his assistant supervisor in charge of the abstract (Abstract art) mural painters. In 1936 Holtzman was instrumental in bringing together the nucleus of painters and sculptors who established the American Abstract Artists in 1937. Although he opposed the group’s emphasis on exhibitions, and the attempts of certain influential members to exclude all but “pure-abstractionists”, Holtzman maintained as active role for several years, serving as secretary in 1938 and again in 1940 and arranged for the three-week AAA exhibition and its educational component at the American Art Today Building of the New York World’s Fair (1939 New York World's Fair) in 1940, directed by Holger Cahill. The huge murals on historical subjects (first painted in the 1930s, when he worked for the WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Art Project) are probably the most widely seen of Tobey's works, prominently displayed in many public places in the US and elsewhere. These include public institutions in his native Connecticut; the Smithsonian Institution and other venues in Washington, DC; New York's Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum; and even an officers club in Saudi Arabia. Indeed, the Larchmont Gazette obituary (see 'External links') states, "Alton Tobey was best known for the murals, which he called 'symphonies of painting'." Alton Tobey was president of the National Society of Mural Painters from 1984 to 1988. In 1937, the bear exhibits were created under the Works Progress Administration. These exhibits were the zoo's first attempt at constructing more naturalistic exhibits instead of simply displaying animals in cages. In 1949, the Children's Zoo opened, thanks to a grant from the Sarah Mellon Scaife Foundation (Sarah Scaife Foundation). The Children's Zoo contained interactive exhibits and play areas for children, including a simulated large chunk of cheese that was inhabited by dozens of live mice (mouse). In 1967, the AquaZoo, a large aquarium, opened to the public. At the time of its completion, the AquaZoo was the only aquarium in Pennsylvania and the second largest aquarium in the United States. Bears The three bear exhibits were built in 1937 under the Works Progress Administration program, and are the oldest exhibits in the zoo. Three bear species are displayed here: American Black Bears, Spectacled Bears, and a Kodiak Bear. plot on which the school is situated cost $35,000. The school opened in the fall of 1939 with fifty faculty members and 1,250 pupils. In 1959, Kenmore East High School was opened as the district continued to grow. At that time, the Highland Parkway school officially became Kenmore West High School. Raymond S. Frazier was appointed to the position of principal of Kenmore West in 1952. ''A Brief History of Kenmore West High School''. Accessed July 16, 2006. * Nikolai Trubetzkoi Trubetskoy, Nikolai S. .''Grundzüge der Phonologie''. ''Principles of Phonology'' . ''Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Prague'', 7. Prague, 1939. *WPA (Works Progress Administration) Federal Writers' Project, ''Life History Manuscripts from the Folklore Project'', 1936-1940. Online version: Library of Congress ''American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940'', Item 27 of 312 (Nebraska), "Charles Blooah" '''Sheboygan Municipal Auditorium and Armory''' (commonly known as '''The Armory''') is an indoor arena in Sheboygan (Sheboygan, Wisconsin), Wisconsin built in 1942 on the city's lakefront as a WPA (Works Progress Administration) project. Mead Public Library timeline ''The Sheboygan Press'' "City may shut down Armory", Sept. 20, 2006, pages A1–A2 '''Harry Lloyd Hopkins (w:Harry Hopkins)''' (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (w:Works Progress Administration) (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend-Lease (w:Lend-Lease) program that sent aid to the allies.


education arts

) Asian , 1.34% Pacific Islander (Pacific Islander (U.S. Census)), 3.32% from other races (Race (United States Census)), and 4.76% from two or more races. Hispanic (Hispanic (U.S. Census)) or Latino (Latino (U.S. Census)) of any race were 6.61% of the population. * Shorewood High School campus (Shorewood High School (Wisconsin)) — The school’s the campus, built between 1924 and 1938, includes separate buildings for administration, physical education, arts

Works Progress Administration

thumb Typical sign on a WPA project (File:WPAsign.JPG) The '''Works Progress Administration''' (renamed in 1939 as the '''Work Projects Administration'''; '''WPA''') was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, Eric Arnesen, ed. ''Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History'' (2007) vol. 1 p. 1540 including the construction of public buildings and roads. In a much smaller but more famous project, the Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.

Almost every community in the United States had a new park, bridge or school constructed by the agency. The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion (about 6.7 percent of the 1935 GDP), and in total it spent $13.4 billion. Jason Scott Smith, ''Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956'' (2006) p. 87

thumb right Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772 (File:Archives of American Art - Employment and Activities poster for the WPA's Federal Art Project - 11772.jpg) At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. Between 1935 and 1943, the WPA provided almost eight million jobs. Full employment, which was reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the WPA goal. It tried to provide one paid job for all families in which the breadwinner (Breadwinner model) suffered long-term unemployment. Robert D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment: The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal'' (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2007), 64, 184. Robert D. Leighninger asserts that “The stated goal of public building programs was to end the depression or, at least, alleviate its worst effects. Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance (the dole) because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, and kept skills sharp." Leighninger, Robert D. “Cultural Infrastructure: The Legacy of New Deal Public Space.” Journal of Architectural Education 49, no. 4 (1996).

The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. Usually the local sponsor provided land and often trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages (and for the salaries of supervisors, who were not on relief). WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) or Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) programs. D. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 63

It was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II (United States home front during World War II). The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for 8 years. Leighninger Jr., ''Long-Range Public Investment'' p. 71. Most people who needed a job were eligible for at least some of its positions. Hourly wages were typically set to the prevailing wages in each area. Bradford A. Lee, "The New Deal Reconsidered," ''The Wilson Quarterly'' 6 (1982): 70.

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