Western Yan

What is Western Yan known for?


architecture music

palaces, architecture, music, literature, and fine arts, long before Europe was in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)). The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) in China proper also derived their ancestries from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who entered into China were immersed among the Chinese and later classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," whereas the "Monguor" "Tu" represented a branch of the Xianbei who have preserved their distinctive identity, language, and culture until today. After Tuyühu Khan departed from the northeast, Murong Wei composed an "Older Brother’s Song," or "the Song of A Gan:" "A Gan" is Chinese transcription of "a ga" for "older brother" in the Xianbei language. Qi, Jinyü 祁进玉 (2008). Qun ti shen fen yu duo yuan ren tong: ji yu san ge tuzu she qu de ren lei xue dui bi yan jiu Group Identity and Diversity of Identification: an anthropological comparison of three Tu ethnic communities 群体身份与多元认同:基于三个土族社区的人类学对比研究.Beijing 北京 : Shehui ke xue wen xian chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Academic Literature Press 社会科学文献出版社. The song lamented his sadness and longing for Tuyühu. Legends accounted that Murong Wei often sang it until he died and the song got spread into central and northwest China. The Murong Xianbei whom he had led successively founded the Former Yan (281-370), Western Yan (384-394), Later Yan (383-407), and Southern Yan (398-410). Their territories encompassed the present Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, and Henan, and their capitals included Beijing and other cities. Through these establishments, they were immersed among the Chinese (Chinese people), whereas the Xianbei who followed Tuyühu Khan preserved their language and culture until the present times. * Yan (state), state in China during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period * Former Yan, Southern Yan, Western Yan, & Later Yan Murong-Xianbei states during the Sixteen Kingdoms Period * Yan (Anshi), the rebel state which played a key role in the An Shi Rebellion during the Tang Dynasty Meanwhile, Murong Chui's nephew and Murong Wei's brother Murong Hong, upon hearing news of Murong Chui's uprising, gathered some Xianbei soldiers and started his own rebellion within Guanzhong, claiming his old Former Yan title of Prince of Jibei and starting Western Yan. Fú Jiān sent his brother Fu Rui (苻叡) the Duke of Julu, assisted by Yao Chang, against Murong Hong. Murong Hong, in fear, was about to leave Guanzhong, and Fu Rui was intent on cutting off his escape route, despite Yao's suggestion to let the Xianbei leave. Instead, Murong Hong, forced into combat, defeated and killed Fu Rui. When Yao sent messengers to the capital to report the defeat, Fú Jiān, for reasons unknown, got so angry that he killed Yao's messengers—causing Yao to panic and flee with Qiang soldiers. Yao then declared himself "the Prince of Qin of Ten Thousand Years" (萬年秦王), establishing Later Qin. '''Fu Pi''' (苻丕) (died 386), courtesy name '''Yongshu''' (永叔), formally '''Emperor Aiping of (Former) Qin''' ((前)秦哀平帝), was an emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Di (Di (ethnic group)) state Former Qin. He was Fu Jiān's oldest son, although not his crown prince, and after Fu Jiān's death at the hands of Yao Chang, the founder of Later Qin, and his brother Fu Hong (苻宏) the Crown Prince was forced to flee to Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)), he claimed imperial title in 385, but was defeated by the Western Yan prince Murong Yong in 386, and then subsequently killed by the Jin general Feng Gai (馮該). In spring 384, Murong Chui openly declared the establishment of Later Yan, claiming the title of Prince of Yan. Fu Pi tried to persuade Murong Chui to end his rebellion, but Murong Chui refused and attacked Yecheng but was unable to capture it quickly. However, most cities north of the Yellow River and east of Taihang Mountains switched allegiance or were captured by Later Yan forces, leaving Yecheng isolated. (The Former Qin cities south of the Yellow River were largely captured by Jin.) With the heart of the empire itself under attacks by rebel regimes Later Qin and Western Yan, Fu Pi could have no expectation of receiving aid, and the situation soon grew desperate for him and his troops. In late 384, Murong Chui briefly lifted the siege of Yecheng to try to regroup, but at the same time, Jin forces attacked. Fu Pi sued for peace, but without his knowledge his assistant Yang Ying (楊膺) also promised on his behalf that he would surrender to Jin. With that promise, the Jin general Xie Xuan aided him with troops and food supplies, but eventually the temporary alliance broke up again. Meanwhile, Murong Chui returned and again put the city under siege after defeating Jin troops under Liu Laozhi (劉牢之). In 385, Fu Pi abandoned Yecheng and headed northwest to Jinyang (晉陽, in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi), where he received news that his father Fu Jiān had been killed by the Later Qin ruler Yao Chang. He then declared himself emperor. In 385, the Former Qin capital Chang'an fell to the rebel state Western Yan, and Fu Jiān was killed by another rebel general, Yao Chang the founder of Later Qin. Upon hearing this news, Fu Pi, who had then withdrawn from Yecheng to Jinyang (晉陽, in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi), declared himself emperor, and he created Princess Yang empress. In 386, however, as he tried to intercept Western Yan's prince Murong Yong, who was trying to return east, he was defeated by Murong Yong, and Empress Yang was captured. Fu Pi would then be intercepted by the Jin general Feng Gai (馮該) and killed. Murong Yong wanted to take Empress Yang as a consort, but she tried to assassinate him with a sword. He then put her to death. As prince Yao Chang initially opted to keep his troops mobile, as he anticipated Murong Hong's Western Yan forces to siege Chang'an and destroy Former Qin and then depart for their homeland, so that he could take Chang'an without major engagements. In doing this, he hoped to conserve and increase his strength while his rivals battled. He therefore temporarily placed his capital at Beidi (北地, in modern Tongchuan, Shaanxi), seizing the cities of the modern northern Shaanxi. Despite this, he had periodic battles with Former Qin and Western Yan forces, as Former Qin and Western Yan also battled each other. '''Murong Hong''' (慕容泓) (died 384) was the founder of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Western Yan. He was a son of the Former Yan emperor Murong Jun and a younger brother of Former Yan emperor Murong Wei. '''Murong Chong''' (慕容沖) (359–386), formally '''Emperor Wei of (Western) Yan''' ((西)燕威帝), was an emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Western Yan. He was a son of the Former Yan emperor Murong Jun and a younger brother of Former Yan emperor Murong Wei. '''Duan Sui''' (段隨) (died 386) was a ruler of the Chinese (History of China) Xianbei state Western Yan. He was the only ruler of the short-lived state who was not a member of the Murong clan, the imperial clan of Former Yan. Original from the University of California and was said to have settled down in Shangdang Commandery (上黨, roughly modern Changzhi, Shanxi) in the aftermaths of the conquest of the northern half of Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) during the reign of Emperor Huai of Jin by Han Zhao. Feng Ba's father Feng An (馮安) later served the Western Yan emperor Murong Yong as a general. When Western Yan was destroyed by the Later Yan emperor Murong Chui in 394, Feng An's household was forcibly moved to Helong (和龍, also known as Longcheng (龍城), in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning), where Feng Ba grew up, apparently under heavy Xianbei influence, for his nickname Qizhifa suggested Xianbei origin. He had three younger brothers, all of whom admired heroic behavior and largely ignored social restraints, but Feng Ba himself was considered to be careful and diligent, managing his household well. During Murong Bao's reign, he became a general. He came to respect Murong Bao's adoptive son Murong Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Yan)) the Duke of Zhaoyang, and they became great friends.


causing'

, Murong Hong, forced into combat, defeated and killed Fu Rui. When Yao sent messengers to the capital to report the defeat, Fú Jiān, for reasons unknown, got so angry that he killed Yao's messengers—causing Yao to panic and flee with Qiang soldiers. Yao then declared himself "the Prince of Qin of Ten Thousand Years" (萬年秦王), establishing Later Qin. '''Fu Pi''' (苻丕) (died 386), courtesy name '''Yongshu''' (永叔), formally '''Emperor Aiping of (Former) Qin''' ((前)秦哀平帝

with Murong Wei's brother and the leader of the nascent Western Yan state, Murong Chong. In fall 386, with support of Western Yan and Liu Xian, Tuoba Gui's youngest uncle Tuoba Kuduo (拓拔窟咄) made a claim to the throne, and there were many chiefs under Tuoba Gui who secretly conspired with Tuoba Kuduo, causing Tuoba Gui to panic to flee to his maternal uncles' Helan tribe, while seeking assistance from Later Yan. Later Yan's emperor Murong Chui sent his son Murong Lin to assist


extravagant

, Li Shimin, founded the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Born in Qin’an, Gansu and revered as "the Heavenly Khan," or "Tian kehan" after defeating the Tujue, Wang, Qinghuai 王清淮 (2008). Tang tai zong Emperor Taizong of the Tang 唐太宗. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中国社会科学出版社. Li led China to develop into the most prosperous state of civilization seen in the world, which saw extravagant


extreme political

Yan emperor Murong Wei, until he was executed by Fu Jiān in 385. It was a state that was characterized by extreme political instability and internal fighting, as all seven of its rulers (during a short span of 10 years) died of unnatural causes. After eviscerating Former Qin, the people of the state abandoned the Guanzhong region and headed east back toward their homeland, but eventually settled down in modern Shanxi. It was destroyed in 394 as Later Yan's emperor Murong Chui wanted to reunite the people formerly of Yan and conquered it. Some rulers of the Western Yan declared themselves emperors (Chinese nobility) while some declared themselves ''wang'' (translatable as either "king" or "prince"). Rulers of the Western Yan Original from the University of California and was said to have settled down in Shangdang Commandery (上黨, roughly modern Changzhi, Shanxi) in the aftermaths of the conquest of the northern half of Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) during the reign of Emperor Huai of Jin by Han Zhao. Feng Ba's father Feng An (馮安) later served the Western Yan emperor Murong Yong as a general. When Western Yan was destroyed by the Later Yan emperor Murong Chui in 394, Feng An's household was forcibly moved to Helong (和龍, also known as Longcheng (龍城), in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning), where Feng Ba grew up, apparently under heavy Xianbei influence, for his nickname Qizhifa suggested Xianbei origin. He had three younger brothers, all of whom admired heroic behavior and largely ignored social restraints, but Feng Ba himself was considered to be careful and diligent, managing his household well. During Murong Bao's reign, he became a general. He came to respect Murong Bao's adoptive son Murong Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Yan)) the Duke of Zhaoyang, and they became great friends.


created

himself emperor. In 385, the Former Qin capital Chang'an fell to the rebel state Western Yan, and Fu Jiān was killed by another rebel general, Yao Chang the founder of Later Qin. Upon hearing this news, Fu Pi, who had then withdrawn from Yecheng to Jinyang (晉陽, in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi), declared himself emperor, and he created Princess Yang empress. In 386, however, as he tried to intercept Western Yan's prince Murong Yong, who was trying to return east, he

immediately fled to his father. For the next several years, as Yao Chang fought with Former Qin and Western Yan, Yao Xing was often entrusted with guarding the base of operations (initially Beidi (北地, in modern Tongchuan, Shaanxi), later Chang'an after Western Yan captured and then abandoned it), while his father engaged in campaigns. In 386, after Yao Chang declared himself emperor, he created Yao Xing crown prince. He was considered to be firm and gracious, and he spent much time

Guang, who then carried the title Prince of Sanhe, created her his princess and created Lü Shao heir apparent. By the time he claimed the imperial title "Heavenly Prince" (''Tian Wang'') in 396 and created Lü Shao crown prince, she was not mentioned, implying that she might have died by that point, and there was no further reference to her in history. If she had in fact survived to 396, she would have likely been created empress. The table below assumes that she survived


major events

Original from the University of California and was said to have settled down in Shangdang Commandery (上黨, roughly modern Changzhi, Shanxi) in the aftermaths of the conquest of the northern half of Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) during the reign of Emperor Huai of Jin by Han Zhao. Feng Ba's father Feng An (馮安) later served the Western Yan emperor Murong Yong as a general. When Western Yan was destroyed by the Later Yan emperor Murong Chui in 394, Feng An's household was forcibly moved to Helong (和龍, also known as Longcheng (龍城), in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning), where Feng Ba grew up, apparently under heavy Xianbei influence, for his nickname Qizhifa suggested Xianbei origin. He had three younger brothers, all of whom admired heroic behavior and largely ignored social restraints, but Feng Ba himself was considered to be careful and diligent, managing his household well. During Murong Bao's reign, he became a general. He came to respect Murong Bao's adoptive son Murong Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Yan)) the Duke of Zhaoyang, and they became great friends.


384

government_type year_start 384 year_end

national_anthem common_languages religion currency leader1 Murong Hong leader2 Murong Chong leader3 Murong Yong leader4 year_leader1 384 year_leader2 384-386 year_leader3 386-394 year_leader4 title_leader

; 384-394) was a state (Sovereign state) of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. It was founded by Murong Hong in 384 in the aftermaths of Former Qin's defeat by Jin Dynasty (265-420) at the Battle of Fei River, with the stated intent of permitting the Xianbei, whom Former Qin's emperor Fu Jiān had relocated to Former Qin's capital region after destroying Former Yan in 370. It initially also was intended to rescue the last Former


quot size

p1 Former Qin flag_p1 image_p1 p2 flag_p2 p3 flag_p3 p4 flag_p4 p5

flag_p5 s1 Later Yan flag_s1 image_s1 s2 flag_s2 s3 flag_s3 s4 flag_s4 s5 flag_s5 image_flag


causing

, Murong Hong, forced into combat, defeated and killed Fu Rui. When Yao sent messengers to the capital to report the defeat, Fú Jiān, for reasons unknown, got so angry that he killed Yao's messengers—causing Yao to panic and flee with Qiang soldiers. Yao then declared himself "the Prince of Qin of Ten Thousand Years" (萬年秦王), establishing Later Qin. '''Fu Pi''' (苻丕) (died 386), courtesy name '''Yongshu''' (永叔), formally '''Emperor Aiping of (Former) Qin''' ((前)秦哀平帝

with Murong Wei's brother and the leader of the nascent Western Yan state, Murong Chong. In fall 386, with support of Western Yan and Liu Xian, Tuoba Gui's youngest uncle Tuoba Kuduo (拓拔窟咄) made a claim to the throne, and there were many chiefs under Tuoba Gui who secretly conspired with Tuoba Kuduo, causing Tuoba Gui to panic to flee to his maternal uncles' Helan tribe, while seeking assistance from Later Yan. Later Yan's emperor Murong Chui sent his son Murong Lin to assist


388

Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the Yaonian Khaganate (List of the Khitan rulers) (730-906), the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) and the Kara-Khitan Khanate

to 400 when Lü Guang died, but that was in fact not likely. '''Wei''' ( ) was a state of Dingling ethnicity that existed during China (History of China)'s Sixteen Kingdoms period—specifically, from 388 to 392. Its founder Zhai Liao had previously been vacillating between being a vassal of Later Yan, Western Yan, or Jin Dynasty (265-420), and in 388, after his last overture to reconcile with Later Yan's emperor Murong Chui was rejected

Western Yan

The '''Western Yan''' ( ; 384-394) was a state (Sovereign state) of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. It was founded by Murong Hong in 384 in the aftermaths of Former Qin's defeat by Jin Dynasty (265-420) at the Battle of Fei River, with the stated intent of permitting the Xianbei, whom Former Qin's emperor Fu Jiān had relocated to Former Qin's capital region after destroying Former Yan in 370. It initially also was intended to rescue the last Former Yan emperor Murong Wei, until he was executed by Fu Jiān in 385. It was a state that was characterized by extreme political instability and internal fighting, as all seven of its rulers (during a short span of 10 years) died of unnatural causes. After eviscerating Former Qin, the people of the state abandoned the Guanzhong region and headed east back toward their homeland, but eventually settled down in modern Shanxi. It was destroyed in 394 as Later Yan's emperor Murong Chui wanted to reunite the people formerly of Yan and conquered it.

Some rulers of the Western Yan declared themselves emperors (Chinese nobility) while some declared themselves ''wang'' (translatable as either "king" or "prince").

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