West Germany

What is West Germany known for?


international design

in 1987. He was responsible for the S-Class (Mercedes-Benz S-Class) and C-Class (Mercedes-Benz C-Class) exteriors while there, before moving to Japan in 1989. "The 4th Mitsubishi Motors International Design Competition", Mitsubishi Motors press release, June 14, 2001 Boulay penned the second generation Subaru Legacy while working for Fuji Heavy


liberal tradition

cyberespionage case to make international headlines. A group of German (West Germany) hackers led by Karl Koch (Hagbard (Karl Koch)), who was loosely affiliated with the CCC, was arrested for breaking into US government and corporate computers and selling operating-system source code to the Soviet KGB. In order to endorse its republican and liberal tradition, the song was chosen for national anthem of Germany in 1922, during the Weimar Republic. West Germany adopted


hit hitting

. Helmut begins a lot of short affairs with different women but still searches for his first girl. Reception "Does Your Mother Know" was another sizable ABBA hit, hitting No. 1 in Belgium and reaching the top 5 in Great Britain, Ireland and the Netherlands. It was also a top 10 hit in Australia, Canada, West Germany, Rhodesia and Switzerland. In the United States, "Does Your Mother Know" would become ABBA's penultimate Top 20 hit, reaching #19. Early life


amp stories

. After World War II the Ehapa Verlag in Stuttgart, West Germany, a subsidiary of Danish Egmont Publishing (then Gutenberghus) started in September 1951 the monthly publication ''Micky Maus'', a format similar to ''Walt Disney's Comics & Stories''. From the start it featured stories by Carl Barks, translated by chief editor Dr. Erika Fuchs. The comic book was published on a bimonthly basis 1956 57 and from 1958 on it changed into a weekly. Renamed ''Micky Maus Magazin'' it is still published today from the now Berlin located Egmont Ehapa publishing company and thus is the longest running German comic book. In its heyday (early 1990s) its weekly circulation number rose up to one million copies. Since then it dropped down to ca. 180.000 today. In spite of the name, most stories of ''Micky Maus'' feature Donald Duck as he is the most popular Disney character in Germany. The ruins of the Brocken Hotel were blown up in 1949. From 1948 to 1959 part of the Brocken was reopened to tourists. Although a pass was required, these were freely issued. From August 1961 the Brocken, which lay in East Germany's border zone, immediately adjacent to West Germany, was declared an out-of-bounds area and was therefore not open to the public. Extensive military installations were built on and around the summit was exploited. The security of the area was the responsibility of the border guards of the ''7th Schierke Border Company'', which was stationed in platoon strength on the summit. For accommodation, they used Brocken railway station. The Soviet (Soviet Union) Red Army also used a large portion of territory. In 1987, the goods traffic on the Brocken Railway ceased due to poor track conditions. The '''Eurovision Song Contest 1983''', the 28th in the series, was held in Munich, then West Germany, on 23 April 1983. The presenter was Marlene Charell. Corinne Hermes was the winner of this Eurovision with the song, "Si la vie est cadeau". This was Luxembourg's fifth victory in the contest which equalled the record set by France in 1977 (Eurovision Song Contest 1977). It was also the second year in a row where the winning entry was performed last on the night. date_expiration 23 July 2002 signatories "The Six (Inner Six)": Belgium France West Germany Italy Luxembourg Netherlands depositor The '''Treaty of Paris''' (formally the '''Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community''') was signed on 18 April 1951 between France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. The treaty came into force on 23 July 1952 and expired on 23 July 2002, exactly fifty years after it came into effect. After World War II, moves by Marinus van der Lubbe's brother, Jan van der Lubbe were made in an attempt to overturn the verdict against his brother. In 1967 his sentence was changed by a judge from death to eight years in prison. In 1980, after more lengthy complaints, a West German (West Germany) court overturned the verdict entirely, but this was protested by the state prosecutor (prosecutor). The case was re-examined by the Federal Court of Justice of Germany for three years, until in 1983 the court made a final decision over the matter, overturning the result of the earlier 1980 trial on grounds that there was no basis for it, making it therefore illegal. However, in January 2008, the Federal Court of Justice of Germany finally overturned the death penalty verdict based on a 1998 German law that makes it possible to overturn certain cases of Nazi injustice. Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


films set'

the screenplays for all of Kieślowski's subsequent films. Preisner provided the musical score for ''No End'' and most of the subsequent films; the score often plays a prominent part in Kieślowski's films and many of Preisner's pieces are referred to within the films themselves. In these cases, they are usually discussed by the films' characters as being the work of the (fictional) Dutch composer Van den Budenmayer. ''The Decalogue'' (1988), a series of ten short films set in a Warsaw tower block, each nominally based on one of the Ten Commandments, was created for Polish television with funding from West Germany; it is now one of the most critically acclaimed film cycles of all time. Co-written by Kieślowski and Piesiewicz, the ten one-hour-long episodes had originally been intended for ten different directors, but Kieślowski found himself unable to relinquish control over the project; in the end, each episode featured a different director of photography. Episodes five and six were released internationally in a longer form as ''A Short Film About Killing'' and ''A Short Film About Love'' respectively. Kieślowski had also planned to shoot a full-length version of Episode 9 under the title ''A Short Film About Jealousy'', but exhaustion eventually prevented him from making what would have been his thirteenth film in less than a year. The '''1974 FIFA World Cup''', the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany (including West Berlin ) from 13 June to 7 July. The tournament marked the first time that the current trophy, the FIFA World Cup Trophy, created by the Italian sculptor Silvio Gazzaniga, was awarded. The previous trophy, the Jules Rimet Trophy, had been won for the third time by Brazil (Brazil national football team) in 1970 (1970 FIFA World Cup) and awarded permanently to the Brazilians. The host nation won the title beating the Netherlands (Netherlands national football team) in the final, 2–1. The victory was the second for West Germany (Germany national football team), who had also won in 1954 (1954 FIFA World Cup). The year 968 saw the discovery of silver deposits near the town of Goslar, and mine (mining)s became established in the following centuries throughout the mountains. During the Middle Ages, ore from this region was exported along trade routes to far-flung places, such as Mesopotamia. The wealth of the region declined after these mines became exhausted in the early 19th century. People abandoned the towns for a short time, but prosperity eventually returned with tourism. Between 1945 and 1990, the inner German border ran through the Harz, the west belonging to the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) (West Germany) and the east to the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Today the Harz forms a popular tourist destination for summer hiking as well as winter sports. Early life and career Barrie was born '''Christopher Jonathan Brown''' in Hanover, Lower Saxony, West Germany to a father who was serving in the British Army, Chris Barrie Biography (1960-) and attended Methodist College Belfast boarding school in Northern Ireland. After dropping out of Brighton Polytechnic (University of Brighton), he began his TV career as a sports personality impersonator on ''The David Essex Showcase (David Essex)''; it was at this point that he adopted the surname "Barrie" for Equity reasons - as there was already an actor named Chris Brown on the Equity UK lists. He provided the voice of Ronald Reagan in the pop song "Two Tribes" by Frankie Goes to Hollywood, as well as various vocalisations for other tracks by FGTH and Art of Noise. Soviet threat NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) began preparations for a military defence of Western Europe by incorporating most West European nations into a defence pact against Soviet aggression in April 1951. This led to the militarisation of West Germany in 1955 and was met with the militarisation of East Germany soon after, and its merger into the Warsaw Pact alliance with the Soviet Union. The purpose of Coastal Command was to help bolster the defence and guard against a potential Soviet naval threat in Atlantic and European waters. After World War II, the world split into two large geopolitical blocs, separating into spheres of communism and capitalism. This led to the Cold War, during which the term ''First World'' was highly used because of its political, social, and economic relevance. The term itself was first introduced in the late 1940s by the United Nations. Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


strong leadership

, with thousands of unemployed (unemployment) people struggling to fulfill basic needs. When General Park Chung-hee seized power in 1961, South Korea had per capita income of less than $100 per year. At this point, South Korea was mostly dependent on foreign aid, which mostly came from the United States of America in exchange for Korea's involvement in the Vietnam War. President Park Chung-hee's Saemaeul movement focused on developing rural Korea. The strong leadership of the Park government and the effective use of cheap labor started a spark in the South Korean economy. In less than four decades, this "hopeless" city was completely transformed into a world leading global city, a centre of business and commerce in Asia and a highly developed world city and economic hub, having among the most advanced technological infrastructure in the world. It is considered by many Koreans as a symbol of national pride and "can-do" spirit. Besides the Saemaeul movement, the Korean government carried out another effective economic development plan called the Five-Year Plan (Five-Year Plans of South Korea). There were more than 5 plans created, and they were designed to revive the economy. Each of the plans contributed tremendously in industrialization and enlarging the marketplaces of South Korea. Career William Ackerman was born in West Germany but was adopted by a couple who lived in Palo Alto, California. A self-professed poet and musician who briefly studied guitar with Robbie Basho, Ackerman grew up in the San Francisco Bay Area. He attended the Northfield Mount Hermon School and Stanford University. Before finishing his studies at Stanford, Ackerman dropped out to become a carpenter. Ackerman had composed some pieces of music for a performance of ''Romeo and Juliet'' at Stanford. In 1975, without having played a "paying gig" "(a) group of friends and informal fans got together and collected about $300 in five dollar bills to send me into a recording studio. I picked a studio out of the phone book named Mantra Studios (it was the 70s after all!). I walked into that room and made a record I called ''The Search for the Turtle's Navel'' in two afternoons." (William Ackerman, liner notes for ''Returning'', 2005). Playing career Zalapski's career started with the Fort Saskatchewan Traders of the AJHL. In his first season with the Traders, Zalapski tallied 70 points in 67 games, including 17 goals. Zalapski spent the next two years playing with the Canadian National Team. He was a member of the Canadian Olympic Hockey team in the 1988 Winter Olympics held in Calgary, Alberta. Canada would end up missing the medal podium and finished in 4th place. Although Canada lost their first game in the medal round, Zalapski played a key role in the team's victories over West Germany and Czechoslovakia. He is most well known for his 11 year career in the NHL (National Hockey League) playing for the Pittsburgh Penguins, Hartford Whalers, Calgary Flames, Montreal Canadiens, and Philadelphia Flyers. He has since played for teams in hockey leagues in Germany, Italy, and most recently Switzerland. After studying at Waseda University, he was an exchange student at the University of Nurnberg (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg), Erlangen in the then West Germany. His encounters with the families of migrant workers in Germany had a lasting influence on his understanding of Zainichi Korean identity. Her teenage years in Germany were recounted in the autobiographical novel ''Irgendwo in Deutschland'' (''Somewhere in Germany''). Her father was given work as a judge in post-World War II West Germany, partly because there was no need to "denazify (denazification)" him. Marianne Schmidt had arrived in Melbourne (Melbourne, Australia) from West Germany with her family in September 1958. At the time, the Schmidt family consisted of parents Helmut and Elizabeth and Marianne's siblings, Helmut Jr., Hans, Peter, Trixie and Wolfgang. Another child, Norbert, was born in Australia the following year. After arriving in Australia, the Schmidts lived in a migrant hostel in Unanderra (Unanderra, New South Wales) before settling in Temora (Temora, New South Wales). In 1963 Helmut Schmidt moved the family to Sydney after contracting Hodgkin's disease and they found a home in the suburb of Ryde (Ryde, New South Wales). In June the next year, Helmut Schmidt died ''Twelve Crimes that Shocked the Nation'', Whiticker, Alan J (Alan Whiticker), New Holland. pp 101 - 102 ISBN 174110110-7 . 2 align left Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


publishing quot

; worked in Laos, Vietnam, Egypt, New Zealand and West Germany against far left-wing extremists before returning to Australia in 1975. Simon Caterson, writing in The Australian, described it as "one of the least reliable but most fascinating memoirs in the annals of Australian publishing".


major movie

of East German banknotes ended up in salt mines... Arwel (User:Arwel Parry) 21:24, 13 Apr 2004 (UTC) Wessely, not quite photogenic, missed to participate in Max Ophüls' 1933 filmization of Arthur Schnitzler's ''Liebelei (Liebelei (film))'' — though she had played Christine in the performance at the Theater in der Josefstadt, the role passed to Magda Schneider. Her first major movie role was that of Leopoldine Dur in the 1934 film ''Maskerade (Maskerade (film))'' directed by Willi Forst, together with Adolf Wohlbrück (Anton Walbrook). Further appearances in films like ''Episode (Episode (film))'' by Walter Reisch, for which she was awarded the Volpi Cup as best actress at the 1935 Venice Film Festival, finally made her a star. In 1938 she was the speaking voice of Snow White (Snow White (Disney)) in the first German (German language)-dubbed version of Disney's ''Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film))''. Immediately banned by the Nazi (Nazi Germany) authorities after the Austrian ''Anschluss'' in the same year, this version was re-released in 1948 in Austria and in 1950 in West Germany (the first public performance ever), for the last time performed in 1957. As Disney Germany re-dubbed this movie in 1966 and again in 1994, both older versions are no longer available — although they are archived at London. Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


place play

as the Battle of Santiago. Also held at the ground were a quarter-final, a semi-final, the third place play-off, and the final, in which Brazil was crowned world champions for the second time. In the third-place play-off, Chile defeated Yugoslavia 1-0, marking the team's greatest success in international football. In the closed society of mid-20th century China, Luan and Yao had only photographs from which to learn their moves. They had a terrible experience at the 1980 World Championships (1980 World Figure Skating Championships) in Dortmund, West Germany; Yao has said he remembers people in the audience laughing at their inferior skating (among those people was Irina Rodnina, who later recalled the skating was indeed very funny Chronik 30 Jahre – History of Post SV Berlin Rugby, accessed: 11 April 2010 - ''Flight of the Eagle'' ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd (:sv:Ingenjör Andrées luftfärd (film))'' 1982 Jan Troell Sweden, West Germany, Norway ''Ingenjör Andées luftfärd'' Per Olof Sundman 1967 Novel - First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. NATO (w:NATO) has been present in Germany since the end of World War II and its presence played an important role in the Cold War, when Germany was split into West Germany (w:West Germany) and East Germany (w:East Germany). The 27,000-pages of documents released on Tuesday reveal that while the United States (w:United States) and West Germany (w:West Germany) knew the location of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann) two years before his capture, the fact was kept secret. The documents were declassified as part of the Nazi War Criminals Disclosure Act (w:Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group) of 1998.


famous phrase

) consists of three films directed by Rainer Werner Fassbinder: ''The Marriage of Maria Braun'' (1979), ''Veronika Voss'' (1982), and ''Lola (Lola (film))'' (1981). The films are connected in a thematic rather than in a narrative sense. All three deal with different characters (though some actors recur in different roles) and plotlines, but each one focuses on the story of a specific woman in West Germany after World War II. The three letter acronym "BRD" stands for ''Bundesrepublik Deutschland'', the official name of West Germany and of the united contemporary Germany. Fassbinder had the idea of making a series of films that focus on West Germany during the "economic miracle (Wirtschaftswunder)" of the 1950s. The main characters were all female, representing different people in different circumstances. While the original treatments (film treatment) and stories were developed by Fassbinder himself, the detailed scripts for all three films were written by screenwriter Peter Märthesheimer, who had worked with the director as a commissioning producer and script editor of some of his TV projects, with the help of his then partner Pea Fröhlich. His father, a figure skater himself, brought him onto the ice when he was six years old. He skated for the club Herner (Herne, Germany) EV and represented West Germany. His coach was Günter Zöller. In the early 80s he was part of West Germany's men's figure

West Germany

'''West Germany''' ( or ''BRD'' (BRD (Germany))) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990. This period is also referred to as the '''Bonn Republic''' by academic historians. The Bonn Republic — West German democracy, 1945-1990, Anthony James Nicholls, Longman, 1997

During this period NATO-aligned West Germany and Warsaw Pact-aligned East Germany were divided by the Inner German border. After 1961, West Berlin was physically separated from East Berlin as well as from East Germany by the Berlin Wall. This situation ended when East Germany was dissolved and its five states joined the ten states of the Federal Republic of Germany along with the reunified city-state of Berlin. With the reunification of West and East Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, enlarged now to sixteen states, became known simply as "Germany".

The Federal Republic of Germany was established from eleven states (states of Germany) formed in the three Allied Zones of occupation (Allied occupation of Germany) held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France (the "Western Zones"). Its population grew from roughly 51 million in 1950 to more than 63 million in 1990. The city of Bonn was its ''de facto'' capital city (Berlin was symbolically named the ''de jure'' capital city in the West German Basic Law). The fourth Allied occupation zone (the East Zone, or ''Ostzone'') was held by the Soviet Union. The parts of this zone lying east of the Oder-Neisse were in fact annexed by the Soviet Union and communist Poland; the remaining central part around Berlin became the communist German Democratic Republic (abbreviated GDR; in German ''Deutsche Demokratische Republik'' or ''DDR'') with its ''de facto'' capital in East Berlin. As a result, West Germany had a territory about half the size of the interbellum democratic Weimar Republic.

At the onset of the Cold War, Germany (and, indeed, Europe) was divided among the Western and Eastern blocs. Germany was ''de facto'' divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland (Saar (protectorate)) and divided Berlin. The Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871-1945 German Reich. It took the line that the GDR was an illegally constituted puppet state. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not free and fair. For all practical purposes the GDR was a Soviet puppet state. From the West German perspective the GDR was therefore illegitimate.

Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, and the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial ''de facto'' 11th state. While legally not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin aligned itself politically with West Germany and was directly or indirectly represented in its federal institutions.

Relations with the Soviet bloc improved during the era of 'Neue Ostpolitik' around 1970, and West Germany began taking the line of "two German states within one German nation", but formally maintained the exclusive mandate. It recognised the GDR as a ''de facto'' government within a single German nation that in turn was represented ''de jure'' by the West German state alone. From 1973 onward, East Germany recognised the existence of two German countries ''de jure'', and the West as both ''de facto'' and ''de jure'' foreign country. The Federal Republic and the GDR agreed that neither of them could speak in the name of the other one.

The foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the ''Wirtschaftswunder'' (economic miracle) of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with the West rather than neutrality. He not only secured a membership in NATO but was also a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 G8 (G8) was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.

With the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990. Its five post-war states (''Länder'') were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional ''Land''. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like NATO and the European Union.

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