Weimar Republic

What is Weimar Republic known for?


award history

achievements is truly remarkable". His 1959 book, ''Voltaire's Politics'' examined Voltaire as a politician and how his politics influenced the ideas that Voltaire championed in his writings. Gay followed the success of ''Voltaire's Politics'' with a wider history of the Enlightenment (Age of Enlightenment), ''The Enlightenment: An Interpretation'' (1966, 1969, 1973), whose first volume won the 1967 U.S. National Book Award List of winners of the National Book Award#History


winning international

innovation and change to the fields of typography, exhibition design, photomontage, and book design, producing critically respected works and winning international acclaim for his exhibition design. '''''Berlin''''' is the title of a comic book series (limited series) created by Jason Lutes and published by Black Eye Productions and then Drawn and Quarterly. Planned as a series of 24 magazines, it describes life in Berlin from 1928 to 1933, during the decline of the Weimar Republic. In 2005, ''Time'' chose it as one of the 100 best English language, graphic novels ever written (TIME's List of the 100 Best Novels). During the Weimar Republic the popular perception that Germany had been stabbed in the back (Dolchstosslegende) rendered the public vulnerable to the Nazis, who embraced the language of the Spirit of 1914 in their aim of seizing power throughout Germany. In 1923, Freytag-Loringhoven went back to Berlin, expecting better opportunities for money, but instead finding an economically devastated post-World War I Germany. Regardless of her difficulties in Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic), she remained there, penniless and on the verge of insanity. Several friends in the American expatriate community, in particular Djuna Barnes, Berenice Abbott, and Peggy Guggenheim, provided emotional and financial support. '''''Kuhle Wampe''''' (full title: ''Kuhle Wampe, oder: Wem gehört die Welt?'', released in English as ''Kuhle Wampe or Who Owns the World?'') is a 1932 (1932 in film) German (Germany) feature film about unemployment and left wing (Left-wing politics) politics in the Weimar Republic. The script was conceived and written by Bertolt Brecht. He also directed the concluding scene: a political debate between strangers on a tram about the world coffee market. The rest of the film was directed by Slatan Dudow. When after World War I the German (Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938)) monks of the Prague Emaus Abbey in Czechoslovakia were obliged to leave the city, they resettled in 1919 in the empty monastery buildings at Grüssau, then part of Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic). It was again raised to an abbey by Pope Pius XI in 1924, the monastery was however suspended by the Nazi government (Nazi Germany) in 1940 and the buildings seized as a detention camp. During the bombing of Berlin (bombing of Berlin in World War II) from 1942 on, large parts of the Berlin State Library collection were outhoused at Grüssau Abbey. By the beginning of the 20th century Lower Silesia had an almost entirely German-speaking and ethnic German population, with the exception of a small Polish-speaking (Polish language) area in the northeastern part of the district of Namslau (Namysłów), Syców and Milicz and a 9% Czech-speaking (Czechs) minority in the rural area around Strehlen (Strzelin). After the First World War, Upper Silesia was divided between the German Weimar Republic, the Second Polish Republic, and the state of Czechoslovakia, while the Prussian Lower Silesia remained in Germany and was re-organized into the Lower Silesia Province (Lower Silesia Province (Prussia)) of the Free State of Prussian (Free State of Prussia (1918–1933)) consisting of the ''Breslau'' and ''Liegnitz'' regions. 80px thumb right 1928-1932 (File:Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg) After World War I, the German Empire became a republic informally known as Weimar Republic, a change which was reflected in a new flag of Germany that in fact was older than the former one, dating back to early 19th century democratic movements. In the Paris Peace Conference (Paris Peace Conference, 1919), the outbreak of the war was blamed on Germany and other Central Powers allies. These nations, which by now had new governments, were banned from the 1920 Summer Olympics. While all other banned nations were invited again for the 1924 Summer Olympics, held for the second time in Pierre de Coubertin's home town of Paris, the ban on Germany was not lifted until 1925. This was likely related to French Occupation of the Ruhr and the Rheinland between 1923 and 1925. Biography Bayanova was born in Kishinev (Chişinău) in the family of an opera singer, who moved to Paris in 1918 after Bessarabia decided to unite with Romania. She debuted on the stage as an assistant to her father in 1923, aged 9. By 1927, she was already performing solo (solo (music)). A major step forward in her career was when she assisted Alexander Vertinsky in his famous show at the Hermitage Restaurant, Montmartre. Two years later, her family moved to Belgrade, while Bayanova went on touring Germany (Weimar Republic), Greece, Palestine (British Mandate of Palestine), and Egypt. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


published poems

was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Kästner's years in Berlin from 1927 until the end of the Weimar Republic and the rise of the Nazis (Nazism) in 1933 were his most productive. In just a few years, Kästner became one of the most important intellectual figures in the German capital. He published poems, newspaper columns, articles, and reviews in many of Berlin's important periodicals. Kästner was a regular contributor to different daily newspapers such as the '' Berliner Tageblatt


violent political

of army paymaster in 1919. Hamilton, Charles (1984), p. 261 He began studying in his wife's hometown of Ilmenau. However, he dropped out of school again in 1920 intending to pursue a police career. He initially worked as an informer and later as a regular policeman. His career in the police came to an end because of his fervent hatred for the Weimar Republic and his repeated participation in violent political demonstrations. Hamilton, Charles (1984), p


influential legal

Emperor Wilhelm II . '''Gustav Radbruch''' (21 November 1878 – 23 November 1949) was a German (Germany) legal scholar and politician. He served as Minister of Justice (Federal Ministry of Justice (Germany)) of the German Empire during the early Weimar period (Weimar Republic). Radbruch is also regarded as one of the most influential legal philosophers of the 20th century. On 11 August 1919 the Weimar (Weimar Republic) constitution came into effect, with Friedrich


modern liberal

" of Western thought have been devalued as a source of wisdom. Bloom's critique extends beyond the university to speak to the general crisis in American society. ''Closing of the American Mind'' draws analogies between the United States and the Weimar Republic. The modern liberal philosophy, he says, enshrined in the Enlightenment (Age of Enlightenment) thought of John Locke—that a just society could be based upon self-interest alone, coupled by the emergence of relativism

, or an ideology of thought. Relativism was one feature of modern liberal philosophy that had subverted the Platonic–Socratic teaching. ''The Closing of the American Mind'' is a critique of the contemporary university and how Bloom sees it as failing its students. In it, Bloom criticizes the modern movements in philosophy and the humanities. Philosophy professors involved in ordinary language analysis (ordinary language philosophy) or logical positivism disregard important "humanizing" ethical and political issues and fail to pique the interest of students. Bloom, Allan. "The Student and the University", p. 378. ''Closing of the American Mind''. New York: Simon & Schuster. Literature professors involved in deconstructionism promote irrationalism and skepticism of standards of truth and thereby dissolve the moral imperatives which are communicated through genuine philosophy and which elevate and broaden the intellects of those who engage with these imperatives. Bloom, Allan. "The Student and the University", p. 379. ''Closing of the American Mind''. New York: Simon & Schuster. To a great extent, Bloom's criticism revolves around his belief that the "great books" of Western thought have been devalued as a source of wisdom. Bloom's critique extends beyond the university to speak to the general crisis in American society. ''Closing of the American Mind'' draws analogies between the United States and the Weimar Republic. The modern liberal philosophy, he says, enshrined in the Enlightenment (Age of Enlightenment) thought of John Locke—that a just society could be based upon self-interest alone, coupled by the emergence of relativism in American thought—had led to this crisis. For Bloom, this created a void in the souls of Americans, into which demagogic radicals as exemplified by '60s student leaders could leap. (In the same fashion, Bloom suggests, that the Nazi (Nazism) brownshirts once filled the gap created in German society by the Weimar Republic.) In the second instance, he argued, the higher calling of philosophy and reason understood as freedom of thought, had been eclipsed by a pseudo-philosophy, or an ideology of thought. Relativism was one feature of modern liberal philosophy that had subverted the Platonic–Socratic teaching. The Luger was made popular from its use by Germany during World War I and World War II, along with the interwar Weimar Republic and the post war East German Volkspolizei. Although the Luger pistol was first introduced in 7.65×21 mm Parabellum, it is notable for being the pistol for which the 9×19 mm Parabellum (also known as the 9 mm Luger) cartridge was developed. thumb left 100px Royal Monogram (Image:Royal Monogram of Prince Claus of the Netherlands.svg) Prince Claus was born '''Klaus-Georg Wilhelm Otto Friedrich Gerd von Amsberg''', on his family's estate, Haus Dötzingen, near Hitzacker, Germany (Weimar Republic). His parents were Claus Felix von Amsberg and Baroness Gösta von dem Bussche-Haddenhausen. His father, a member of the untitled German nobility, operated a large farm in Tanganyika (formerly German East Africa) from 1928 until World War II. Claus and his six sisters grew up on their grandparents' manor in Lower Saxony; he also attended a boarding school in Tanganyika from 1936 to 1938. In the Weimar Republic, the university was widely recognized as a center of democratic (democracy) thinking, coined by professors like Karl Jaspers, Gustav Radbruch, Martin Dibelius and Alfred Weber. Unfortunately, there were also dark forces working within the university: Nazi (Nazism) physicist Philipp Lenard was head of the physical institute during that time. Following the assassination of Walther Rathenau, he refused to half mast the national flag on the institute, thereby provoking its storming by communist students. Life and work Sirk was born Hans Detlef Sierck in Hamburg, Germany to Danish parents. He was raised in Denmark, but later moved to Germany as a teenager. He spread his education over three universities. He started his career in 1922 in the theatre of the Weimar Republic, including the direction of an early production of ''The Threepenny Opera''. He joined UFA (Universum Film AG) (Universum Film AG) in 1934, but left Germany in 1937 because of his political leanings and Jewish wife. On arrival in the United States, he soon changed his German name. By 1942 he was in Hollywood, directing the stridently anti-Nazi ''Hitler's Madman''. As a reward for his dedication, when the Nazi Party was legalized again and re-organized in 1925 Streicher was appointed ''Gauleiter'' of the Bavarian region of Franconia (which included his home town of Nuremberg). In the early years of the party’s rise, ''Gauleiter'' were essentially party functionaries without real power; but in the final years of the Weimar Republic, they became paramilitary commanders. During the 12 years of the Nazi regime itself, party ''Gauleiter'' like Streicher would wield immense power, and be in large measure untouchable by legal authority. The slanderous attacks continued, and lawsuits followed. Like Fleischmann, other outraged German Jews defeated Streicher in court, but his goal was not necessarily legal victory; he wanted the widest possible dissemination of his message, which press coverage often provided. The rules of the court provided Streicher with an arena to humiliate his opponents, and he characterized the inevitable courtroom loss as a badge of honor. The Weimar (Weimar Republic) habit of following the strictest letter of the law made prosecution for more serious crimes difficult. ''Der Stürmer's (Der Stürmer)'' infamous official slogan, ''Die Juden sind unser Unglück'' (the Jews are our misfortune) was deemed unactionable under German statutes, since it was not a direct incitement to violence. Nordicism thumb 200px ''Meyers Blitz-Lexikon'' ( Weimar Republic Leipzig, 1932 (Image:NordischNordic.JPG)) shows a famous German (Germany) war hero (Karl von Müller) as an example of the Nordic type. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


term political

location New York publisher Columbia University Press year 1982 pages 172 ''et seq.'' isbn Some believe that Rathenau's assassination may have significantly influenced the long-term political, economic, and social development of Europe (or was the result of such development, particularly the development of leftward-trending parties, class consciousness, nationalistic feelings, and antisemitism). It was certainly an early sign of the instability and violence which were eventually to permeate and destroy the Weimar Republic. The British writer Morgan Philips Price wrote: Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


small+song

was used exclusively after 1935. -- image_flag Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg flag Flag of Germany#Weimar Republic (1918–33) image_coat Coat of Arms of Germany.svg symbol_type Coat of arms (1928-35) symbol Coat of Arms of Germany#Weimar Republic national_anthem ''Das Lied der Deutschen (Deutschlandlied)'' '' Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


view part

World War II, Ritter wrote the book ''Europa und die deutsche Frage'' (''Europe and the German Question''), which denied that the Third Reich was the inevitable product of German history, but was rather in Ritter's view part of a general Europe-wide drift towards totalitarianism that had been going on since the French Revolution, and as such, Germans should not be singled out for criticism. Kershaw, Ian ''The Nazi Dictatorship Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation'', London: Arnold Press, 2000 page 7; Hamerow, Theodore S. "Guilt, Redemption and Writing German History" pages 53-72 from ''The American Historical Review'', Volume 88, February 1983 pages 62-63 In Ritter's opinion, the origins of National Socialism went back to Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concept of the ''volonté générale'' (General will) (general will) and the Jacobins (Jacobin Club). Hamerow, Theodore S. "Guilt, Redemption and Writing German History" pages 53-72 from ''The American Historical Review'', Volume 88, February 1983 page 62. Ritter argued that "National Socialism is not an originally German growth, but the German form of a European phenomenon: the one-party or ''Führer'' state", which was the result of "modern industrial society with its uniform mass humanity". Iggers, Georg ''The German Conception of History'', Middletown: Connecticut; Wesleyan University Press, 1968 page 258. Along the same lines, Ritter wrote "not any event in German history, but the great French Revolution undermined the firm foundation of Europe's political traditions. It also coined the new concepts and slogans with whose help the modern state of the ''Volk'' and the Führer justifies its existence". Hamerow, Theodore S. "Guilt, Redemption and Writing German History" pages 53-72 from ''The American Historical Review'', Volume 88, February 1983 page 63. Ritter argued that throughout the 19th century, there been worrisome signs in Germany and the rest of Europe caused by the entry of masses into politics, but that it was World War I that marked the decisive turning point. Kershaw, Ian ''The Nazi Dictatorship Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation'', London: Arnold Press, 2000 page 7 In Ritter's opinion, World War I had caused a general collapse in moral values throughout the West, and it was this moral degeneration that led to the decline of Christianity, the rise of materialism, political corruption, the eclipse of civilization by barbarism, and demagogic politics that in turn led to National Socialism. Kershaw, Ian ''The Nazi Dictatorship Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation'', London: Arnold Press, 2000 page 7 In Ritter's view, the problem with the Weimar Republic was not that it lacked democracy, but rather had too much democracy. Hamerow, Theodore S. "Guilt, Redemption and Writing German History" pages 53-72 from ''The American Historical Review'', Volume 88, February 1983 page 63. Ritter argued that the democratic republic left the German state open to being hijacked by the appeals of rabble-rousing extremists. Hamerow, Theodore S. "Guilt, Redemption and Writing German History" pages 53-72 from ''The American Historical Review'', Volume 88, February 1983 page 63. In Ritter's view, had his much beloved German Empire continued after 1918, there would have been no Nazi Germany. Ritter argued democracy was the essential precondition of totalitarianism because it created the window of opportunity for a strongman to make himself the personification of the "popular will", leading Ritter to conclude that "the system of 'totalitarian' dictatorship as such is not a specifically German phenomenon" but rather was the natural result of when "the direct rule of the people derived from the 'revolt of the masses' is introduced". Hamerow, Theodore S. "Guilt, Redemption and Writing German History" pages 53-72 from ''The American Historical Review'', Volume 88, February 1983 page 63. Ritter argued that the precursors of Hitler were "neither Frederick the Great, Bismarck nor Wilhelm II, but the demagogues and Caesars of modern history from Danton to Lenin to Mussolini". Iggers, Georg ''The German Conception of History'', Middletown: Connecticut; Wesleyan University Press, 1968 page 254. Champion of the ''Sonderweg'' theory Wehler's speciality is the Second Reich. He was one of the more famous proponents of the ''Sonderweg'' (Special Path) thesis that argues Germany in the 19th century had only a partial modernization. Wehler has argued that Germany was the only nation to be created in Western Europe through a military "revolution from above", which happened to occur at the same time that the agricultural revolution was fading while the Industrial Revolution was beginning in Central Europe. Hamerow, Theodore S. "Guilt, Redemption and Writing German History" pages 53-72 from ''The American Historical Review'', February 1983, Volume 88 page 67. As a result, the economic sphere was modernized and the social sphere partially modernized. Politically, in Wehler's opinion the unified Germany retained values that were aristocratic and feudal, anti-democratic and pre-modern. In Wehler's view, it was the efforts of the reactionary German élite to retain power that led to the outbreak of the First World War (World War I) in 1914, the failure of the Weimar Republic and the coming of the Third Reich (Nazi Germany). Wehler has asserted that the effects of the traditional power elite to maintain power up to 1945 "and in many respects even beyond that" took the form of: "a penchant for authoritarian politics; a hostility toward democracy in the educational and party system; the influence of preindustrial leadership groups, values and ideas; the tenacity of the German state ideology; the myth of the bureaucracy; the superimposition of caste tendencies and class distinctions; and the manipulation of political antisemitism". Hamerow, Theodore S. "Guilt, Redemption and Writing German History" pages 53-72 from ''The American Historical Review'', February 1983, Volume 88 pages 67-68. Wehler has in particular been critical of what calls Otto von Bismarck's strategy of “negative integration” in which Bismarck sought to create a sense of ''Deutschtum'' (Germanism) and consolidate his power by subjecting various minority groups such as Roman Catholics, Alsatians, Poles, and Social Democrats to discriminatory laws. Wehler is one of the foremost advocates of the “Berlin War Party” historical school, which assigns the sole and exclusive responsibility for World War I to the German government. Like most American science fiction writers directly or indirectly influenced by Campbell's (John W. Campbell) view of the genre as a literature of ideas Wilson makes use of his work to speculatively explore trends and technologies as they manifest. A prominent example is his novel ''An Enemy of the State'' (published in 1980), which was written during the 1970s, an era that saw stagflation develop in the U.S. economy. In that period, inflation in the United States reached its highest level since World War II, due to the issue of fiat money (fiat currency) by the Federal Reserve. In Wilson's novel, he extends the "squeeze" of confiscatory taxation and currency debauchment to a conclusion involving a Weimar Republic-style hyperinflation that brings down a galactic empire – and from which humanity's only hope of rescue arrives in the form of an anarchist conspiracy to complete the Empire's downfall and replace that government's "official counterfeit" with honest money. Throughout the book, Wilson runs chapter headings quoting from economic works such as ''Fiat Money Inflation in France''. http: onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu webbin gutbook lookup?num 6949 Shortly after World War II, monarchists got together under the motto "Letters for Tradition und Leben." They followed partly the tradition of monarchist organisations and personalities from the time of the Weimar Republic (1919–1933), especially the "Bund der Aufrechten (:de:Bund der Aufrechten)," founded in November 1918, and partly the older German traditionalist Völkisch movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Under the German Empire, Meinecke had called for more democracy in Germany. One of his students was Heinrich Brüning, the future Chancellor. Under the Weimar Republic, Meinecke was an ''Vernunftsrepublikaner'' (republican by reason), someone who supported the republic as the least bad alternative. Under the Third Reich, he had some sympathy for the regime, especially in regard to its early anti-semitic laws. After 1935, Meinecke fell into a state of semi-disgrace, and was removed as editor of the ''Historische Zeitschrift''. Though Meinecke remained in public a supporter of the Nazi regime (Nazi Germany), in private he became increasing bothered by what he regarded as the violence and crudeness of the Nazis. Meinecke's best known book, ''Die Deutsche Katastrophe'' (The German Catastrophe) of 1946, sees the historian attempting to reconcile his lifelong belief in authoritarian state power with the disastrous events of 1933-45. His explanation for the success of National Socialism (Nazism) points to the legacy of Prussian militarism in Germany, the effects of rapid industrialisation and the weaknesses of the middle classes, though Meinecke also asserts that Hitlerism benefited from a series of unfortunate accidents, which had no connection with the earlier developments in German history. In 1948, he helped to found the Free University of Berlin. To some extent he agreed with Fritz Fischer's assessment that the differences between Imperial (German Empire), Weimar (Weimar Republic) and Nazi (Nazi Germany) foreign policy were of degree rather than kind. Moreover, he accepted Fischer's argument that Germany was primarily responsible for World War I, but as a follower of the ''Primat der Aussenpolitik'' ("primacy of foreign policy") school, Hillgruber rejected Fischer's ''Primat der Innenpolitik'' ("primacy of domestic policy") argument as to why Germany started the First World War. Hillgruber, ''Germany And The Two World Wars'' (1981), p. 38. During the so-called "Fischer Controversy" which coalesced the German historical profession in the early 1960s, Hillgruber stood apart from the various right-wing historians who attempted to rebut Fischer, such as Gerhard Ritter, Hans Herzfeld, Egmont Zechlin, and Karl Dietrich Erdmann, by accepting Fischer's arguments in part instead of attempting to rebut Fischer ''in toto''. He had a major influence on the ''Jungkonservativen'' (Young Conservatives) in their opposition to the Weimar Republic. He may have also supplied the Nazis with some of the concepts underpinning their movement, though upon meeting Hitler in 1922, Bruck rejected him for his "proletarian primitiveness". The Nazis still made use of his ideas where they could, including appropriating the title of his 1923 book ''Das Dritte Reich'' (meaning "The Third Reich") as a political slogan. Wheeler-Bennett and pre-war Nazi Germany He lived in Germany between 1927–1934 and witnessed first-hand the collapse of the Weimar Republic and the rise of Nazi Germany. During his time living in Berlin, he enjoyed some success as a horse-breeder. During this period, he became an unofficial agent and advisor to London on international events. thumb left French troops leaving Mainz (1930) (Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 102-10038, Mainz, Abzug der französischen Truppen.jpg) Following the Armistice of 1918 (Armistice with Germany (Compiègne)), Allied forces occupied the Rhineland as far east as the river with some small bridgeheads on the east bank at places like Cologne. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 the occupation was continued and the Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission was set up to supervise affairs. The treaty specified three occupation Zones, which were due to be evacuated by Allied troops five, ten and finally 15 years after the formal ratification of the treaty, which took place in 1920, thus the occupation was intended to last until 1935. In fact, the last Allied troops left Germany five years prior to that date in 1930 in a good-will reaction to the Weimar Republic's policy of reconciliation in the era of Gustav Stresemann and the Locarno Pact. thumb Typical section of modern autobahn near an interchange, with overhead direction signs. (File:A96-Memmingen-2008.JPG) The idea for the construction of the autobahn was first conceived during the days of the Weimar Republic, but apart from the AVUS in Berlin, construction was slow, and most projected sections did not progress much beyond the planning stage due to economic problems and a lack of political support. One project was the private initiative ''HaFraBa'' which planned a "car only road" crossing Germany from Hamburg in the North via central Frankfurt am Main to Basel in Switzerland. Parts of the HaFraBa were completed in the 1930s and early 1940s, but construction eventually was halted by World War II. The first road of this kind was completed in 1931 between Cologne and Bonn and opened by Konrad Adenauer (Lord Mayor of Cologne and future Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic of Germany)) of West Germany) on 6 August 1932. The road is currently the Bundesautobahn 555. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


science modern

is fundamentally governed by the laws of modern science (History of science) instead of alchemy. Stripped of his alchemical powers and his newly restored arm and leg, Edward researches rocketry in Munich, Germany (Weimar Republic) with his friend Alfons Heiderich, a young man who resembles his brother Alphonse (Alphonse Elric), in the hopes of returning to his world. One day, Edward rescues a troubled, persecuted gypsy (Roma (Romani subgroup)) woman named Noah from being sold. Noah

Weimar Republic

The '''Weimar Republic''' ( ) is a name given by historians to the federal republic and semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government (German Empire). It is named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place. During this period, and well into the succeeding Nazi (Nazi Germany) era, the official name of the state was '''German Reich''' (''Deutsches Reich''), which continued on from the pre-1918 Imperial period.

Following World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–19) in November 1918. In 1919, a national assembly (Weimar National Assembly) was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution (Weimar constitution) for the German Reich was written, then adopted on 11 August of that same year. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation (Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic), political extremists (with paramilitaries (Weimar paramilitary groups) – both left and right wing) and continuing contentious relationships with the victors of World War I. However, the Weimar Republic successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies and the railway system and it did eliminate most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, in that Germany never completely met the disarmament requirements, and eventually only paid a small portion of the total reparations required by the treaty, which were reduced twice by restructuring Germany's debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. Marks, Sally, ''The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918–1933'', St. Martin's, NY, 1976, pp.96–105.

The German government during the Weimar Republic era did not respect the Treaty of Versailles that it had been pressured to sign, and various government figures at the time rejected Germany's post-Versailles borders. Gustav Streseman as German foreign minister in 1925 declared that the reincorporation of territories lost to Poland and Danzig (Free City of Danzig) in the Treaty of Versailles was a major task of German foreign policy. General Hans von Seeckt (head of the ''Reichswehr'' command from 1920 to 1926) supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland (Second Polish Republic) between them to restore the German–Russian border of 1914. Christian Leitz. Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: The Road to Global War. p10. The ''Reichswehr'' Ministry memorandum of 1926 declared its intention to seek the reincorporation of German territory lost to Poland as its first priority, to be followed by the return of the Saar territory, the annexation of Austria, and remilitarization of the Rhineland.

The ensuing period of liberal democracy lapsed by 1930, when President Hindenburg (Paul von Hindenburg) assumed dictatorial emergency powers to back the administrations of Chancellors Brüning (Heinrich Brüning), Papen (Franz von Papen), Schleicher (Kurt von Schleicher), and finally Hitler (Adolf Hitler). Between 1930 and 1933 the Great Depression, even worsened by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. Ursula Büttner, ''Weimar: die überforderte Republik'', Klett-Cotta, 2008, ISBN 978-3-608-94308-5, p. 424 It led to the ascent of the nascent Nazi Party in 1933. The legal measures taken by the new Nazi government in February and March 1933, commonly known as the ''Machtergreifung'' (seizure of power), meant that the government could legislate contrary to the constitution. The constitution became irrelevant, so 1933 is usually seen as the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the Third Reich (Nazi Germany).

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