Weimar Republic

What is Weimar Republic known for?


remarkable influence

lesbian-themed film ''Mädchen in Uniform (Mädchen in Uniform (1931 film))''. '''Robert Redslob''' (1882–1962) was a German (Germany)-French (France) constitutional (Constitutional law) and public international law-scientist who was critical of the French constitution in the early twentieth century. His ideas from his work ''Die parlamentarische Regierung in ihrer wahren und in ihrer unechten Form'' from 1918 had a remarkable

influence on the German Weimar (Weimar Republic) constitution of 1919. In his capacity as a professor at the Hague Academy of International Law, he introduced the concept of heimat in relation to international law in 1931. Preuß is often regarded as the father of the German constitution of the Weimar Republic (1919). However, his idea was more of a skeletal structure and not a word for word democratic plan. In many cases, his idea for the Weimar Constitution was skewed by articles used by President Paul von Hindenburg, such as Article 48. During the early months of the formation of the German republic, Preuss opposed vehemently the Triple Entente prohibition of the incorporation of German Austria into Germany as a contradiction of the Wilsonian principle of self-determination of peoples. PREUSS DENOUNCES DEMAND OF ALLIES, ''The New York Times'', September 14, 1919 Due to Preuß's Jewish heritage, the Nazi Party used this as a major attack on the Weimar Republic to say that it was authored by a Jew, and inherently "un-German". He is mentioned by name in the 1940 Nazi propaganda film Der Ewige Jude produced by Fritz Hippler. nickname allegiance Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


extremely liberal

if a successor is elected at the same time (see Constructive Vote of No Confidence). * The political parties started to have a role in creating a government only in October 1918. They had no time to get used to that, under the old system. Role of individuals Brüning's economic policy from 1930–1932 has been the subject of much debate. It caused many Germans to identify the Republic with cuts in social spending and extremely liberal economics. Whether there were alternatives


technical achievements

response upon its initial release, with many critics praising its technical achievements while deriding its simplistic and naïve storyline. Due both to its long running-time and footage censors found questionable, ''Metropolis'' was cut substantially after its German premiere; large portions of the film were lost over the subsequent decades. After this, Raeder continued to rise steadily in the navy hierarchy, becoming a ''Konteradmiral'' (Rear Admiral) (Rear Admiral) in 1922 and a Vice


military series

, in the old pro-monarchist (monarchism) elites and in the new anti-democratic (democracy) popular movements. He had already started the anti-military series of articles ''Militaria'', an attack on the wilhelminian (Wilhelm II of Germany) spirit of the officer (Officer (armed forces)) ranks which he saw as further coarsened by the war and which lived on in the Republic. His own conduct as a soldier during the war did not substantially differ, however, from that of those in the Germany


acclaimed poetry

) and was orphaned early. He moved to Kiev in 1917 and soon became one of the leading Yiddish poets of the "Kiev group". He lived in Germany (Weimar Republic) between 1921 and 1925 joining there the Communist Party of Germany and publishing critically acclaimed poetry. He returned to the USSR in 1925 and moved to Moscow in 1936, joining the CPSU in 1939. By that time he was primarily writing verses for children and his style fully corresponded to the canons of Socialist


partnership called

, and this, coupled with the industry's tendency to overreach itself financially (such as in the production of Fritz Lang's ''Metropolis (Metropolis (1927 movie))'' (1927), perhaps the most famous German film of this period), frequently led to bankruptcies (bankruptcy) and financial ruin. UFA itself was forced to go into a disadvantageous partnership called Parufamet with the American studios Paramount (Paramount Pictures) and MGM in 1925 before being taken over by the nationalist industrialist and newspaper owner Alfred Hugenberg in 1927. The company's financial travails did not prevent it from producing numerous significant films throughout this period, among them, Ernst Lubitsch's ''Madame Du Barry'' (1919), Lang's epic production of ''Die Nibelungen'', and Murnau's ''The Last Laugh'' (1925), and the development of the studios at Babelsberg (Filmstudio Babelsberg), originally established in 1912 but later taken over by UFA and expanded massively to accommodate the filming of ''Metropolis'', gave the German film industry a highly-developed infrastructure. thumb right Walter Scheel (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-047-20, Walter Scheel.jpg) served as Foreign Minister, Vice Chancellor, Acting Chancellor and President of Germany The FDP was founded on 11 December 1948 through the merger of nine regional liberal parties formed in 1945 from the remnants of the pre-1933 German People's Party (DVP) and the German Democratic Party (DDP), which had been active in the Weimar Republic. These nine regionally organised liberal parties were the ''Bremian Democratic People's Party'' (BDV) in the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, the ''Democratic Party of Southern and Middle Baden'' (DemP) in the State of South Baden (South Baden), the ''Democratic Party'' (DP) in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rhineland-Palatinate), the Democratic People's Party of Northern Württemberg-Northern Baden (Democratic People's Party (Germany)) (DVP) in the State of Württemberg-Baden (Württemberg-Baden), the Democratic People's Party of Southern Württemberg-Hohenzollern (Democratic People's Party (Germany)) (DVP) in the State of Württemberg-Hohenzollern (Württemberg-Hohenzollern), the united ''Free Democratic Party'' (F.D.P.) of the British zone of occupation, the ''Free Democratic Party'' (F.D.P.) in the Free State of Bavaria, the ''Liberal Democratic Party'' (LDP) in the State of Hesse, and the ''Liberal Democratic Party'' (LDP) of Berlin (West) (West Berlin). Cf. Almut Leh and Alexander von Plato, ''Ein unglaublicher Frühling: erfahrene Geschichte im Nachkriegsdeutschland 1945 - 1948'', Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung (ed.), Bonn: Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung, 1997, p. 77. ISBN 3-89331-298-6 The FDP's first Chairman, Theodor Heuss, was formerly a member of the DDP and after the war of the Democratic People's Party (DVP) (Democratic People's Party (Germany)). In Germany, federalism was abolished only during Nazism (Nazi Germany) (1933–1945) and in East Germany during most of its existence (1952–1990). Adolf Hitler viewed federalism as an obstacle to his goals. As he wrote in ''Mein Kampf'', "National Socialism (Nazism) must claim the right to impose its principles on the whole German nation, without regard to what were hitherto the confines of federal states." Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


violent attacks

Republic , which he saw as controlled by the socialists, Jews and the "November criminals (Stab-in-the-back legend)" who had betrayed the German soldiers in 1918. The SA (Sturmabteilung) ("storm troopers", also known as "Brownshirts") were founded as a party militia in 1921, and began violent attacks on other parties. thumb Dust jacket (File:Mein Kampf dust jacket.jpeg) of '' Mein Kampf'' One-time pads have been used in special circumstances since


related+activism

, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements. Legacy Henry Gerber and the Society for Human Rights serve as direct links between the LGBT-related activism of the Weimar Republic and the American homophile movement of the 1950s. In 1929, a young man named Harry Hay was living in Los Angeles. He soon discovered the cruising (Cruising for sex) scene in Pershing Square (Pershing Square (Los Angeles)), where he met Champ Simmons, Hay and Roscoe, p. 355 a man who had been a lover of one of Gerber's Society compatriots. This man told Hay about the Society's brief history, Loughery, p. 225 warning Hay of the futility of trying to organize gay men. Timmons, p. 145 Although Hay would later deny that he had any knowledge of previous LGBT activism, ''Gay Almanac'', p. 131 he was inspired by this knowledge to conceive in 1948 a proposal for a gay men's political and social group. In 1950 Hay's idea reached fruition when he and several other men founded the Mattachine Society, the first enduring LGBT rights organization in the United States. Hogan and Hudson, pp. 382–83 nickname allegiance Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''


place made

. The period in German history (History of Germany) from 1919 to 1933 is commonly referred to as the Weimar Republic, as the Republic's constitution was drafted here because the capital, Berlin, with its street rioting after the 1918 German Revolution, was considered too dangerous for the National Assembly (Weimar National Assembly) to use it as a meeting place. Made in Germany during the Weimar Period (Weimar Republic), ''Metropolis'' is set


progressive+cultural

; schools reflected the new ideas of the time, with artists such as George Grosz being fined for defaming the military and for blasphemy. Artists in Berlin were influenced by other contemporary progressive cultural movements, such as the Impressionist and Expressionist painters in Paris, as well as the Cubists. Likewise, American progressive architects were admired. Many of the new buildings built during this era followed a straight-lined, geometrical style. Examples of the new architecture include the Bauhaus Building (Bauhaus Dessau Foundation) by Gropius (Walter Gropius), Grosses Schauspielhaus (Großes Schauspielhaus), and the Einstein Tower. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995. thumb Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles from the film ''Cabaret''. (File:Liza Minnelli Cabaret 1972 crop 3.jpg) '''''Cabaret (w:Cabaret (1972 film))''''' is a 1972 musical film (w:1972 in film) about a female girlie club entertainer in Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) era Berlin who romances two men while the Nazi Party (w:Nazi Party) rises to power around them. :''Directed by Bob Fosse (w:Bob Fosse). Written by Jay Presson Allen (w:Jay Presson Allen), loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret (w:Cabaret (musical)) by Kander and Ebb (w:Kander and Ebb).''

Weimar Republic

The '''Weimar Republic''' ( ) is a name given by historians to the federal republic and semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government (German Empire). It is named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place. During this period, and well into the succeeding Nazi (Nazi Germany) era, the official name of the state was '''German Reich''' (''Deutsches Reich''), which continued on from the pre-1918 Imperial period.

Following World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution (German Revolution of 1918–19) in November 1918. In 1919, a national assembly (Weimar National Assembly) was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution (Weimar constitution) for the German Reich was written, then adopted on 11 August of that same year. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation (Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic), political extremists (with paramilitaries (Weimar paramilitary groups) – both left and right wing) and continuing contentious relationships with the victors of World War I. However, the Weimar Republic successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies and the railway system and it did eliminate most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, in that Germany never completely met the disarmament requirements, and eventually only paid a small portion of the total reparations required by the treaty, which were reduced twice by restructuring Germany's debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. Marks, Sally, ''The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe, 1918–1933'', St. Martin's, NY, 1976, pp.96–105.

The German government during the Weimar Republic era did not respect the Treaty of Versailles that it had been pressured to sign, and various government figures at the time rejected Germany's post-Versailles borders. Gustav Streseman as German foreign minister in 1925 declared that the reincorporation of territories lost to Poland and Danzig (Free City of Danzig) in the Treaty of Versailles was a major task of German foreign policy. General Hans von Seeckt (head of the ''Reichswehr'' command from 1920 to 1926) supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland (Second Polish Republic) between them to restore the German–Russian border of 1914. Christian Leitz. Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: The Road to Global War. p10. The ''Reichswehr'' Ministry memorandum of 1926 declared its intention to seek the reincorporation of German territory lost to Poland as its first priority, to be followed by the return of the Saar territory, the annexation of Austria, and remilitarization of the Rhineland.

The ensuing period of liberal democracy lapsed by 1930, when President Hindenburg (Paul von Hindenburg) assumed dictatorial emergency powers to back the administrations of Chancellors Brüning (Heinrich Brüning), Papen (Franz von Papen), Schleicher (Kurt von Schleicher), and finally Hitler (Adolf Hitler). Between 1930 and 1933 the Great Depression, even worsened by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. Ursula Büttner, ''Weimar: die überforderte Republik'', Klett-Cotta, 2008, ISBN 978-3-608-94308-5, p. 424 It led to the ascent of the nascent Nazi Party in 1933. The legal measures taken by the new Nazi government in February and March 1933, commonly known as the ''Machtergreifung'' (seizure of power), meant that the government could legislate contrary to the constitution. The constitution became irrelevant, so 1933 is usually seen as the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the Third Reich (Nazi Germany).

Search by keywords:


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017