What is Warsaw known for?

career performing

occurred on June 4, 1939 in Warsaw, versus Switzerland (1-1). Then, Cebula played in the last, unforgettable game of interwar Poland - (Warsaw, August 27, 1939, Poland - Hungary 4-2). * Cecile won international recognition as one of the youngest musicians to ever receive the prestigious Leventritt Competition Gold Medal. Her triumph in 1981 launched her international career performing with major orchestras in the world. * Her recording of Chopin's Piano Concerto No. 2

current event

of practical tips, contacts, and current event information is the '''Warsaw Insider''', available at every concierge, tourist information centre and larger newsagents. The '''Warsaw Voice''' is the city's most popular English-language weekly, and maintains a good calendar of events. '''Destination Warsaw''' has some useful information, but you need to be aware that it is run by ''Warsaw Destination Alliance'', whose members are some of the tourist-related businesses in Warsaw, so the website obviously serves their promotional needs. Its main goal is the promotion of Warsaw as a destination abroad. Orientation Warsaw and the Vistula As is the case with most major cities, Warsaw is situated on a river. The river's name is Vistula (Polish: ''Wisła'') and it crosses the city on a north-south axis, dividing it into two parts. The western part is usually referred to as the left bank (Polish: ''lewy brzeg'' adj. ''lewobrzeżna Warszawa'') and the eastern part as the right bank (Polish: ''prawy brzeg'' adj. ''prawobrzeżna Warszawa''). Warsaw as such has been founded on the left bank, while the right bank was a separate municipality, called Praga, which was incorporated into Warsaw only in the 19th century. Therefore, many would refer to the right bank as "Praga", even if Praga proper is only two districts of the right bank. Vistula in Warsaw is a broad, sprawling and unregulated river, which flooded the surrounding areas often in the past and continues to be somewhat of a threat today. Therefore, Warsaw is not really on the river in the sense many cities like London or Paris are, but rather near to the river, as Vienna is. The historic parts of left-bank Warsaw are a certain distance apart from the river, on an elevation called Warsaw escarpment. The part of left-bank Warsaw closer to the river (and less elevated with regard to it) called Powiśle was, until recently, of rather secondary importance and stature. The right bank is less elevated and most of the development there is separated from the river by a wide belt of shrubbery and natural beaches, allowing for flooding in periods of high tide. It is therefore visually and physically removed from the left bank. 250px thumb ''Świętokrzyski'' is the shortest and most pedestrian-friendly of the bridges over the Vistula in Warsaw (File:Świętokrzyski Bridge - Warsaw 2012.jpg) There is a total of nine bridges crossing the Vistula within the boundaries of Warsaw. They are, starting from south: * '''Siekierkowski''' * '''Łazienkowski''' * '''Poniatowskiego''' * '''Średnicowy''' (railway bridge only) * '''Świętokrzyski''' * '''Śląsko-Dąbrowski''' * '''Gdański''' * '''Grota-Roweckiego''' * '''Skłodowskiej-Curie''' City centre Warsaw's left bank, or western part of the city is the dominant part, and the part deemed the city centre lies therein. Historically, the right bank was the first one to become populated, during the 9th or 10th century. However, is its Warsaw's left bank or the western part of the city, is the dominant one, and the present city's central district, called Śródmieście (Warsaw Śródmieście) lies on the left bank. The Old Town is fully contained within the borders of the city center. The central point of the city is located at the intersection of Al. Jerozolimskie and ul. Marszałkowska, near the entrance to the Metro Centrum subway station. The main railway station, Warszawa Centralna, is also close by. It is good to know that the Palace of Culture is a landmark visible from almost any location in Warsaw. Should you ever get lost in the city, just walk toward the Palace of Culture and Science. Street numbering 250px thumb right Building number sign with direction towards ascending numbers shown (File:159, Niepodległości Avenue in Warsaw.JPG) Traditionally, streets parallel with Vistula are numbered along the river current, i.e. the buildings with the lowest numbers are the southernmost. Streets roughly perpendicular to the Vistula are numbered from the river upwards, i.e. the lowest numbers are the closest to the river, while streets roughly parallel with Vistula. One side of the street always has even numbers, while the other has odd ones (so if you are looking for number 8 and you see number 7, look at the opposite side of the street). There are several exceptions to those rules, e.g. the Puławska street in southern Warsaw has building numbers starting from the north, while some housing estates have sprawling areas with buildings sharing the same street name, with building numbers assigned in various ways. City Information System - MSI The City Information System (''MSI'' - ''Miejski System Informacji'') can be of further aid to visitors to Warsaw. The MSI divides every district into several neighbourhoods (with informative purposes, no administrative or other role), with the neighbourhoods indicated in red on signage throughout the city. You can find the name of the MSI neighbourhood you are in on the red stripes of the building number and street signs. They are also indicated in red on directional signage, showing the way to get to a given neighbourhood. A rundown of the MSI neighbourhoods and helpful schematic maps can be found here: (the website is in Polish, but the schematics are of universal informative value, just click on the district for the rundown of the areas therein) The districts as such are indicated on signposts with white background, while streets and other POIs with blue background, except for the Old Town and Royal Road areas, where the background is brown and a different font is used to indicate their historic character. The building number signs also often feature a small arrow pointing to the direction the building numbers in a street ascend. Street signs at intersection indicate the building numbers to be found within the block it is in (i.e. until the next intersection). On some signposts you can also find small signs showing the relation of the street they're on to the Vistula. Other elements that can be of interest to visitors are pylons with neighbourhood maps and transparent boards on historic and significant buildings, which explain briefly their history and significance. Similar boards under street signs explain the origin of the name of the street - in case of streets named after people, they contain a short bio and usually a small portrait. An increasing number of those boards contain descriptions in both Polish and English, while others are in Polish only. File:Corner streets Domaniewska and Langego in Warsaw - 01.jpg Street signs at an intersection indicating building numbers to be found in the nearest block File:POL_WAW_MSI_Tablica_kierunkowa.jpg Direction table at a road in Warsaw Ochota Ochota File:Tablica MSI Trakt Królewski.jpg A pylon with the map of the Royal Road File:Grójecka104MSI.jpg A transparent info board on a historic building File:PL MSI informacja kierunkowa dla pieszych.jpg A fingerpost in the historic area (Old Town Royal Road) File:Tabliczka MSI Wisła prostopadle lewa.jpg A small sign indicating the street you are in is perpendicular to the Vistula and you are heading away from the river Get in By plane Warsaw (all airports code: '''WRW''') has two airports: Chopin Airport ( WikiPedia:Warsaw Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Mazovia Warszawa Commons:Category:Warsaw

finishing work

labor union of railway engineers. Mr. Segień (Mikołaj Segień) had retired after finishing work for SKM, but it is possible, that he will be hired by local government as the person responsible for local transport in marshalls office. PKP management made an agreement with SKM trade union (''Zarząd PKP S.A. porozumiał się ze związkami zawodowymi SKM'') date accessdate


was done by CBSiPBK (''Central Bureau for Railway Construction Designs and Studies'') in Warsaw. Eng. Józef Skorupski became the general designer. Beside this 21 other design bureaus, 8 geological companies and 3 technical universities took part in the project. Major awards Major awards: Gold Plaque for children's book illustration at Biennial of Book Art in Brno, Czechoslovakia (1979); Gold Medal at International Biennial of Exlibris in Malbork (1980); Honorary Mention

period show

Weingartner , Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, Johannes Brahms and Edvard Grieg conducted the orchestra over the next few years. Programmes of this period show that the orchestra possessed only 46 strings, much less than the Wagnerian (Richard Wagner) ideal of 64. On 30 June 1734, a Russian army of 20,000 under Peter Lacy, after proclaiming August III the Saxon at Warsaw, proceeded to besiege Stanisław at Danzig (Siege of Danzig), where he was entrenched with his partisans (including the Primate and the French and Swedish ministers) to await the relief that had been promised by France. thumb upright 0.8 Jan Zbigniew Ossoliński (File:Jan Zbigniew Ossoliński.JPG) Voivode of Podlaskie Voivodeship (Podlaskie Voivodeship (1513–1795)) from 1605 and Sandomierz (Sandomierz Voivodeship) from 1613, Poland In modern Poland, a voivode (''wojewoda''), appointed by the central government in Warsaw, is the governor of a voivodeship (Voivodeships of Poland). Each voivodeship also has an elected assembly, called a sejmik (Voivodeship sejmik), and an executive board (Voivodeship executive board) elected by that assembly, headed by an official called the ''marszałek'' meaning marshal. For a summary of the respective competences of these authorities, see Voivodeships of Poland. Since the US Navy reserved "N" codes and the Federal Communications Committee has reserved rights for "W" and "K", certain U.S. cities which begin with these letters had to adopt 'irregular' airport codes: EWR for Newark, ORF (Norfolk International Airport) for Norfolk, Virginia, EYW for Key West, Florida, and APC (Napa County Airport) for Napa, California. This 'rule' does not apply outside of the United States: Karachi is KHI, Warsaw is WAW, Nagoya is NGO. In addition, since "Q" was used for international communications, cities with "Q" beginning their name also had to find alternate codes, as in the case of Qiqihar (NDG) and Quetta (UET). thumb left Krzywy Domek The "Crooked House" (File:Krzywy Domek w Sopocie.jpg) At the beginning of the 20th century it was a favourite spa of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. The city again became a holiday resort for the inhabitants of nearby Danzig, as well as wealthy aristocrats from Berlin, Warsaw, and Königsberg. Soon after World War I a casino was opened in the Grand Hotel as the primary source of money for the treasury of the Free City of Danzig. Following the war, the Old Town in Malbork was not rebuilt, instead the bricks from its ruins were used to rebuild the oldest sections of Warsaw and Gdańsk. Official town portal As a result, with the exception of St. John's church, no medieval buildings remain in the town. In the place of the old town, a housing estate was built in the 1960s. In 1945 during World War II, Marienwerder was plundered by the Soviet Red Army. Red Army established war hospital in the town for 20,000 people. The town's old center was burned by Soviet (Soviet Union) soldiers. The post-war Potsdam Conference placed it under Polish administration in 1945. Since then it remains as part of Poland. Burned parts of the town's old center were dismantled to provide material for the rebuilding of Warsaw after its destruction in the Warsaw Uprising. '''Zamość''' ( WikiPedia:Warsaw Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Mazovia Warszawa Commons:Category:Warsaw

numerous military

Praise for King Mindaugas of Lithuania publisher Lithuanian Institute of History location Vilnius year 2005 chapterurl http: www.istorija.lt html body_mindaugo2005_belated.html isbn 9986-780-68-3 pages 17–22 This allied him to Lithuania and together the two rulers undertook numerous military campaigns against the Kingdom of Poland (Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)). Already in 1255 they raided Lublin, in 1262 a major campaign against Masovia was started. Shvarn

. The battalion is renowned for its numerous military actions in years 1943-1944. "Parasol" organized assassination missions, during which key Gestapo officers and high-rank Nazi German officials, responsible for extreme terror in Poland's Warsaw District, were killed. One of the most famous assassinations was the Operation Kutschera - the execution of Franz Kutschera, the SS and Police Leader in the Warsaw District, who was shot in the center of Warsaw (in front of Warsaw SS Headquarters) in February 1944. http: www.search.com reference Franz_Kutschera In a pre-planned move, Germany and South Africa use tactical nuclear warheads to destroy a NATO convoy, Warsaw, and Tripoli. These moves force Continental Europe to surrender out of fear of being in a nuclear war. Most of the world stays neutral out of fear or greed or both. Cash-strapped Russia is selling the Boer-Berlin Axis weapons and intelligence. On the side of the allies, only America (United States), the UK, Mexico, the Republic of Ireland, Chile, Venezuela, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Costa Rica, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and several unnamed African nations are still fighting, with Cuba quietly supporting them. Although through the course of the war, Brazil, Turkey, India, Indonesia, most of the Middle East, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Russia join the Allies. Tactical nuclear warheads are now the weapon of choice with a gentleman's agreement not to hit any civilians. The story then starts with ''Deep Sound Channel'' on the high-tech ceramic hulled submarine the U.S.S. Challenger outside of Diego Garcia. '''Kniefall von Warschau''' (German for "Warsaw Genuflection") refers to a gesture of humility and penance by social democratic (Social Democratic Party of Germany) Chancellor of Germany (Chancellor of Germany (Federal Republic)) Willy Brandt towards the victims of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The Nobel Peace Prize 1971 Presentation Speech (from the Nobel Prize website) WikiPedia:Warsaw Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Mazovia Warszawa Commons:Category:Warsaw

previous period

who discovered that the genus name ''Syntarsus'' was already taken by a colydiine (Colydiinae) beetle described in 1869. It was one of the first dinosaurs to be portrayed with feathers, although it and other coelophysoids probably lacked them. As regards politics, Shuvalov's life abroad was not as exciting as the previous period of his career. On Catherine II's request, he would go on diplomatic errands; thus it was he who persuaded the Pope to replace Durini, a Russophobic

line making

of some 4,500 killed, 10,000 missing, and 22,000 wounded. thumb right 100 Polish commander: Józef Piłsudski (File:Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg). By the beginning of August, the Polish retreat had become more organized, as their supply (logistics) lines were steadily shortened. At first, Józef Piłsudski wanted to stop the Soviets at the Bug River and the city of Brest-Litovsk, but the Soviet advance resulted in their forces breaching that line, making that plan obsolete. ref name "

beautiful voice

on a journey through the depths of the oceans and seas. One of them decided to stay on the coast of Denmark and can be seen sitting at the entrance to the port of Copenhagen. The second mermaid reached the mouth of the Vistula River (Vistula) and plunged into its waters. She stopped to rest on a sandy beach by the village of Warszowa, where fishermen came to admire her beauty and listen to her beautiful voice. A greedy merchant also heard her songs; he followed the fishermen and captured

singing wearing

) SA . First cars were assembled from Italian parts (a compact car PF 508 I (Fiat 508)), later also some other models were assembled from parts, like a small car Fiat Topolino. From the mid-1930s, the factory started to produce whole cars. 200px left thumb alt A blonde woman and a brunette woman wearing vintage winter clothing singing next to each other in darkness. From left to right: Heidi Range (Image:SugababesFollowMeHomeScreenshot.jpg) and Amelle Berrabah singing, wearing vintage


image_caption imagesize image_flag Flag of Warsaw.svg image_shield Warsaw emblem.png pushpin_map Poland pushpin_label_position bottom coordinates_region PL subdivision_type Country subdivision_name subdivision_type1 Voivodeship (Voivodeships of Poland) subdivision_name1 Masovian (Masovian Voivodeship) subdivision_type2 County (Powiat) subdivision_name2 ''city county'' parts 18 districts (Dzielnica) parts_style coll p1 Bemowo p2 Białołęka p3 Bielany p4 Mokotów p5 Ochota p6 Praga Północ p7 Praga Południe p8 Rembertów p9 Śródmieście (Śródmieście, Warsaw) p10 Targówek p11 Ursus (Ursus, Warsaw) p12 Ursynów p13 Wawer p14 Wesoła p15 Wilanów p16 Włochy p17 Wola p18 Żoliborz leader_title President (List of mayors of Warsaw) leader_name Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz leader_party PO (Civic Platform) established_title City rights established_date turn of the 12th to 13th century area_total_km2 517.24 area_metro_km2 4222.79 population_as_of 2014 population_total 1,729,119 population_density_km2 3304 population_metro 2,666,274 population_density_metro_km2 631.4 population_demonym Varsovian timezone CET (Central European Time) utc_offset +1 timezone_DST CEST (Central European Summer Time) utc_offset_DST +2 latd 52 latm 14 latNS N longd 21 longm 1 longEW E elevation_m 78–116 elevation_ft 328 postal_code_type Postal code postal_code 00-001 to 04–999 area_code +48 22 website blank_name Car (Vehicle registration plates of Poland) blank_info WA, WB, WD, WE, WF, WH, WI, WJ, WK, WN, WT, WU, WW, WX, WY footnotes designation1 WHS designation1_offname Historic Centre of Warsaw (Warsaw Old Town) designation1_date 1980 (4th session (World Heritage Committee)) designation1_number designation1_criteria ii, vi designation1_type Cultural designation1_free1name UNESCO region designation1_free1value Europe (List of World Heritage Sites in Europe)

'''Warsaw''' ( .

In 2012 Warsaw was ranked as the 32nd most liveable city (World's most liveable cities) in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit. http: pages.eiu.com rs eiu2 images EIU_BestCities.pdf It was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central (Central Europe) and Eastern Europe. Today Warsaw is considered an Alpha– global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural, political and economic hub (Financial centre). Warsaw's economy, by a wide variety of industries, is characterised by FMCG (Fast-moving consumer goods) manufacturing, metal processing, steel and electronic manufacturing and food processing. The city is a significant centre of research and development, BPO (Business process outsourcing), ITO (Information technology outsourcing), as well as Polish media industry. The Warsaw Stock Exchange is one of the largest and most important in Central Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency (Agencies of the European Union) for external border security, is headquartered in Warsaw. A unique feature of Warsaw is its number of skyscrapers and high-rise buildings (Tower block) in the city center which form the skyline. Warsaw is one of only a few cities in the European Union that have such a skyline, together with Frankfurt, London, Moscow and Paris.

The first historical reference to Warsaw dates back to the year 1313, when initially Kraków served as the Polish capital city. Due to its central location between the Commonwealth's capitals of Kraków and Vilnius, Warsaw became the capital of the Commonwealth and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland when King Sigismund III Vasa moved his court from Kraków to Warsaw in 1596. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, Warsaw was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars, the city became the official capital of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, a puppet state of the First French Empire created by Napoleon Bonaparte. With accordance to the decision of the Congress of Vienna, Warsaw in 1815 was annexed by the Russian Empire and became part of the "Congress Kingdom" (Congress Poland). Only in 1918 it regained independence from the foreign rule and emerged as a new capital of the independent Republic of Poland. Along with the German invasion in 1939, the massacre of the Jewish population and deportations to concentration camps led to the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto in 1943 and to a major and devastating Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944. For this Warsaw gained the title of the "phoenix (phoenix (mythology)) city" because it has survived so many wars, conflicts and invasions throughout its long history. Most notably, the city had to be painstakingly rebuilt after the extensive damage it suffered in World War II, during which 85% of its buildings were destroyed. On 9 November 1940 the city was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari, during the Siege of Warsaw (1939).

The city is the seat of a Roman Catholic archdiocese (left bank) and diocese (right bank of the Vistula), and possesses various universities, most notably the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Warsaw University, an opera house, theatres, museums, libraries and monuments. The historic city centre of Warsaw with its picturesque Old Town (Warsaw Old Town) in 1980 was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square (Castle Square, Warsaw) with the Royal Castle (Royal Castle, Warsaw) and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, St. John's Cathedral (St. John's Cathedral, Warsaw), Market Square, palaces, church (church (building))es and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and architectural detail. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and historical period (List of time periods). Warsaw has wonderful examples of architecture from the gothic (gothic architecture), renaissance, baroque and neoclassical (neoclassical architecture) periods and around a quarter of the city is filled with grand parks and royal gardens.

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