Ulan Bator

What is Ulan Bator known for?


white buildings

'') of the Mongol and Manchu governors of Urga were located in the ''Zuun Omnod Khoroo'' (Southeast Khoroo) lay quarters. thumb center 600px A 1913 panorama of Urga. The large circular compound in the middle is the Zuun Khuree temple-palace complex. The Gandan temple complex is to the left. The palaces of the Bogd are to the south of the river. To the far bottom right of the painting is the Maimaicheng district. To its left are the white buildings of the Russian consulate area. The Manjusri monastery can be seen on Mount Bogd Khan Uul at the bottom-right of the painting (File:Jugder3.jpg) File:1913 a street in Khuree.jpg 1913 color photo of Dechingalav temple (1739). To its right is the smaller golden roof of the Abtai Khan ger temple (1585). To the left is the Maidar temple (1838) and edge of the big Bat Tsagaan temple (1654). File:Jugder4.jpg Detail of the Maimaicheng and Russian consulate in Jugder's 1913 painting. File:Judger2.jpg Detail of the South-East Lay Quarters and surrounding areas in Jugder's 1913 painting. File:Jugder1.jpg Detail of Manjusri monastery on Mount Bogd Khan Uul in Jugder's 1913 painting. File:1913 a monastery in Khuree.jpg Maidar Temple (1838) of Zuun Khuree in Urga photographed in 1913. File:1913 in Khuree.jpg 1913 color photo of Gandan Monastery. File:1913 The gate of Yellow Palace in Khuree.jpg 1913 color photo of the ceremonial Gate of Zuun Khuree. File:1913 Lama of Yellow Palace in Khuree.jpg 1913 color photo of Mongol Lamas of Zuun Khuree wearing Buddhist robes togas. File:June 23, 1913 in Khuree.jpg 1913 photo of monks on Tasgan Hill facing the city to the south. File:1913 A married woman in Khuree.jpg 1913 photo of Mongol woman next to the ''Khais'' (hedge fence) of Zuun Khuree. Urga and the Kyakhta Trade Following the Treaty of Kyakhta in 1727 Urga (Ulan Bator) was a major point of the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China - mostly Siberian furs for Chinese cloth and later tea. The route ran south to Urga, southeast across the Gobi to Kalgan and southeast over the mountains to Peking. Urga was also a collection point for goods coming from further west. These were either sent to China or shipped north to Russia via Kyakhta because of legal restrictions and the lack of good trade routes to the west. By 1908 Lindon Wallace Bates, The Russian Road to China,1910 there was a Russian quarter with a few hundred merchants and a Russian club and informal Russian mayor. East of the main town was the Russian consulate built in 1863 with an Orthodox church, post office and 20 Cossack guards. It was fortified in 1900 and briefly occupied by troops during the Boxer Rebellion. There was a telegraph line north to Kyakhta and southeast to Kalgan and weekly postal service along these routes. Beyond the Russian consulate was the Chinese trading post called Maimaicheng and nearby the palace of the Manchu viceroy. With the growth of Western trade at the Chinese ports the tea trade to Russia declined,some Chinese merchants left and wool became the main export. Manufactured goods still came from Russia but most were now brought from Kalgan by caravan. The annual trade was estimated at 25 million rubles, nine tenths in Chinese hands and one tenth Russian. Revolutions of 1911 and 1921 and Communist era thumb left 100px Sanduo (三多), an ethnic Mongol, was the 62nd and last Amban Qing Amban (File:San Duo.jpg) (1910-1911) of Urga. thumb 200px Outdoor market near Gandan hill in 1972. State Department Store in the background (File:Dzah.jpg) thumb 200px Green areas were increased in the city center during the Communist era. (File:FoliageUB7.jpg) The Moscow trade expedition of the 1910s estimated the population of Urga at 60,000 based on Nikolay Przhevalsky's study in the 1870s. From Khutagtiin Khuree to Niislel Khuree. Presentation of the Director of the General Archives Authority D.Ulziibaatar. The city's population swelled during the Naadam festival and major religious festivals to more than 100,000. In 1919 the number of monks had reached 20,000, up from 13,000 in 1810. In 1910 the ''amban'' Sando went to quell a major fight between Gandan lamas and Chinese traders started by an incident at the Da Yi Yu shop in the Baruun Damnuurchin market district. He was unable to bring the lamas under control and was forced to flee back to his quarters. In 1911, with the Qing Dynasty in China headed for total collapse, Mongolian leaders in Ikh Khüree for Naadam met in secret on Mount Bogd Khan Uul and resolved to end 220 years of Manchu control of their country. On December 29, 1911 the 8th Jeptsundamba Khutughtu (Bogd Khan) was declared ruler of an independent Mongolia (Outer Mongolia (1911–1919)) and assumed the title Bogd Khan. Khüree as the seat of the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu was the logical choice for the capital of the new state. However, in the tripartite Kyakhta agreement of 1915 (between Russia, China, Mongolia), Mongolia's status was changed to mere autonomy. In 1919, Mongolian nobles, over the opposition of the Bogd Khan, agreed with the Chinese resident Chen Yi on a settlement of the "Mongolian question" along Qing-era lines, but before this settlement could be put into effect, Khüree was occupied by the troops of Chinese warlord Xu Shuzheng, who forced the Mongolian nobles and clergy to renounce autonomy completely. In 1921 the city changed hands twice. First, in February 4, 1921, a mixed Russian Mongolian force led by White Russian (White Movement) warlord Roman von Ungern-Sternberg captured the city, freeing the Bogd Khan from Chinese imprisonment and killing a part of the Chinese garrison. Baron Ungern's capture of Urga was followed by clearing out Mongolia's small gangs of demoralized Chinese soldiers and, at the same time, looting and murder of foreigners, including a vicious pogrom that killed off the '''Peace Bridge''' in Mongolia is a bridge built in 1963 in the city centre of Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia, with technical and financial assistance from China (People's Republic of China). * In Moldova, the Chişinău-controlled Dubăsari district is split into five pieces, of which two are enclaves within Transnistria. Transnistria is ''de facto'' independent, but not recognized by any UN members. * In Mongolia, the municipality of Ulan Bator is divided into three parts, two of which are enclaves in Töv Province. * In New Zealand, the Kawerau District is an enclave within the Whakatane District. - align center 30px border (File:Flag of Mongolia.svg) '''Mongolia''' Монгол улс (''Mongol uls'') 35px (File:Monggol ulus.svg) (''Mongγol ulus'') Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator) align right 1,564,115.75 align right e 2,754,685 (2010 Census) align right 1.75 align center Mongolian tögrög (MNT) align center Mongolian (Mongolian language) Head of State: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Head of Government: Sükhbaataryn Batbold - Asashōryū whose real name is Dolgorsuren Dagvadorj and hailing from Ulan Bator (w:Ulan Bator), Mongolia, started the tournament fourteen days earlier with an opening-day win over komusubi Kisenosato. His tournament win creates a new record with yokozuna (w:Yokozuna_(sumo)#Yokozuna) becoming only the fourth man to win 23 Emperors Cups. He now is only one win behind Kitanoumi (24), but a long way from both Chiyonofuji (31) and Taiho (32).


books articles

was Owen Lattimore?"; Digital Books; Articles; Archives; Bibliography: Bookshop; Conference Presentations , the train uses the China Railways and the Trans


century painting

Buddha head from the 13th century ruins of Bukheg Balgas in Ulan Bator. File:RockdrawingUB.jpg Simple 13th century rock painting of a Mongolian woman in southern Ulan Bator. Mobile monastery thumb 200px Detail of 19th century painting of Urga (Ulan Bator) (File:OldPaintingUrga.jpg) thumb 200px The Russian Consulate of Urga (Ulan Bator) and the Holy Trinity Church, both built in 1863. (File:Consulate of the Russian Empire in Urgoo.jpg) File:MaimaichengUB1.jpg thumb 200px


strong focus

items. The materials in the collection have a strong focus on both aiding Mongolians studying Japanese and books in Japanese about Mongolia. It includes a number of periodicals, textbooks, dictionaries, and audio-visual materials. Access to the collection does require payment of a 500 Tugrug fee, though materials are available for loan. They also provide audio-visual equipment for collection use and internet access for an hourly fee. There is also an information retrieval reference service


hosting international

the Northeast Asian Mayors' Forum and became sister cities with Beijing. In August and September 2014 Ulan Bator was visited by both Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin. In 2016 Ulan Bator will host the 11th Asia Europe Meeting (ASEM) (ASEM Summit). Ulan Bator also started hosting international music concerts in large stadiums. Michael Learns to Rock, ONYX (Onyx (group)) and the Korean K-pop group T-ara have all performed in Ulan Bator. Previously only little known Russian pop stars used


published online

Web.worldbank.org accessdate 2012-04-18 Because Mongolia lacks a publishing industry, and few children's books, the idea has been to "spur the publishing industry to create 200 new children's books for classroom libraries in grades 1-5." After these books were published and distributed to teachers they were also published online with the rest of the ICDL collection. While a significant portion of this project is supported by outside sources, an important component is to include training of Mongolian staff in order to make it continue in an effective way. '''Peace Bridge''' in Mongolia is a bridge built in 1963 in the city centre of Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia, with technical and financial assistance from China (People's Republic of China). * In Moldova, the Chişinău-controlled Dubăsari district is split into five pieces, of which two are enclaves within Transnistria. Transnistria is ''de facto'' independent, but not recognized by any UN members. * In Mongolia, the municipality of Ulan Bator is divided into three parts, two of which are enclaves in Töv Province. * In New Zealand, the Kawerau District is an enclave within the Whakatane District. - align center 30px border (File:Flag of Mongolia.svg) '''Mongolia''' Монгол улс (''Mongol uls'') 35px (File:Monggol ulus.svg) (''Mongγol ulus'') Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator) align right 1,564,115.75 align right e 2,754,685 (2010 Census) align right 1.75 align center Mongolian tögrög (MNT) align center Mongolian (Mongolian language) Head of State: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Head of Government: Sükhbaataryn Batbold - Asashōryū whose real name is Dolgorsuren Dagvadorj and hailing from Ulan Bator (w:Ulan Bator), Mongolia, started the tournament fourteen days earlier with an opening-day win over komusubi Kisenosato. His tournament win creates a new record with yokozuna (w:Yokozuna_(sumo)#Yokozuna) becoming only the fourth man to win 23 Emperors Cups. He now is only one win behind Kitanoumi (24), but a long way from both Chiyonofuji (31) and Taiho (32).


development series

Policy Journal issue Spring 2012 url http: www.worldpolicy.org journal spring2012 clearing-air accessdate 31 May 2012


temple complex

Education Ulan Bator has six major universities: * National University of Mongolia * Mongolia University of Science and Technology * Mongolian State University of Agriculture * Health Science University of Mongolia * Mongolian State University of Education * Mongolian University of Art and Culture There are a number of other universities in the city, including Humanities University, Institute of Finance and Economics and Raffles International Institute .


business gold

;AhDuuHotuud" * *


modern stone

people Khitan (907-1125) and Mongol Empire (1206–1368). At Nalaikh District there is the important Stele of Tonyukuk (c. 722 AD) with an Old Turkic (Old Turkic language) inscription in the Orkhon alphabet. A balbal or ancient human statue was chosen as the ceremonial foundation site (''Shav'') of the city when it settled in 1778 at its current location. Presently, modern stone turtle sits atop the spot of the ancient balbal near Sükhbaatar Square in the city center

Ulan Bator

thumb right 300px Ulan Bator view from Zaisan hill (File:Ulaanbaatar city Mongolia.ogv)

'''Ulan Bator''' or '''Ulaanbaatar''' , ''Ulaγanbaγatur'', literally "Red Hero") is the capital (Capital (political)) and the largest city of Mongolia. An independent municipality, the city is not part of any province (aimags of Mongolia), and its population as of 2014 is over 1.3 million.

Located in north central Mongolia, the city lies at an elevation of about

The city was founded in 1639 as a movable (nomadic) Buddhist (Buddhism in Mongolia) monastic (Buddhist monasticism) centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul (Tuul River) and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulan Bator grew into a major manufacturing centre.

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