Turkmenistan

What is Turkmenistan known for?


ability quot

, his "outstanding creative ability," and the fact that neither teacher had seen in Mosolov any anti-Soviet disposition. On July 15, 1938, Mosolov's sentence was commuted to a five-year exile—he could not live in Moscow, Leningrad, or Kiev until 1942. Sitsky (#Sitsky94), "Man of Steel," p. 64. His quick release, having only served eight months of his eight year sentence, was possible because he had been imprisoned not on political charges but on an overblown accusation of "hooliganism" brought by Mosolov's enemies in the Composers' Union. Taruskin (#Taruskin01), ''Defining Russia Musically'', p. 92n19. The Soviet Union was dissolved (Dissolution of the Soviet Union) by the end of 1991, resulting in 14 countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) declaring their independence from the Soviet Union and the bulk of the country being succeeded by the Russian Federation. Communism was abandoned in Albania and Yugoslavia between 1990 and 1992, the latter splitting into five successor states by 1992: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (later renamed Serbia and Montenegro, and later still split into two states, Serbia and Montenegro). Czechoslovakia too was dissolved three years after the end of communist rule, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992. http: www.cecl.gr RigasNetwork databank Constitutions Yugoslavia.html The impact was felt in dozens of Socialist countries (List of socialist countries). Communism was abandoned in countries such as Cambodia (People's Republic of Kampuchea), Ethiopia (People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia), and Mongolia (1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia) and South Yemen. The collapse of Communism led commentators to declare the end of the Cold War. - align center rowspan 2 December 8 bgcolor #FFDDDD '''Turkmenistan''' gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Ashgabat is the capital. - Saw-scaled viper style "width:35%" Southeastern Arabian Peninsula (Oman, Masirah and eastern UAE (United Arab Emirates)), southwestern Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan (including Urak near Quetta and Astola Island off the Makran Coast (Makran)), India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. - * The various Turkic (Turkic peoples) and Iranian (Iranian peoples) hybrid traits pertaining to culture, dynasties as well population genetics of various peoples in Central Asia, as well as parts of West Asia (Southwest Asia) and South Asia. ''See also'': Persianate, Turko-Persian Tradition * The Oghuz (Oghuz languages) and Iranian (Iranian Languages) speaking countries such as Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan whose cultures are based and or have been heavily influenced by the Perso-Islamic culture (Persianate society) and who are a part of the Iranian Cultural Continent (Greater Iran) Sh.J. Boss, on the Encyclopaedia Iranica: ''"Comprehensive research project about the ''Iranian Cultural Continent'' thrives on Riverside Drive"'', Columbia College Today (Columbia College of Columbia University), (LINK) . * The Turkic (Turkic languages) speaking minorities of Iran, e.g. Azeris, Qashqais. (See Iranian Turks (disambiguation).) '''Rolan Gusev''' ( Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


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Dashhowuz provinces. Turkmenistan.ru (February 7, 2006), ''PKFHSPKFHS event&sort date_desc Construction of Trans-Karakum railway nears completion in Turkmenistan''. Retrieved February 8, 2006. * February 13 – Genesee and Wyoming (Genesee and Wyoming Inc) (G&W) announces that it has sold its 50% share in operations (the other 50% was owned by Wesfarmers

and along the border with Uzbekistan. Once construction is completed, the official opening ceremony is expected to be held at the new Ichoguz station (train station) on the border between Ahal (Ahal Province) and Daşoguz (Daşoguz Province) provinces. Turkmenistan.ru (February 7, 2006), ''event&sort date_desc Construction of Trans-Karakum railway nears completion in Turkmenistan


energy oil

gas and gas processing. Along with natural gas, its numerous branches and subsidiaries also deal with energy, oil extraction, civil construction, pipeline and industrial engineering, coal mining, finance and insurance. ITERA is one of the key Russian independent producers and traders of natural gas operating mainly in Russia, the CIS countries and Turkmenistan. Its business activities also cover several countries in Europe, Asia, Africa


international study

, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Iraq and Yemen. large number of international students are from Pakistan & Sudan , local and international, study under convertible loans or scholarships from the Education Sponsorship Unit of Petronas itself. Most Bukharan Jews lived in the Emirate of Bukhara (currently Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), while a small number lived


view long

cgi pmidlookup?view long&pmid 11526236 5% (1 20) H-M69 in a sample of Syrians,


long including

: www.birdtheme.org species imagespage.php?spec 1689&fl P publisher accessdate 4 June 2009 **PA1020 Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows *Middle Asian montane steppe and woodlands (Afghanistan, China, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) **PA1011 North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert Gerbils are typically between six and twelve inches (150 to 300 mm) long, including the tail which makes


creative ability

, his "outstanding creative ability," and the fact that neither teacher had seen in Mosolov any anti-Soviet disposition. On July 15, 1938, Mosolov's sentence was commuted to a five-year exile—he could not live in Moscow, Leningrad, or Kiev until 1942. Sitsky (#Sitsky94), "Man of Steel," p. 64. His quick release, having only served eight months of his eight year sentence, was possible because he had been imprisoned not on political charges but on an overblown accusation of "hooliganism" brought by Mosolov's enemies in the Composers' Union. Taruskin (#Taruskin01), ''Defining Russia Musically'', p. 92n19. The Soviet Union was dissolved (Dissolution of the Soviet Union) by the end of 1991, resulting in 14 countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) declaring their independence from the Soviet Union and the bulk of the country being succeeded by the Russian Federation. Communism was abandoned in Albania and Yugoslavia between 1990 and 1992, the latter splitting into five successor states by 1992: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (later renamed Serbia and Montenegro, and later still split into two states, Serbia and Montenegro). Czechoslovakia too was dissolved three years after the end of communist rule, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992. http: www.cecl.gr RigasNetwork databank Constitutions Yugoslavia.html The impact was felt in dozens of Socialist countries (List of socialist countries). Communism was abandoned in countries such as Cambodia (People's Republic of Kampuchea), Ethiopia (People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia), and Mongolia (1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia) and South Yemen. The collapse of Communism led commentators to declare the end of the Cold War. - align center rowspan 2 December 8 bgcolor #FFDDDD '''Turkmenistan''' gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Ashgabat is the capital. - Saw-scaled viper style "width:35%" Southeastern Arabian Peninsula (Oman, Masirah and eastern UAE (United Arab Emirates)), southwestern Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan (including Urak near Quetta and Astola Island off the Makran Coast (Makran)), India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. - * The various Turkic (Turkic peoples) and Iranian (Iranian peoples) hybrid traits pertaining to culture, dynasties as well population genetics of various peoples in Central Asia, as well as parts of West Asia (Southwest Asia) and South Asia. ''See also'': Persianate, Turko-Persian Tradition * The Oghuz (Oghuz languages) and Iranian (Iranian Languages) speaking countries such as Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan whose cultures are based and or have been heavily influenced by the Perso-Islamic culture (Persianate society) and who are a part of the Iranian Cultural Continent (Greater Iran) Sh.J. Boss, on the Encyclopaedia Iranica: ''"Comprehensive research project about the ''Iranian Cultural Continent'' thrives on Riverside Drive"'', Columbia College Today (Columbia College of Columbia University), (LINK) . * The Turkic (Turkic languages) speaking minorities of Iran, e.g. Azeris, Qashqais. (See Iranian Turks (disambiguation).) '''Rolan Gusev''' ( Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan


long rich

Soviet Socialist Republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. However, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan are sometimes included. The predominant religion in Central Asia is Islam. Central Asia has a long rich history mainly based on its historic position on the famous Silk Road. It has been conquered by Mongols, Persians (Persian people), Tatars, Russians, Sarmatian and thus has a very distinct, vibrant


family social

people, a heroic interpretation of its history, the review of Turkmen customs and the definition of ''"moral, family, social and religious norms for modern Turkmens"''. * the Tuareg (Taureg people) separatists in Niger and Mali. Niger, hit by Tuareg revolt, adopts anti-terror law . Reuters. April 20, 2008. * the Soviet Union’s dissolution into its original ethnic groupings which formed


extensive short

web url https: www.cia.gov library publications the-world-factbook geos tx.html title Turkmenistan publisher CIA World Factbook date accessdate 2013-11-25 Between 1998 and 2002, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, the value of total exports has risen sharply because of increases in international oil and gas prices. Economic

Turkmenistan

'''Turkmenistan''' ( ), formerly known as '''Turkmenia''', is one of the Turkic states (List of Turkic states and empires) in Central Asia. Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world, and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement (Russian Civil War) in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 11% in 2012 comes on the back of several years of sustained high growth, albeit from a very basic undiversified economy powered by export of a single commodity. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert (Karakum Desert). Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge on a guarantee scheduled to last until 2030. Turkmenistan's Leader Promises Citizens Free Gas, Electricity and Water Through 2030

Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called "Türkmenbaşy", "Leader of the Turkmens") until his sudden death on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president on 11 February 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." President Berdymukhamedov promotes a personality cult in which he, his relatives, and associates enjoy unlimited power and total control over all aspects of public life.

A natural gas field in the country known as Door to Hell draws frequent media attention and more recently, also touristic interest.

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