will regularly translate WOSM documents into Russian." The executive director of this region is Mr. Iurie Emilian of Moldova. '''Mukamlar''' (singular: ''mukam'') is a term for bodies of music al repertoire for the Turkmen (Turkmenistan) dutar (two-stringed lute) or tüÿdük (an end-blown flute). Mukumlar represents the most important repertoires in the Turkmen classical tradition (Music of Turkmenistan) after the ''baksy'' songs. There are several mukamlar for each instrument; instrumentalists may disagree on the number. There are, however, five dutar pieces acknowledged to form the core of this repertoire: ''Goñurbaş mukamy'', ''Gökdepe mukamy'', ''Erkeklik mukamy'', ''Aÿralyk mukamy'' and ''Mukamlarbaşy''. The latter two may be compared to that of a level for virtuosos. - style "background-color:#DDDDDD" Turkmenistan style "background:#DDDDDD" Ashgabat style "background:#DDDDDD" Ashgabat Airport PIA's Central Asian routes - 15th World Jamboree The 15th World Jamboree (15th World Scout Jamboree (cancelled)) was scheduled to be held in Nishapur, Iran, in July 1979, at the 10 square kilometre Omar Khayyám Scout Park, near the Afghan (Afghanistan) and Turkmen (Turkmenistan) borders. The Second Asia-Pacific Jamboree was held at the site in preparation, in the summer of 1977. However, the destabilizing events of the Islamic Revolution resulted in the cancellation of the 15th World Jamboree near the end of 1978. Instead, the World Organization announced the "World Jamboree Year" by holding several international World Jamboree Year camps in Canada, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. One of the political goals of the Blue Stream project was to block the path of rival countries aiming to use the territory of Turkey to bring gas from the Caspian area (Caspian Sea) to Europe. In November 1999, the presidents of Turkmenistan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Georgia (Georgia (country)) signed a four-party inter-governmental agreement on building a rival Trans-Caspian gas pipeline (Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline). Within a few months, major oil and engineering companies—General Electric, Bechtel, Royal Dutch Shell—had established a joint venture to work on the competing project. By spring 2000, however, an argument had arisen among the Trans-Caspian participant nations over allocating quotas for Azerbaijan's use of the pipeline; as a result, all construction work was halted. :The US and UK have long had close economic ties with Western Europe, so many locals in the business and tourism industries know English. You'll find far fewer English speakers in Eastern Europe, especially in under-developed countries with governments that have long been hostile to the West, such as Albania, Moldova, the Transnistria breakaway state, rural Ukraine, etc. Many countries in the Caucuses and Central Asian regions have oppressive governments, closed borders and very little trade, tourism or other ties with the West, and thus few English speakers, e.g. Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, etc. The anglaphones-per-capita figure for North Korea is probably very low. I realize I've repeated what some others said, but I wanted to offer some possible reasons for why things are the way they are. --01:00, 13 November 2005 (UTC) The '''Piebald Shrew''' (''Diplomesodon pulchellum'') is a shrew found in the Turan Lowland east of the Caspian Sea in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It grows to 2–2 Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
forced him to call a national referendum that approved independence. thumb upright right Saparmurat Niyazov (File:Saparmurat Niyazov.jpg) left thumb Saparmurat Niyazov's cult of personality also shows on a Turkmenistan 10,000 Manat 1996 banknote (File:Turkmenistan 10,000 Manat 1996 UNC Banknote.jpg) After independence Niyazov continued as Turkmenistan's chief of state, replacing communism with a unique brand of independent nationalism reinforced by a pervasive cult
, his "outstanding creative ability," and the fact that neither teacher had seen in Mosolov any anti-Soviet disposition. On July 15, 1938, Mosolov's sentence was commuted to a five-year exile—he could not live in Moscow, Leningrad, or Kiev until 1942. Sitsky (#Sitsky94), "Man of Steel," p. 64. His quick release, having only served eight months of his eight year sentence, was possible because he had been imprisoned not on political charges but on an overblown accusation of "hooliganism" brought by Mosolov's enemies in the Composers' Union. Taruskin (#Taruskin01), ''Defining Russia Musically'', p. 92n19. The Soviet Union was dissolved (Dissolution of the Soviet Union) by the end of 1991, resulting in 14 countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) declaring their independence from the Soviet Union and the bulk of the country being succeeded by the Russian Federation. Communism was abandoned in Albania and Yugoslavia between 1990 and 1992, the latter splitting into five successor states by 1992: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia), Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (later renamed Serbia and Montenegro, and later still split into two states, Serbia and Montenegro). Czechoslovakia too was dissolved three years after the end of communist rule, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992. http: www.cecl.gr RigasNetwork databank Constitutions Yugoslavia.html The impact was felt in dozens of Socialist countries (List of socialist countries). Communism was abandoned in countries such as Cambodia (People's Republic of Kampuchea), Ethiopia (People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia), and Mongolia (1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia) and South Yemen. The collapse of Communism led commentators to declare the end of the Cold War. - align center rowspan 2 December 8 bgcolor #FFDDDD '''Turkmenistan''' gains independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Ashgabat is the capital. - Saw-scaled viper style "width:35%" Southeastern Arabian Peninsula (Oman, Masirah and eastern UAE (United Arab Emirates)), southwestern Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan (including Urak near Quetta and Astola Island off the Makran Coast (Makran)), India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. - * The various Turkic (Turkic peoples) and Iranian (Iranian peoples) hybrid traits pertaining to culture, dynasties as well population genetics of various peoples in Central Asia, as well as parts of West Asia (Southwest Asia) and South Asia. ''See also'': Persianate, Turko-Persian Tradition * The Oghuz (Oghuz languages) and Iranian (Iranian Languages) speaking countries such as Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan whose cultures are based and or have been heavily influenced by the Perso-Islamic culture (Persianate society) and who are a part of the Iranian Cultural Continent (Greater Iran) Sh.J. Boss, on the Encyclopaedia Iranica: ''"Comprehensive research project about the ''Iranian Cultural Continent'' thrives on Riverside Drive"'', Columbia College Today (Columbia College of Columbia University), (LINK) . * The Turkic (Turkic languages) speaking minorities of Iran, e.g. Azeris, Qashqais. (See Iranian Turks (disambiguation).) '''Rolan Gusev''' ( Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
of and first year after World War II the Academy consisted of 8 divisions (Physico-Mathematical Science, Chemical Sciences, Geological-Geographical Sciences, Biological Science, Technical Science, History and Philosophy, Economics and Law, Literature and Languages); 3 committees (one for coordinating the scientific work of the Academies of the Republics, one for scientific and technical propaganda, and one for editorial and publications), two commissions (for publishing popular scientific
in Kazakhstan, where agriculture was not developed until the 1950s. It winters in the plains of the Indian subcontinent and the Persian
url http: oilprice.com Geopolitics Asia What-is-the-Best-Route-for-Supplying-Landlocked-Afghanistan.html title What is the Best Route for Supplying Landlocked Afghanistan work Oil Price date 30 January 2012 accessdate 31 January 2012 Conversely, Pakistan considers Afghanistan as an important trade route for access to Central Asian resources.
sympathetic to Buddhism and Christianity. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, embraced Islam. * Bakersfield sound - gritty, hard-edged reaction against 1950s pop country (Nashville sound) * Bakshy - Turkmen (Turkmenistan) folk music made by travelling musicians also called ''bakshy'' * Baila - Sri Lankan dance music derived from African slaves held by the Portuguese File:Turkmenistan Airlines building.jpg thumb left The main building
group and declared his vision for Georgia's political and economic future. Among people appearing with him as supporters were several former ambassadors including Levan Mikeladze, a former Georgian ambassador to the U.S and the OSCE as well as Switzerland and UN missions in Geneva, Victor Dolidze, who recently quit his post as envoy to the OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe) and Aleksi Petriashvili, Georgia’s former ambassador to Turkmenistan
amounting to two-thirds of the city's population. During the next half-century, Turkmenistan played its designated economic role within the Soviet Union and remained outside the course of major world events. Even the major
liberalization movement (History of the Soviet Union (1982–1991)) that shook Russia in the late 1980s had little impact. However, in 1990 the Supreme Soviet of Turkmenistan declared sovereignty as a nationalist response to perceived exploitation by Moscow. Although Turkmenistan was ill-prepared for independence and communist leader Saparmurad Niyazov preferred to preserve the Soviet Union, in October 1991 the fragmentation of that entity forced him to call a national referendum that approved independence. thumb upright right Saparmurat Niyazov (File:Saparmurat Niyazov.jpg) left thumb Saparmurat Niyazov's cult of personality also shows on a Turkmenistan 10,000 Manat 1996 banknote (File:Turkmenistan 10,000 Manat 1996 UNC Banknote.jpg) After independence Niyazov continued as Turkmenistan's chief of state, replacing communism with a unique brand of independent nationalism reinforced by a pervasive cult of personality. A 1994 referendum and legislation in 1999 abolished further requirements for the president to stand for re-election (although in 1992 he completely dominated the only presidential election (Turkmenistani presidential election, 1992) in which he ran, as he was the only candidate and no one other was allowed to run for the office), making him effectively president for life. During his tenure, Niyazov conducted frequent purges of public officials and abolished organizations deemed threatening. Throughout the post-Soviet era, Turkmenistan has taken a neutral position on almost all international issues. Niyazov eschewed membership in regional organizations such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and in the late 1990s he maintained relations with the Taliban and its chief opponent in Afghanistan, the Northern Alliance. He offered limited support to the military campaign against the Taliban following the 11 September 2001 attacks (September 11 attacks). In 2002 an alleged assassination attempt against Niyazov led to a new wave of security restrictions, dismissals of government officials, and restrictions placed on the media. Niyazov accused exiled former foreign minister Boris Shikhmuradov of having planned the attack. Between 2002 and 2004, serious tension arose between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan because of bilateral disputes and Niyazov's implication that Uzbekistan had a role in the 2002 assassination attempt. In 2004 a series of bilateral treaties restored friendly relations. In the parliamentary elections of December 2004 and January 2005 (Turkmenistani parliamentary election, 2004), only Niyazov's party was represented, and no international monitors (Election monitoring) participated. In 2005 Niyazov exercised his dictatorial power by closing all hospitals outside Ashgabat and all rural libraries. The year 2006 saw intensification of the trends of arbitrary policy changes, shuffling of top officials, diminishing economic output outside the oil and gas sector, and isolation from regional and world organizations. China was among a very few nations to whom Turkmenistan made significant overtures. The sudden death of Niyazov at the end of 2006 left a complete vacuum of power, as his cult of personality, compared to that of former president Kim Il Sung (Kim Il-sung) of North Korea, had precluded the naming of a successor. Deputy Prime Minister Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, who was named interim head of government, won the special presidential election (Turkmenistani presidential election, 2007) held in early February 2007. He was re-elected in 2012 (Turkmenistani presidential election, 2012) with 97% of the vote. Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
has little or no importance in terms of culture or modern politics, but was historically sometimes used in times of Russian Empire in political and cultural sense. Travels Biondi has begun his travels in 1968, and in 2003 he has collected his memories in his first book of travels ''Güle Gule. Parti con un sorriso''. 35 years of voyages from New York to Iran, through Algeria, Albania, Syria, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt. In 2004 he realized that he had
'''Turkmenistan''' ( ), formerly known as '''Turkmenia''', is one of the Turkic states (List of Turkic states and empires) in Central Asia. Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world, and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement (Russian Civil War) in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 11% in 2012 comes on the back of several years of sustained high growth, albeit from a very basic undiversified economy powered by export of a single commodity. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert (Karakum Desert). Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge on a guarantee scheduled to last until 2030. Turkmenistan's Leader Promises Citizens Free Gas, Electricity and Water Through 2030
Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called "Türkmenbaşy", "Leader of the Turkmens") until his sudden death on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president on 11 February 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." President Berdymukhamedov promotes a personality cult in which he, his relatives, and associates enjoy unlimited power and total control over all aspects of public life.
A natural gas field in the country known as Door to Hell draws frequent media attention and more recently, also touristic interest.