into the park. 4 Five associate members are British overseas territories (Caribbean Community#Membership). 5 Turkmenistan is an associate member, and Georgia (Georgia (country)) announced intent to leave. 6 Three microstates are closely integrated (Microstates and the European Union). Outer regions (Special Member State territories and the European Union) are not included. The '''Caucasian agama''' (''Laudakia caucasia
19th century) - oil workers (1890s), bread tradesmen Views on Iran In a speech given on 15 December 2006 marking the 15th anniversary of Kazakhstan's independence, Nazarbayev stated he wished to join with Iran in support of a single currency for all Central Asian states. He intends to push the idea forward with Iranian President Ahmadinejad on an upcoming visit. In one of his speeches however, the Kazakh president criticized Iran as one of the countries that provides support
is that of nomadic shepherds, though some have been settled in towns for centuries. The country is known for its fine carpets (one is even featured in its flag) and horses. It is a fairly poor country, that has been isolated from the world. Other than that, billions have been spent on modernization in Ashgabat, Turkmenbashi, and many other cities in post Soviet times. And also, the country has extensive oil and gas reserves being developed, with recently opened pipelines to China, Iran
of oil equivalent. In 2007, CNPC produced 54 billion cubic metres of natural gas.spun off most of its domestic assets into a separate company, PetroChina , during a restructuring. CNPC has 30 international exploration and production projects with operations in Azerbaijan, Canada, Iran, Indonesia, Myanmar, Oman, Peru, Sudan, Thailand, Turkmenistan
is considered part of the Karakum Desert. Turkmenistan is one of just two Stalinist countries in existence (the other being North Korea) and the government is in firm control of nearly everything, although, surprisingly, tourism is welcomed as long as you don't discuss politics or the omnipresent police or military. The cult of personality the previous president created for himself is truly amazing and reminders of the Turkmenbashi's legacy are everywhere. The traditional life of the Turkmen is that of nomadic shepherds, though some have been settled in towns for centuries. The country is known for its fine carpets (one is even featured in its flag) and horses. It is a fairly poor country, that has been isolated from the world. Other than that, billions have been spent on modernization in Ashgabat, Turkmenbashi, and many other cities in post Soviet times. And also, the country has extensive oil and gas reserves being developed, with recently opened pipelines to China, Iran, and soon Azerbaijan. Turkmenistan is also the second wealthiest country in Central Asia. Understand thumb Statue of Turkmenistan's "former all-powerful President for Life" Saparmurat Niyazov. (File:Golden Niyazov.jpg) North Korea may get all the press, but even Kim Il-sung's cult of personality fades when compared to the surreal totalitarian state set up by Turkmenistan's former all-powerful President for Life '''Saparmurat Niyazov'''. He adopted the title '''Turkmenbashi''' ("Father of All Turkmen"), named the city of Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk) after himself, and built a 15m tall golden statue that rotates to face the sun in the capital Ashgabat. The month of January was renamed ''Turkmenbashi'' after himself, while the month of April and the word "bread" became ''Gurbansoltan Eje'', the name of Niyazov's mother. Decrees emanating from Niyazov's palace have banned, among other things, lip synching, long hair, video games and golden tooth caps. Through it all, Serdar Saparmurat Turkmenbashi the Great (his official title) pretended to remain modest, once remarking that "I'm personally against seeing my pictures and statues in the streets - but it's what the people want". Niyazov's government also spent billions in renovating the country, shut down libraries and hospitals, and even wrote the Ruhnama, a spiritual book to improve the Turkmen people. Since Niyazov's abrupt if unlamented death in December 2006, his successor Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov has slowly peeled back the worst excesses of the Turkmenbashi. The Ruhnama has lost its popularity, Berdimuhamedov has continued in the process restoring pensions and old names, while cementing on his own slightly more subdued cult of personality. One thing of importance to any visitors who smoke cigarettes or cigars: it is forbidden to smoke 'in a public place'. Generally, this means 'outside'. Smoking at any of the bazaars is a definite no-no, as there were two major bazaar fires in 2006-2007. While it bothers non-smokers, those who enjoy tobacco products can enjoy them inside most restaurants, cafes, and nightclubs. A good rule of thumb - if you don't see anyone else smoking, you shouldn't. People The people of Turkmenistan are predominantly '''Turkmen''', also spelled Turkoman, in both ethnicity and language. Turkmenistan traditionally was home to sizeable Russian and German populations, but they largely emigrated to their mother countries following the break up of the Soviet Union. According to the 1995 census 77 percent of the population are Turkmen, 9 percent Uzbek and 7 percent Russian. According to the ''Ruhmana'', the Turkmens originated from ''Oguz Han'' and all Oguz people descend from Oguz Han's 24 grandsons. The original homeland of the Oguz tribes was the Ural-Altay region of Central Asia. The ''Orhun inscriptions'' (6th cent.) mentions the "six Oghuz tribal union", referring to the unification of the six Turkic tribes. This was the first written reference to Oghuz, dated to the period of the Göktürk Empire. The ''Book of Dede Korkut'', the historical epic of the Oghuz Turks, was written in the 9th and 10th cent. They migrated westwards in the area of the Aral Sea and the Syr Darya Basin in the 10th cent. A clan of the Oghuz, the ''Seljuks'' took over Islam, entered Persia in the 11th cent. and founded the Great Seljuk Empire. The name Oghuz is derived from the word 'ok', meaning 'arrow' or 'tribe' and an archer shooting an arrow was shown on the flag of the Seljuk Empire. The term Oghuz was gradually supplanted by the Turks themselves by ''Türkmen'' or ''Turcoman''. This process was completed in the 13th cent. The main tribes of the Turkmen are the ''Tekke'' (around the oases of Ahal, Tejen and Merv), the ''Ersari'' (along the Amu Darya), the ''Yomud'' (in the Balkan Region and Khorzem Oasis) and the ''Goklen'' in the Southwest. Terrain thumb The Kopetdag Mountains rising above the Ahal Plain (File:Ahal.jpg) Turkmenistan is largely covered by desert, with intensive agriculture located in irrigated oases. One-half of its irrigated land is planted with cotton, making it the world's tenth largest producer. About 80% of Turkmenistan's surface is covered by the biggest desert in Central Asia, the ''Karakum (Black Sand)'', which forms together with the ''Kyzylkum (Red Sand)'' in Uzbekistan the fourth biggest desert in the world. The Karakum covers about 350,000km². The ''Kopet Dagi Mountains'' (Many Mountains) in Southern Turkmenistan form the border to Iran. In the ''Kugitang Mountains'' in North East Turkmenistan is the highest mountain of the country, the ''Airbaba'' (3,117 m). The lowest point of the country is the ''Akdzhak depression'', 80 m below sea level. The country measures about 1,100 km from West to East and about 650 km from North to South. Holidays *1 Jan: New Year *12 Jan: Remembrance Day (Battle of Geok Depe) * Feb 19: National Flag Day (Birthday of Saparmurat Niyazov) * Mar 8: Women's Day * March 21–22: Nowruz (Navrouz: Spring festival) thumb 280px Ertugrul Gazi Mosque, Ashgabat (File:Ertugrul Gazi Mosque in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.jpg) * First Sunday in April: Drop of Water is a Grain of Gold Day * Apr 27: Ahalteke Horse Day * May 9: Victory Day * May 18: Day of Revival and Unity * May 19: Holiday of Poetry of Magtymguly * Last Sunday in May: Turkmenhaly bairamy - Carpet Day * Second Sunday in August: Melon Festival * Oct 6: Remembrance Day (to remember the earthquake of 1948) *27 and 28 Oct : Independence Day *First Saturday in Nov: Health Day *17 Nov: Student Youth Day * Last Sunday in Nov: Harvest Festival *30 Nov: Bread Day * First Sunday in Dec: Good Neighbourliness Day *12 Dec: Neutrality Day Climate Turkmenistan has a continental climate with long hot summers. Winters are not too cold. The average temperature is 26-34°C in summer and -4°C to 4°C in winter. However, in northern regions the temperature in winter months can decrease to -20°C. Read * ''Colin Thubron'', The Lost Heart of Asia, Penguin, 1994 * ''Daily Life in Turkmenbashy's Golden Age'' by Sam Tranum * ''Joe & Azat'' by Jesse Lonergan Regions While the provinces are a helpful way to break down large Turkmenistan into regional travel areas, bear in mind that there is one geographical region present throughout them all, dominating the country—the brutal desert wasteland that is the Karakum. Wikipedia:Turkmenistan Dmoz:Regional Asia Turkmenistan commons:category:Turkmenistan
, Romania, and former Yugoslavia. A small number of Turkic people also live in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. Small numbers inhabit eastern Poland and the south-eastern part of Finland. Finnish Tatars There are also considerable populations of Turkic people (originating mostly from Turkey) in Germany, United States, and Australia, largely because of migrations during the 20th century. At present, there are six independent Turkic
as being between Persia and the Indian subcontinent. According to the last census taken in the former Soviet Union in 1989, there were 25,425 Kurds in Kazakhstan, 14,262 in Kyrgyzstan, 56 in Tajikistan, 4,387
). Cost: 60,000 rial for 2, or less if you can. Duration: about 1h. * At Bajgiran, go to the border (opening time: 07.30-15.30 Iran time). Crossing the border can take up to 2 hours. Turkmen police will ask for an entry tax of $10 (per person) + $2 of bank fees (per group), to be paid in US dollars only. * In the Turkmenistan side, take a taxi to Ashgabat, which can cost up to $15 per person. Duration: about 1h. From Uzbekistan Each crossing may require 15 minutes' walk across no-mans
independent from the former Soviet Union: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Hiroshima Asian Games was the first to be held in a non-capital city. Due to the First Gulf War, Iraq was suspended from the games. Also, this was the only Asian Games to have a male-female pair as a mascot.
of and first year after World War II the Academy consisted of 8 divisions (Physico-Mathematical Science, Chemical Sciences, Geological-Geographical Sciences, Biological Science, Technical Science, History and Philosophy, Economics and Law, Literature and Languages); 3 committees (one for coordinating the scientific work of the Academies of the Republics, one for scientific and technical propaganda, and one for editorial and publications), two commissions (for publishing popular scientific
'''Turkmenistan''' ( ), formerly known as '''Turkmenia''', is one of the Turkic states (List of Turkic states and empires) in Central Asia. Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world, and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement (Russian Civil War) in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 11% in 2012 comes on the back of several years of sustained high growth, albeit from a very basic undiversified economy powered by export of a single commodity. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert (Karakum Desert). Since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge on a guarantee scheduled to last until 2030. Turkmenistan's Leader Promises Citizens Free Gas, Electricity and Water Through 2030
Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called "Türkmenbaşy", "Leader of the Turkmens") until his sudden death on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president on 11 February 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." President Berdymukhamedov promotes a personality cult in which he, his relatives, and associates enjoy unlimited power and total control over all aspects of public life.
A natural gas field in the country known as Door to Hell draws frequent media attention and more recently, also touristic interest.