Hall (Egyptologist) H. R. Hall came the bronze furnishings of a Sumerian temple, including life-sized lions and a panel featuring the lion-headed eagle Indugud. Woolley went onto to excavate Ur between 1922–1934, discovering the 'Royal Cemeteries' of the 3rd millennium BC. Some of the masterpieces include the 'Standard of Ur', the 'Ram in a Thicket', the 'Royal Game of Ur', and two bull-headed lyres. Beginning several centuries ago, a number of sub
: www.state.gov r pa ei bgn 2924.htm The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan is an armed movement, which is responsible for terrorist (terrorism) attacks. Some Turkmen do not regularly attend mosque services or demonstrate their adherence publicly, except through participation in officially sanctioned national traditions associated with Islam on a popular level, including life-cycle events such as weddings, burials, and pilgrimages. ref
in Iraq. Commons:Category:Turkey WikiPedia:Turkey Dmoz:Regional Middle East Turkey
known lost-wax produced items from the classical world include the “Praying Boy” circa 300 BC (in the Berlin Museum (List of museums and galleries in Berlin)), the statue of Hera from Vulci (Volci) (Etruria), which, like most statues, were cast in several parts and then joined together. Neuburger, A., 1930. ''The Technical Arts and Sciences of the Ancients'', London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. Other, earlier examples that show this assembly of lost-wax
photographs on its website, “Anatoria kikō” ( Commons:Category:Turkey WikiPedia:Turkey Dmoz:Regional Middle East Turkey
capital and dowries for their families. Two factors changed attitudes and facilitated permanent immigration: 1) Loss of homeland: In 1885, Eastern Rumelia, a Ottoman autonomous territory with a Greek minorityactions&subprm %20Zfdghkl: Regional Museum of History, Plovdiv Ethnic composition
Via YouTube * In the 1840 Russian novel "A Hero of Our Time" the narrator tells the story of a beautiful Adyghe princess named 'Bela', whom a character abducts from her family. * Temppeliaukio Church in Helsinki, Finland * The rock churches in Cappadocia, Turkey which number beyond one thousand and contain some superb examples of Byzantine wall-paintings, representing both the academic classicizing trend in Byzantine art, and some archaic popular styles The XX Corps first saw action in the Beersheba (Battle of Beersheba (1917)) phase of the Third Battle of Gaza on 31 October 1917. The 60th and 74th Divisions captured Turkish (Turkey) outposts west of the town but were not involved in the final assault. Following Beersheba on 6 November, the corps made a frontal assault against the Turkish fortifications in the vicinity of Sheria where the 10th, 60th and 74th Divisions succeeded in breaking through. The 10th Division captured the Hareira Redoubt on 7 November The Battle of Sheria, Palestine, 7 November 1917 and the 60th Division advanced on Huj in support of the Australian Mounted Division's effort to cut off the retreating Turkish army. Affair of Huj, 8 November 1917 Middle Ages Originally, the Sinterklaas feast celebrates the name day, 6 December, of the Saint Nicholas (280–342), patron saint of children. Saint Nicholas was a Greek bishop of Myra in present-day Turkey. In 1087, his relics were furtively translated to Bari, in southeastern Italy; for this reason, he is also known as Nikolaos of Bari. Bari later formed part of the Spanish Kingdom of Naples, because it was previously conquered in 1442 by Alfonso V of Aragon. The city thus became part of the Kingdom of Aragon and later to Spain (Spanish Empire), until the eighteenth century. Due to the fact that the remains of St. Nicholas were in Bari (then a Spanish city), is this tradition that St. Nicholas comes from Spain, and has a black helper depicted as a Morisco page. St. Nicholas is well known in Spain as the patron of sailors. That's why St. Nicholas comes to the Netherlands in a steamboat. St. Nicholas fame spread throughout Europe. The Western Catholic Church made his name day a Church holiday. In the north of France, he became the patron saint of school children, then mostly in church schools. The folk feast arose during the Middle Ages. In early traditions, students elected one of them as "bishop" on St. Nicholas Day, who would rule until December 28 (Innocents Day). They sometimes acted out events from the bishop's life. As the festival moved to city streets, it became more lively. Temple Hauptfleisch, Shulamith Lev-Aladgem, Jacqueline Martin, Willmar Sauter, and Henri Schoenmakers, ed., ''Festivalising!: Theatrical Events, Politics and Culture'', Amsterdam and New York: International Federation for Theatre Research, 2007, p. 291, accessed 16 Aug 2010 Commons:Category:Turkey WikiPedia:Turkey Dmoz:Regional Middle East Turkey
Commons:Category:Turkey WikiPedia:Turkey Dmoz:Regional Middle East Turkey
editions. Fisheries Turbot is highly prized as a food fish for its delicate flavour, and is also known as '''breet''', '''britt''' or '''butt'''. It is a valuable commercial species, acquired through aquaculture and trawling. Turbot are farmed in France, Spain, Turkey, Chile, Norway, and China. ''Psetta Maxima'' Seafood Portal ref>
that spans Europe and Asia. The Soviet Union's historic lack of warm water maritime access, a perennial concern of Russian foreign policy for improved access out of the Black Sea through Turkey's Dardanelles Strait, which would allow Soviet passage from the Black Sea
the not-very-common certified organic produce marker on, of course). Food in western regions of the country is OK for (western) travellers for the most part, but the more east, south, and northeast you go, the more unaccustomed contents in the food you’ll come across, like goat or goose meat or hot heavy spices. These contents may or may not cause diarrhea (Travellers' diarrhea), but it is wise to have at least some anti-diarrhea medicine nearby, especially if you are going to travel to places a bit off-beaten-track. '''Water safety''' - However tempting it may be on a hot day, try to avoid water from public water tanks and fountains (''şadırvan''), frequently found in the vicinity of mosques. Also, though tap water is mostly chlorinated, it is better to drink only bottled water except when in remote mountain villages connected to a local spring. Bottled water is readily available everywhere except the most remote, uninhabited spots. The most common volumes for bottled water are 0.5 litre and 1.5 L. 5 L, 8 L, 10 L, and gigantic 19 L bottles (known as office jar in the West, this is the most common variety used in households, delivered to houses by the employees of specialized water selling shops, because it is far too heavy to carry) can also be found with varying degrees of possibility. General price for half-a-litre and one-and-a-half-litre bottled water is TRY0.50 and TRY1.25 respectively in kiosks stalls in the central parts of the cities and towns (can be much higher in a touristy or monopolistic place such as beach, airport, café of a much-visited museum, kiosk of a roadside recreation facility), while it can be as cheap as TRY0.15 and TRY0.35 respectively in supermarkets during winter (when the number of bottled water sales drop) and a little higher in summer (still cheaper than kiosks, though). Water is served free of charge in intercity buses, packaged in 0.25 lt plastic cups, whenever you request from the steward. In kiosks, water is sold chilled universally, sometimes so cold that you have to wait the ice to thaw to be able to drink it. Supermarkets provide it both reasonably chilled and also at room temperature. If you have no chance of finding bottled water –for example, in wilderness, up in the eastern highlands- always boil your water; if you have no chance of boiling the water, use chlorine tablets –which can be provided from pharmacies in big cities-, or devices like LifeStraw. Also avoid swimming in fresh water, which you are not sure about its purity, and at seawater in or near the big cities –unless a beach which is declared safe to swim exists. And lastly, be cautious about water, not paranoid. '''Hospitals''' – In Turkey, there are two kinds of hospitals (''hastane'')-private and public. Private hospitals are run by associations, private parties, and private universities. Public hospitals are run by the Ministry of Health, public universities, and state-run social security institutions. All mid-to-big size cities, as well as major resort towns, have private hospitals, more than one in many cities, but in a small town all you can find will probably be a public hospital. Be aware that public hospitals are generally crowded. So expect to wait some time to be treated. But for emergency situations this won't be a problem. Although this is not legal, you may also be denied entry to the public hospitals for expensive operations if you don’t have a state-run national (Turkish) insurance or a necessary amount of cash for prepayment which replaces it, though showing a respected credit card may solve this problem. Emergency situations are exception and you'll be treated without prepayment etc. A travel health insurance is highly recommended because the better private hospitals operate with the “user-pays” principle and their rates are much inflated compared with the public hospitals. Also make sure your insurance includes air transport (like a helicopter) if you are going to visit rural wilderness areas of Black Sea or Eastern regions, so you can be dispatched to a city with high-standard hospitals on time. In the outlying hoods of cities, there are usually also policlinics which can treat simpler illnesses or injuries. In the villages all you can find are little clinics (''sağlık ocağı'', literally “health-house”) which have a very limited supply and staff, though they can effectively treat simple illnesses or provide antibody against, for example, snake bite. On road signage, hospitals (and roads leading to hospitals) are shown with an “H” (over the dark blue background), whereas village clinics are shown with a red crescent sign, Turkish equivalent of red cross. There is an emergency ward (''acil servis'') open 24 hours a day in every hospital. Suburban policlinics don’t have to provide one, but some of them are open 24-hr anyway. Village clinics do certainly have a much limited opening hours (generally 8 am to sunset). '''Dentists''' – There are lots of private dentist offices in the cities, especially along the main streets. Look for the ''diş hekimi'' signs around, it won’t take long before you see one. Most dentists work on an appointment, although they may check or start the treatment on your turning up without an appointment if their schedule is okay. A simple treatment for a tooth decay costs about TRY40 on the average. Ordinary toothbrushes and pastes (both local and international brands) can be obtained from supermarkets. If you want something special, you may check out pharmacies. It is okay to brush teeth with tap water. '''Pharmacies''' - There are pharmacies (''eczane'' in Turkish) in all cities and many towns. Pharmacies are open 08:30-19:00, however every town has at least one drugstore on duty overnight (''nöbetçi eczane''), all other pharmacies in the town usually display its name, address and telephone numbers on their windows. Most basic drugs, including painkillers such as ''Aspirin'', are sold over the counter, although only in pharmacies. '''Mosquitoes''' - Keeping a mosquito (Mosquitoes) repellent handy is a good idea. Although the risk of malaria anywhere in the country is long gone (except the southernmost areas near the Syrian border which used to have a very low level of risk until up to 1980s), mosquitoes can be annoying especially in coastal areas out of cities, including vacation towns at nights between June and September. In some towns, especially the ones near the deltas, mosquito population is so large that people desert the streets during the “mosquito raid” which occurs between the sunset and one hour after that. DEET-containing aerosol repellents (some are suitable to apply to the skin while others, the ones that are in tall tin cans are for making a room mosquito-free before going to bed, not to be applied onto skin, so choose what you buy wisely) can be obtained from supermarkets and pharmacies. There are also solid repellents coming in a tablet form which are used with their special devices indoors having an electricity socket. They release scentless chemicals into the air of the room which disturb the senses of mosquitoes and make them unable to “find” you. The tablets, together with their devices, can also be obtained from supermarkets and pharmacies. Beware! You shouldn’t touch those tablets with bare hands. '''Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever''' (''Kırım-Kongo kanamalı ateşi'' in Turkish, shortly ''KKKA'') is a serious viral disease and transmitted by a '''tick''' (''kene'') species. It can kill the infected person in a very short time, usually within three or four days. This disease has claimed more than 20 lives in Turkey within the past two years. The biggest risk is in the rural parts (''not'' urban centres) of Tokat , Corum, Yozgat, Amasya, and Sivas provinces, all situated in an area where disease-carrying tick thrives because of the area’s location between the humid climate of maritime Black Sea Region and arid climate of Central Anatolia. Authorities recommend to wear light coloured clothing which makes distinguishing a tick clinged to your body easier. It’s also recommended to wear long trousers rather than shorts if you plan to walk through dense and or tall grass areas (the usual habitat for ticks). If you see a tick on your body or clothing, in '''no means try to pull it out''' since this may cause the tick’s head (and its mouth where it carries the virus) sticking inside your skin. Instead, go to the nearest hospital immediately to seek urgent expert aid. Being late to show up in hospital (and to diagnose) is number one killer in this disease. Symptoms are quite like that of flu and a number of other illnesses, so doctor should be informed about the possibility of Crim.-Cong. hemorr. fever and be shown the tick if possible. Coastal Black Sea Region, Marmara Region, Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, and East Anatolia are generally deemed free of this disease (and also free of the disease-carrying species of tick) with no casualties. But in the name of being cautious, you should head for the nearest hospital anyway if you are bitten by (most likely an innocent) tick. Also remember that if you should head for the danger zone described above, ticks are not active in winter. Their active period is April to October, so is the danger period. '''Public restrooms''' - Though many main squares and streets in the cities have a public restroom, if you cannot manage to find one, look for the nearest mosque, where you will see a public restroom in a corner of, or below its courtyard. Despite the fact that there is no shortage of cheap toilet papers anywhere in the country, however, you are unlikely to find toilet paper in almost any of the public restrooms (except lavatories of restaurants –including the road restaurants, hotels and most of the cafés and bars, of course). Instead, you are likely to find a bidét or a tap (Don't be puzzled. That's because devout Muslims use water instead of paper to clean up and paper usually used as a dryer after cleaning.). So it is a good idea to have a roll of toilet paper in your backpack during your walkings for sightseeing. It is best to take your single roll of toilet paper from home or bathroom of the hotel you’re staying at, because the smallest size available in Turkey market is 4-rolls per package (8-rolls per package being the commonest) which would last very long (actually longer than your trip, unless you will do all the road down to India overland). It isn’t expensive but it takes unnecessary backpack space, or unnecessary landfill space if you won’t use it liberally and won’t take the unused rolls back to home as an unusual souvenir from Turkey. In the better places on the road in the country there are rest rooms that are maintained and an attendant ready to collect TRY0.50 to TRY1. from the tourist for the privilege of using one. Restroom is ''tuvalet'' in colloquial Turkish, though you’ll more likely to see ''WC'' signs, complete with diagrams and doors signed ''Bay'' or ''Bayan'' (with their rather crude translations: ‘Men’, ‘Women’). '''Menstrual products''' – Different types and designs of disposable pads are widely available. Look around in the supermarkets. However, Turkish women prefer tampons much less than European women do, so they are rarer. They are available only in some of the pharmacies. '''Hamam''' - If you haven't been to one, you've missed one of life's great experiences and never been clean. You can catch your inner peace with history and water in a bath (hamam). See hamams in Istanbul (Istanbul#Hamams). Respect Things to do Turks are a very friendly, polite and hospitable people, sometimes even to a fault. * When you are invited into a Turkish home, make sure to bring them a gift. Anything is fine from flowers to chocolate and indeed something representative from your country (but not wine and other alcoholic beverages if you are about to meet the host or if you do not know them well enough, as many Turks, for religious reasons or not, do not drink alcoholic beverages, and that is why it would be considered inappropriate as a gift). When you arrive at the house take off your shoes just outside or immediately inside the door, unless the owner explicitly allows you to keep them on. Even then, it might be more polite to remove your shoes. And if you really want their respect, thank your host for the invitation and compliment them. When inside the house, don't ask for anything for they will surely offer it. The host will make sure to make you feel at home, so don't take advantage of their kindness. * People in Turkey respect elderly people, so in a bus, tram, subway and in other forms public transportation, young(er) people will always offer you a place to sit if you are an old(er) person as well as a handicapped person or a pregnant woman or have children with you. * It is respectful to bend slightly (not a complete bow) when greeting someone older or in a position of authority. * Try to use some Turkish phrases. They will be complimentary if you try, and there is no reason to be embarrassed. They realize that Turkish is very difficult for foreigners and won't scoff at all at your mistakes; on the contrary, they will be delighted for trying it, even if they may not always be able to understand your pronunciation! Things to avoid Turkish people understand that visitors are usually not aware of Turkish culture and customs, and tend to be tolerant of blunders in this regard by foreigners. There are, however, some which will meet with universal disapproval, and these should be avoided at all costs: '''Politics:''' * Turks in general have very strong nationalistic views, and would view any criticisms of their country and expressions and attitudes insulting the Turkish flag, the republic and Atatürk - the founding father of the republic as very offensive and with varying degrees of hostility. To avoid getting into the bad raps of your hosts, it is advisable to only praise the country and avoid bringing up anything negative about it. * Don't mention the Armenian Genocide, Kurdish separatism and the Cyprus problem. These are extremely sensitive topics and are definitely to be avoided. Turkish society has a highly emotional approach to these issues. '''Religion:''' * Turkey is a predominantly Muslim country, though secular, and although you will see varying degrees of Islamic practice in Turkey, with most Turks subscribing to a liberal form of Islam, it is extremely rude to insult or mock some of its traditions, and ensure that you do not speak badly of the Islamic religion. The call to prayer (''ezan'') is read 5 times a day from the speakers of the numerous mosques throughout Turkey. Do not mock or mimick these calls, as Turks are extremely proud and sensitive of their heritage and culture, and will be very offended. '''Social custom and etiquette breaches:''' * Don't try to shake hands with a devout Muslim (that is veiled) woman unless she offers her hand first, and with a devout Muslim (often recognizable with a cap and beard) man unless he offers his hand first. * Don't blow your nose during meals, even discreetly. This is considered extremely rude. * Don't pick your teeth during meals, even discreetly. This is considered extremely rude. * Do not put your feet up while sitting and try not to show the bottom of your feet to someone. This is considered rude. * Don't point with your finger at someone, even discreetly. This is considered rude. * Don't chew gum while having a conversation and during public occasions. This is considered extremely rude. * Don't touch someone without permission. This is considered extremely rude. * Don't bear hug or back slap someone, especially in formal situations and occasions and with someone you just met and or you do not know well enough. This is considered very rude. * Don't use swear words during conversation or while talking to oneself in public. This is considered extremely rude. * Public drunkenness (especially the loud and obnoxious variety) is definitely not appreciated and is frowned upon, especially in more conservative areas of the country. Drunken tourists may also attract the attention of pickpockets. However, what is absolutely not tolerated is drunkenness accompanied by physical aggressiveness towards other people. This may incur a fine, and if this is repeated, a heavier fine and or a visit to the police station may result (and if you are a foreign tourist, deportation from the country). * Certain gestures, common in the western world, are considered rude expressions in this culture. People tend to be tolerant if they can see you are a foreigner. They know you are probably doing it subconsciously, but if you take the time to keep these in mind, you won’t have any misunderstandings. Making an ‘O’ with your thumb and forefinger (as if to say “OK!”) is rude because you are making the gesture for a hole - which has connotations referring to homosexuality in the Turkish psyche. Avoid clicking your tongue. Some people do this subconsciously at the beginning of a sentence. It is a gesture of dismissal. Also the "got your nose" gesture which is made by making a fist and putting your thumb between your forefinger and the middle finger is considered the equivalent of the middle finger in Turkey. Other things to watch for * Public displays of affection in larger cities and tourist resorts is tolerated but might invite unnecessary stares from the public. In more rural areas it is frowned upon and is to be avoided. Gay and lesbian travellers should avoid any outward signs of affection, as this will definitely invite unnecessary stares from the public. However overt displays of affection regardless of sexual orientation is regarded as inappropriate. * Avoid shouting or talking loudly in public. Talking loudly is generally considered rude, especially on public transportation. Talking on a mobile phone on public transportation is not considered rude but normal, unless the conversation is too "private". Mosques Because of religious traditions, all women are required to wear head scarves and not to wear miniskirts or shorts upon entering a mosque (or a church and synagogue). The same goes for the tombs of Islamic saints. If you don’t have a shawl or a scarf to put on your head, you can borrow one at the entrance. However, in big mosques that attract lots of tourists, especially in Istanbul, the head scarf rules are somewhat relaxed. In such mosques, no one is warned about their clothes, or because of their lack of head scarves. Even if you have to wear a head scarf, you don't have to worry about how to wear it properly, just put it onto the crown of your head (you may wrap it under your chin or behind your neck, lest it slip), that will be excessively adequate. Also, men are required to wear trousers, not shorts, upon entering a mosque (or a church and synagogue), however nowadays no one is warned about their clothes (at least in big cities). You may find when entering a mosque in more rural areas you will be expected to follow all traditional procedures. During the prayer time, worshippers choose to line in the front rows of the mosques, at such a time stay behind and try not to be noisy. During the Friday noon prayer, which is the most attended, you might be asked to leave the mosque, don’t take it personally, it is because the mosque will be very crowded, there just won’t be enough room for both the worshippers and the sightseers. You will be able to enter back as soon as worshippers are out of the gate. Unlike some other Middle Eastern cultures, eating, drinking, smoking (which is strictly banned), talking or laughing loudly, sleeping or just lying, even sitting on the ground inside the mosques is frowned upon in Turkish culture. Public displays of affection are definitely taboo. All shoes should be removed before entering any mosque. There are shoes desks inside the mosques, though you can choose to hold them in your hand (a plastic bag which would be used only for this purpose would help) during your visit. Some mosques have safeboxes with a lock instead of shoe desks. Although there are “official” opening hours, which are typically shorter than what the mosque is actually open, at the entrances of the most sightseen mosques, they don’t really mean anything. You can visit a mosque as long as its gates are open. Despite the odd tourists who do not conform to the dress code, it is best to dress conservatively and to follow all traditional procedures, when entering mosques, tombs and other places of worship; not only because it is required but also as a sign of respect. At mosques and tombs that have been officially turned into museums, there is no need to follow any traditional procedures. Shoes are not removed when entering those places and women don't have to wear head scarves. Gay and lesbian travellers Turkey is considered to be quite safe for gay and lesbian travelers, and violence against homosexuals is quite rare. There are no laws against homosexuality in Turkey, but same-sex relationships are not recognized by the government and flaunting your orientation openly is very likely to draw stares and whispers. Connect Dial '''112''' for an ambulance in anywhere, from any telephone, without a charge. In case of a fire, dial '''110'''; for police, call '''155'''. However, in rural areas there is not a police coverage, so dial '''156''' for gendarme, a military unit for rural security. All these numbers are free of charge and can be called from a telephone booth without inserting a calling card, or any phone including cell phones. Telephone While not as common as they used to be, possibly because of the widespread use of mobile phones which are virtually used by the whole population in the country, '''public pay phones''' can still be found at the sides of central squares and major streets in towns and cities and around post offices (''PTT''), especially around their outer walls. With the phase-out of old magnetic cards, public phones now operate with chip ''telekom'' cards which are available in 30, 60 or 120 units and can be obtained at post offices, newspaper and tobacco kiosks. (However emergency numbers can be called without card or anything from these phones.) You can also use your credit card on these phones, though it may not work in the off chance. All phones in the booths have Turkish and English instructions and menus, many also have German and French in addition. There are also telephones available in some kiosks and shops where you pay cash after your call. To spot these, look for ''kontürlü telefon'' signs. These telephones are more expensive than the ones at the booths, though. It is estimated that approximately 98% of the population of Turkey lives within the coverage areas of Turkey’s three '''cell phone''' line providers. Line providers from most countries have roaming agreements with one or more of these companies. Pre-paid mobile phone SIM cards can be purchased for approximately TRY20-50. These can be purchased at the airport on arrival or from the many outlets in Istanbul and other large cities. Providers include Vodaphone. Here is a quick list of '''telephone codes''' for some major cities and towns of touristic importance: - style "vertical-align:top;width:50%;" * '''212'''—Istanbul-European Side (Istanbul European Side) * '''216'''—Istanbul-Asian Side (Istanbul Asian Side), and Princes' Islands (Istanbul Princes' Islands) * '''224'''—Bursa, and Uludağ * '''232'''—Izmir, and Çeşme * '''242'''—Antalya, Alanya, Kemer, and Kaş * '''252'''—Muğla, Bodrum, Marmaris, and Fethiye * '''256'''—Aydın, and Kuşadası (Kusadasi) style "vertical-align:top;width:50%;" * '''258'''—Denizli, and Pamukkale * '''286'''—Çanakkale, and Gallipoli * '''312'''—Ankara * '''332'''—Konya * '''384'''—Nevşehir (Nevsehir), and most of Cappadocia (though a few well-known Cappadocian towns which are parts of Aksaray Province have '''382''' as their area code) Prior to the telephone code, dial '''0''' for intercity calls. Numbers starting with '''0800''' are pay-free, whereas the ones starting with '''0900''' are high-fee services. 7-digit numbers starting with '''444''' (mainly used by companies) are charged as local calls wherever they are dialed in Turkey. Dial '''00''' prior to country code for international calls from Turkey. When calling into Turkey, the international country code that should prefix city code and phone number is '''90'''. Post '''Post offices''' are recognizable by their yellow and black ''PTT'' signs. Letters and cards should be taken to a post office since the postboxes on the streets are rare (and there is no guarantee that they are emptied at all, even if you spot one). Nevertheless, Turkish Post (PTT) prints some beautiful stamps. '''Postage''' for cards and letters costs TRY0.80 for domestic shipments, and TRY1.10 (about €0.55) for international shipments to most countries, although it may be a little more (up to TRY1.35) for the most distant countries; PTT website for current rates. Main post offices in cities are open 08:30-20:30, whereas post offices in towns and smaller post offices in cities are usually open 08:30-17:30. '''''Poste restante''''' general delivery letters should be sent to an address in the format of: official full name of the addressee (because the receiver will be asked for an ID card, passport or anything that can prove he or she is proper recipient) + ''POSTRESTANT'' + name of the quarter neighbourhood district if in a city where there is more than one post office or name of the town where the post office is + postal code (if known, not obligatory, generally available at the entrance or on the interior walls of the post office itself) + the name of the province in which the quarter town of the post office is located. The receiver has to pay TRY0.50 upon receipt of mail. Internet Although not as widespread as they used to be in the last decade with more and more Turkish households tuning in DSL connections, '''''internet cafe'''''s or ''net cafe''s are still available in reasonable numbers in cities and towns. In fact, any major town has at least one. All of them have good DSL connections, and price for connection is about more or less TRY1.50 hour. Most, if not all, of these internet-cafés also have cd-writers which are available for anyone who makes an additional payment. Free '''wireless''' connections are available at some airports, hotels and restaurants cafés (especially in big cities). Some webpages are blocked by court order ——although most internet cafes get around these blocks by tricks on proxy settings. Please see following web sites for information on Telecommunication services : TTNET, DSL internet providerthe largest mobile operator also provides 3G internet mobile operator also provides 3G internetoperator also provides 3G internet - Fi '''Hotel:''' Every hotel has their own Wi-Fi. Some hotels do have trouble with their network setup or the connection due to the historical location however at the least you will have free wi-fi at your hotel. All you have to do is to learn the wifi password to access the internet. '''Cafes:''' Every café, bistro, restaurant share their internet with their guests. Even the small restaurants now have internet access. Stability and speed depend on where you are and what kind of café, bistro or restaurant you are in. Starbucks, Nero etc. typically have stable wi-fi unless very crowded. If you are in a Starbucks all you have to do is connect your device (SSID should be TTNET or DorukNet, AND if you are in Nero DorukNet) and fill out some basic information for verification that you have to fill. After that, you are ready to go. And if you are in the other restaurant or cafés you can just ask to your waiter to get SSID and Password and after that you are ready to go. '''Public Center and Squares:''' Municipality of Istanbul recently announced that free public wi-fi will be available in most common city centers and squares. All you have to do is (when you near of one of these centers of course) register your id via your cell phone and you will get an access password. '''Wi-Fi on the Go:''' You can rent a mobile wifi hotspot during your stay in Turkey. It works based on 3G connection in the whole country, and you can connect up to 10 devices at the same time. These pocket-sized devices can be easily booked online. While there are plenty of international companies that rent a mobile hotspot, mainly two local companies are operating: - Alldaywifi; - Rent 'n Connect; Commons:Category:Turkey WikiPedia:Turkey Dmoz:Regional Middle East Turkey
Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic age (paleolithic),
Starting from the late 13th century, the Ottomans united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe (Southeast Europe), Western Asia and North Africa, becoming a major power in Eurasia and Africa during the early modern period. The empire reached the peak of its power between the 15th and 17th centuries, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566). After the second Ottoman siege of Vienna (Battle of Vienna) in 1683 and the end of the Great Turkish War in 1699, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline (Decline of the Ottoman Empire). The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which aimed to modernize the Ottoman state, proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire (Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire).
Turkey is a democratic (democracy), secular (secular state), unitary (unitary state), constitutional republic (Republic) with a diverse cultural heritage (Multiculturalism).