Tsardom of Russia

What is Tsardom of Russia known for?


called time

theory, the oprichnina was started by Ivan in order to mobilize resources for the wars and to quell opposition to it. Regardless of the reason, Ivan's domestic and foreign policies had a devastating effect on Russia, and they led to a period of social struggle and civil war, the so-called Time of Troubles (''Smutnoye vremya'', 1598-1613). Time of Troubles Ivan IV was succeeded by his son Fedor (Feodor I of Russia), who was mentally deficient. Actual power went


vast size

Russia and, on August 22, laid siege to the city of Pskov (Siege of Pskov), whose vast size and imposing fortifications filled the little Commonwealth army with dismay. But Báthory, despite the objections of some of his officers, and critique from the papal nuncio Possevino, sent by the curia to mediate between the Muscovites and the Commonwealth, decided to keep up the siege. Finally, on the December 13, 1581, Ivan the Terrible, alarmed for the safety of the third city in his empire

Luki . In 1581 Stephen penetrated into Russia (Tsardom of Russia) and, on August 22, laid siege to the city of Pskov (Siege of Pskov), whose vast size and imposing fortifications filled the little Commonwealth army with dismay. But Báthory, despite the objections of some of his officers, and critique from the papal nuncio Possevino, sent by the curia to mediate between the Muscovites and the Commonwealth, decided to keep up the siege. Finally, on the December 13, 1581, Ivan the Terrible

. The Commonwealth army routed the Russian force at Velikiye Luki. In 1581 Stephen penetrated into Russia (Tsardom of Russia) and, on August 22, laid siege to the city of Pskov (Siege of Pskov), whose vast size and imposing fortifications filled the little Commonwealth army with dismay. But Báthory, despite the objections of some of his officers, and critique from the papal nuncio Possevino, sent by the curia to mediate between the Muscovites and the Commonwealth, decided to keep up


white field

to the Danish Crown (Danish monarchy), and the loss of the territory to the Tsardom of Russia. In 1575 after Muscovy attacked Danish claims in Livonia, Frederick II dropped out of the competition as well as the Holy Roman Emperor. After this Johan III held off on his pursuit for more land due to Muscovy obtaining lands that Sweden controlled. He used the next two years of truce to get in a better position. In 1578, he resumed the fight for not only Livonia, but also everywhere due to an understanding he


architectural history

Ukrainian architecture is a term that describes the motifs and styles that are found in structures built in modern Ukraine, and by Ukrainians worldwide. These include initial roots which were established in the Eastern Slavic (Eastern Slavs) state of Kievan Rus'. After the 12th century (Mongol invasion of Rus), the distinct architectural history continued in the principalities of Galicia-Volhynia. During the epoch of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, a new style unique to Ukraine was developed under the western influences of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the union with the Tsardom of Russia, architecture in Ukraine began to develop in different directions, with many structures in the larger eastern, Russian-ruled area built in the styles of Russian architecture of that period, whilst the western Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)) was developed under Austro-Hungarian architectural influences (Architecture of Austria), in both cases producing fine examples. Ukrainian national motifs would finally be used during the period of the Soviet Union and in modern independent Ukraine. thumb Verkhoturye in 1910 (File:Verkhoturye 1910 LOC prok 02108.jpg) In the 1550s, after the Tsardom of Russia had defeated the Khanate of Kazan and proceeded to gradually annex the lands of the Bashkirs, the Russians finally reached the southern part of the mountain chain. In 1574 they founded Ufa. The upper reaches of the Kama and Chusovaya in the Middle Urals, still unexplored, as well as parts of Transuralia still held by the hostile Siberian Khanate, were granted to the Stroganovs by several decrees of the tsar in 1558-1574. The Stroganovs' land provided the staging ground for Yermak (Yermak Timofeyevich)'s incursion into Siberia (Conquest of the Khanate of Sibir). Yermak crossed the Urals from the Chusovaya to the Tagil (Tagil River) around 1581. In 1597 Babinov's road was built across the Urals from Solikamsk to the valley of the Tura (Tura River), where the town of Verkhoturye (Upper Tura) was founded in 1598. Customs was established in Verkhoturye shortly thereafter and the road was made the only legal connection between European Russia and Siberia for a long time. In 1648 the town of Kungur was founded at the western foothills of the Middle Urals. During the 17th century the first deposits of iron (iron ore) and copper (copper ore) ores, mica, gemstones and other minerals were discovered in the Urals. January–June * February 27 – The Treaty of Stolbovo ends the Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia (Tsardom of Russia). Sweden gains Ingria (Swedish Ingria) and Kexholm (Priozersk). * April 14 – Second Battle of Playa Honda: The Spanish (Spain) navy defeats a Dutch (Netherlands) fleet in the Philippines. * The Jesuit Matteo Ricci becomes the first European to enter the Forbidden City in Beijing, China, during the Ming Dynasty. * A bad harvest occurs in the Tsardom of Russia, due to a rainy summer, causing the Russian famine of 1601–1603. * A famine (ending in 1603) kills about half the Estonian population. However, both economical and cultural growth came to an end in mid-17th century with a series of violent wars against Tsardom of Russia, Sweden, Brandenburg and Transylvania, as well as internal conflicts, known altogether as The Deluge (The Deluge (Polish history)). The misfortunes were started in 1648 by Bohdan Chmielnicki, who started a large-scale Cossack uprising (Chmielnicki's Uprising) in Ukraine. Although the Cossacks were defeated in 1651 in the battle of Beresteczko, Khmelnytsky sought help from Russian tsar, and by the Treaty of Pereyaslav Russia dominated and partially occupied the eastern lands of the Commonwealth since 1655. The Swedes (Swedish Empire) invaded and occupied the rest in the same year. The wars had shown internal problems of the state, with some people of the Grand Duchy supporting Russia The '''Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658''' was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War. It took place during a pause in the contemporary Russo-Polish War (1654-1667) as a consequence of the Truce of Vilna. Despite initial successes, Tsar Alexis of Russia failed to secure his principal objective—to revise the Treaty of Stolbovo, which had stripped Russia (Tsardom of Russia) of the Baltic coast at the close of the Ingrian War. * Though this was not the most noble person who had ever set foot in the establishment (an honor that would have to go to Peter, or — who knows? — Solomon), he was unquestionable the best-dressed, and identifiable, from a thousand yards, as a courtier… “Frightfully sorry to intrude,” said the courtier, “but word has reached the Household that an important Man (w:Peter I of Russia) has come to London ''incognito''. … From Muscovy (w:Tsardom of Russia), ‘tis said … The Lady of said Household (w:Anne of Great Britain) is deathly ill. On her behalf, I have come to greet the said Gentleman, and to observe the requisite formalities.” Daniel nodded out the window toward the melee. “As we say in Boston: ''get in line.''” ** “Confrontations in a Tavern”


military victory

the Rurik (Rurik Dynasty) to the Romanov (House of Romanov) dynasties, drawn-out military conflict (Polish–Russian War) with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the 42-year reign of Peter the Great, who ascended in 1682 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. After a military victory over Sweden and Poland (Great Northern War), he implemented government reform of Peter I substantial reforms


political religious

the city without success (Treaty of Teusina). The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century. Its powerful parliament (Sejm) was dominated by nobles (''Pic. 2 (#Gallery)'') who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War; this neutrality spared the country from the ravages of a political-religious conflict which devastated most of contemporary Europe. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, Tsardom of Russia, and vassals


strong+professional

tsardom into a modernized empire (Russian Empire) relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy. He greatly expanded the size of Russia during his reign while providing access to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas. The most important Russian commanders besides Peter were Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev. The 17th century brought invading armies of Swedes (Swedish Empire), Hungarians (Hungary), Cathal J. Nolan. ''Wars of the age of Louis XIV, 1650-1715: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization''. ABC-CLIO. 2008. pp. 332, 368. Tony Jaques. ''Dictionary of battles and sieges: a guide to 8,500 battles from antiquity through the twenty-first century'', Vol. 3. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2007. pp. 608, 895, 951 Turks, Francis Ludwig Carsten. ''The new Cambridge modern history: The ascendancy of France, 1648-88''. Cambridge University Press. 1961. p. 512. Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki. ''A concise history of Poland''. Cambridge University Press. 2001. p. 81. Cambridge University Press. 2001. p. 81. Russians (Tsardom of Russia) and Cossacks (Zaporozhian Cossacks) to its gates. In 1648 an army of Cossacks (Zaporozhian Cossacks) and Crimean Tatars besieged Lviv. The city was not sacked due to its beauty and the fact that the leader of the revolution Bohdan Khmelnytsky studied there and did not want to see it ruined. As a result a ransom of 250 000 ducat was paid and the Cossacks marched west towards Zamość. Lviv was the only major city in Poland which was not captured. In 1672 it was surrounded by the Ottomans (Ottoman Empire) who failed to conquer it. Lviv was captured for the first time by a foreign army in 1704 when Swedish troops under King Charles XII (Charles XII of Sweden) entered the city after a short siege. The Tsardom of Russia began its conquest of the region in the 17th century, moving east after the defeat of the Khanate of Sibir. Tygyn, a king of the Khangalassky Yakuts, granted territory for Russian settlement in return for a military pact that included war against indigenous rebels of all North Eastern Asia (Magadan, Chukotka, Kamchatka and Sakhalin). Kull, a king of the Megino-Khangalassky Yakuts, began a Sakha conspiracy by allowing the first stockade construction. The '''Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658''' was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War. It took place during a pause in the contemporary Russo-Polish War (1654-1667) as a consequence of the Truce of Vilna. Despite initial successes, Tsar Alexis of Russia failed to secure his principal objective—to revise the Treaty of Stolbovo, which had stripped Russia (Tsardom of Russia) of the Baltic coast at the close of the Ingrian War. * Though this was not the most noble person who had ever set foot in the establishment (an honor that would have to go to Peter, or — who knows? — Solomon), he was unquestionable the best-dressed, and identifiable, from a thousand yards, as a courtier… “Frightfully sorry to intrude,” said the courtier, “but word has reached the Household that an important Man (w:Peter I of Russia) has come to London ''incognito''. … From Muscovy (w:Tsardom of Russia), ‘tis said … The Lady of said Household (w:Anne of Great Britain) is deathly ill. On her behalf, I have come to greet the said Gentleman, and to observe the requisite formalities.” Daniel nodded out the window toward the melee. “As we say in Boston: ''get in line.''” ** “Confrontations in a Tavern”


style main

left thumb Patriarch Nikon and Tsar Alexis (Alexis of Russia) in the Cathedral of the Archangel thumb right Nativity Church at Putinki (File:Putinki.jpg), an example of the 17th-century Russian uzorochye style Russia's southwestern expansion, particularly its incorporation of eastern Ukraine, had unintended consequences. Most Ukrainians were Orthodox, but their close contact with the Roman Catholic (Catholic Church) Polish also brought them Western


modern independent

examples. Ukrainian national motifs would finally be used during the period of the Soviet Union and in modern independent Ukraine. thumb Verkhoturye in 1910 (File:Verkhoturye 1910 LOC prok 02108.jpg) In the 1550s, after the Tsardom of Russia had defeated the Khanate of Kazan and proceeded to gradually annex the lands of the Bashkirs, the Russians finally reached the southern part of the mountain chain. In 1574 they founded


red field

of Peter I (Peter I of Russia). History of the Russian Flag '''(in Russian)''' * '''Naval Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy''': white field with a blue saltire, adopted in 1712. Before that, the naval ensign of Russia was white-blue-red tricolor. * '''Naval Jack of the Imperial Russian Navy''': red field with a blue saltire, adopted in 1700. File:Flag of Oryol (variant).svg '''Standard of the Tsar of Moscow''' (1693–1700) File:Imperial Standard of the Emperor of Russia (1858–1917) alt version.svg '''Imperial Standard of the Tsar''' (from 1700) File:Flag of Russia.svg '''Naval Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy''' (1697–1699) vexillographia.ru and '''Civil Ensign of Russia''' (from 1705) File:Flag of Russian Navy 1699 v1.svg '''Naval Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy''' (1699–1700), a transitional variant between the 1697–1699 Ensign and the Andreevsky (Saltire) Flag of 1712 File:Naval Jack of Russia.svg '''Naval Jack of the Imperial Russian Navy''' (from 1700) www.crwflags.com File:Naval Ensign of Russia.svg '''Naval Ensign of the Imperial Russian Navy''' (from 1712) See also *List of Russian rulers *Coronation of the Russian monarch *Tsarist autocracy References Primary sources *Grigory Kotoshikhin's ''Russia during the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich'' (1665) is the indispensable source for those studying administration of the Russian tsardom *Domostroy is a 16th-century set of rules regulating everyday behaviour in the Russian boyar families. Secondary sources * The '''Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658''' was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War. It took place during a pause in the contemporary Russo-Polish War (1654-1667) as a consequence of the Truce of Vilna. Despite initial successes, Tsar Alexis of Russia failed to secure his principal objective—to revise the Treaty of Stolbovo, which had stripped Russia (Tsardom of Russia) of the Baltic coast at the close of the Ingrian War. * Though this was not the most noble person who had ever set foot in the establishment (an honor that would have to go to Peter, or — who knows? — Solomon), he was unquestionable the best-dressed, and identifiable, from a thousand yards, as a courtier… “Frightfully sorry to intrude,” said the courtier, “but word has reached the Household that an important Man (w:Peter I of Russia) has come to London ''incognito''. … From Muscovy (w:Tsardom of Russia), ‘tis said … The Lady of said Household (w:Anne of Great Britain) is deathly ill. On her behalf, I have come to greet the said Gentleman, and to observe the requisite formalities.” Daniel nodded out the window toward the melee. “As we say in Boston: ''get in line.''” ** “Confrontations in a Tavern”

Tsardom of Russia

The '''Tsardom of Russia''' ( Зимин А. А., Хорошкевич А. Л. Россия времени Ивана Грозного. Москва, Наука, 1982 Перевезенцев, С. В. Смысл русской истории, Вече, 2004 ), also known as the '''Tsardom of Muscovy''', was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV (Ivan IV of Russia)'s assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 until Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721.

From 1550 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km 2 (about the size of the Netherlands) a year. Richard Pipes, Russia under the old regime, page 83 The period includes the upheavals (Times of Troubles) of the transition from the Rurik (Rurik Dynasty) to the Romanov (House of Romanov) dynasties, drawn-out military conflict (Polish–Russian War) with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the 42-year reign of Peter the Great, who ascended in 1682 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. After a military victory over Sweden and Poland (Great Northern War), he implemented substantial reforms (government reform of Peter I) and proclaimed the Russian Empire ( ) in 1721, making it a recognized power in Europe.

Search by keywords:


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017