Toledo, Spain

What is Toledo, Spain known for?


lively cultural

with historical landmarks and a lively cultural agenda. There were some disagreements among the members of the Christian coalition: French and other European knights were not used to the Iberian summer heat, but more importantly, they did not agree with Alfonso's merciful treatment of Jews and Muslims that were previously defeated in the conquest of Malagón and Calatrava la Vieja. Previously, they had caused problems in Toledo (Toledo, Spain), (where the different armies of the Crusade gathered), with assaults and murders in the Jewish Quarter (Jewish Quarter (diaspora)). More than 30,000 men deserted and returned to their homes across the Pyrenees. ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.


great works

; ref The edition was one of the great works of philology of the Renaissance, comprising critical editions of all of the books of the Bible in their original Hebrew (Hebrew language), Greek (Greek language) and Aramaic (Aramaic language), as well


white line

of Gibraltar coat of arms : "An escutcheon on which the upper two thirds shall be a white field and on the said field set a red castle, and below the said castle, on the other third of the escutcheon, which must be a red field in which there must be a white line between the castle and the said red field, there shall be a golden key which hangs by a chain from the said castle, as are here figured". The Castle and Key remain the Arms of Gibraltar to this day. left thumb The Coat of arms of Gibraltar arms (Image:Original coat of arms of Gibraltar.jpg) granted to the city of Gibraltar by a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) on 10 July 1502 by Isabella I of Castile *1502 10 July - By a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) by Isabella I of Castile, Gibraltar was granted its coat of arms (Coat of arms of Gibraltar): "An escutcheon on which the upper two thirds shall be a white field and on the said field set a red castle, and below the said castle, on the other third of the escutcheon, which must be a red field in which there must be a white line between the castle and the said red field, there shall be a golden key which hangs by a chain from the said castle, as are here figured". The Castle and Key remain the Arms of Gibraltar to this day. *1506 - Alleging a false donation by the king Philip I of Castile, the Duke of Medina Sidonia attempted to recover Gibraltar by besieging the town. The siege was unsuccessful and the Duke was admonished by the Regency and forced to pay a fee to the town. The town received the title of "Most Loyal City" (Tenth Siege of Gibraltar).The Duke died in 1507. The powerful influence of his family opened him a public career early in life. He was made archdeacon of Calatrava, and became a member of the king's council while young. In 1338 he was chosen archbishop of Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in succession to his uncle by the favour of the king, Alfonso XI of Castile. At the battle of Rio Salado he successfully fought against a Marinid invasion from Morocco in 1340, and at the taking of Algeciras in 1344 he led the armed levy of his archbishopric. In the Iberian peninsula, as elsewhere, the Empire fell not with a bang but with a whimper. Rather than there being any convenient date for the "fall of the Roman Empire" there was a progressive "de-Romanization" of the Western Roman Empire in Hispania and a weakening of central authority, throughout the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'' (University of Michigan: Ann Arbor, 1965) p. 20. At the same time, there was a process of "Romanization" of the Germanic and Hunnic tribes settled on both sides of the ''limes'' (the fortified frontier of the Empire along the Rhine and Danube rivers). The Visigoths, for example, were converted to Arian Christianity (Arianism) around 360, even before they were pushed into imperial territory by the expansion of the Huns. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'', p. 25. In the winter of 406, taking advantage of the frozen Rhine, the (Germanic (Germanic tribes)) Vandals and Sueves, and the (Sarmatian) Alans invaded the empire in force. Three years later they crossed the Pyrenees into Iberia (Iberian Peninsula) and divided the Western parts, roughly corresponding to modern Portugal and western Spain as far as Madrid, between them. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'', p. 14. The Visigoths meanwhile, having sacked Rome two years earlier, arrived in the region in 412 founding the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse (in the south of modern France) and gradually expanded their influence into the Iberian peninsula at the expense of the Vandals and Alans, who moved on into North Africa without leaving much permanent mark on Hispanic culture. The Visigothic Kingdom (Visigoths#Visigothic kingdom in Hispania) shifted its capital to Toledo (Toledo, Spain) and reached a high point during the reign of Leovigild. thumb left Battle of Tours (File:Steuben - Bataille de Poitiers.png). This battle is often considered of macro-importance in European and Islamic history. In 486, Clovis I, leader of the Salian Franks, defeated Syagrius at Soissons (Battle of Soissons (486)) and subsequently united most of northern and central Gaul under his rule. Clovis then recorded a succession of victories against other Germanic tribes such as the Alamanni at Tolbiac (Battle of Tolbiac). In 496, pagan Clovis adopted Catholicism. This gave him greater legitimacy and power over his Christian subjects and granted him clerical support against the Arian Visigoths. He defeated Alaric II at Vouillé (Battle of Vouillé) in 507 and annexed Aquitaine, and thus Toulouse, into his Frankish kingdom. The Goths retired to Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in what would become Spain. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian Dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death. Under Frankish inheritance traditions, all sons would inherit part of the land, so four kingdoms emerged: centered on Paris, Orléans, Soissons, and Rheims. Over time, the borders and numbers of Frankish kingdoms were fluid and changed frequently. Also during this time, the Mayors of the Palace (Mayor of the Palace), originally the chief advisor to the kings, would become the real power in the Frankish lands; the Merovingian kings themselves would be reduced to little more than figureheads. Edward James, ''The Franks'' (1991) * The Arba'ah Turim (The Tur, The Four Columns) by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher (1270–1343, Toledo, Spain). This work traces the Halakha from the Torah text and the Talmud through the Rishonim, with the ''Hilchot'' of Alfasi as its starting point. Ben Asher followed Maimonides's precedent in arranging his work in a topical order, however, the Tur covers only those areas of Jewish religious law that were in force in the author's time. The code is divided into four main sections; almost all codes since this time have followed the Tur's arrangement of material. ** Orach Chayim: "The Way of Life" worship and ritual observance in the home and synagogue, through the course of the day, the weekly sabbath (Shabbat) and the festival cycle. thumb right The game of astronomical tables, from ''Libro de los juegos'' (File:Alfonso LJ 97V.jpg) The '''''Libro de los Juegos''''', ("Book of games"), or '''''Libro de acedrex, dados e tablas''''', ("Book of chess, dice and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile (Kingdom of Castile), Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia) and León (Kingdom of León) and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in 1283, Sonja Musser Golladay, "Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31. Although Golladay is not the first to assert that 1283 is the finish date of the ''Libro de Juegos'', the ''a quo'' information compiled in her dissertation consolidates the range of research concerning the initiation and completion dates of the ''Libro de Juegos''. Wollesen, Jens T. "Sub specie ludi...: Text and Images in Alfonso El Sabio's Libro de Acedrex, Dados e Tablas", ''Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte'' 53:3, 1990. pp. 277-308. is an exemplary piece of Alfonso’s medieval literary legacy. *240 BC – First recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. *1085 – Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. *1420 – Henry the Navigator is appointed governor of the Order of Christ (Order of Christ (Portugal)). Later life In 1922, an important year of his life, Escher traveled through Italy (Florence, San Gimignano, Volterra, Siena, Ravello) and Spain (Madrid, Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Granada). He was impressed by the Italian countryside and by the Alhambra, a fourteenth-century Moorish (Moorish architecture) castle in Granada, Spain. He came back to Italy regularly in the following years. In Italy he met ''Jetta Umiker'', whom he married in 1924. The young couple settled down in Rome and stayed there until 1935, when the political climate under Mussolini (Benito Mussolini) became unbearable. Their son, ''Giorgio Arnaldo Escher'', named after his grandfather, was born in Rome. The family next moved to Château-d'Œx, Switzerland, where they remained for two years. Spain Improvised incendiary devices were used for the first time in the Spanish Civil War between July 1936 and April 1939, Thomas, Hugh (Hugh Thomas) (1994). ''The Spanish Civil War''. Simon & Schuster, p. 468. ISBN 0671758764 before they became known as "Molotov cocktails". In 1936, General Francisco Franco ordered Spanish Nationalists to use the weapon against Soviet T-26 tanks supporting the Spanish Republicans (Second Spanish Republic) in a failed assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña, near Toledo (Toledo, Spain), 40 km south of Madrid. History of the Molotov cocktail After that, both sides used simple petrol bombs or petrol-soaked blankets with some success. Tom Wintringham, a veteran of the International Brigades, later publicised his recommended method of using them: Most of North Island corresponds to central and southern Spain, from Valladolid (opposite the southern point of South Island, Cape Palliser), through Madrid and Toledo (Toledo, Spain) to Cordoba (Córdoba, Spain) (directly antipodal to Hamilton (Hamilton, New Zealand)), Lorca (opposite East Cape), Málaga (Cape Colville), and Gibraltar. Parts of the Northland Peninsula oppose Morocco, with Whangarei nearly coincident with Tangiers. In 1507 he was appointed tutor to Emperor Maximilian I (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor)'s (1493–1519) seven year old grandson, Charles, who was later to become Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) (1519 – 56). In 1515 Adrian was sent to Spain on a diplomatic errand, and after his arrival at the Imperial Court in Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Charles V secured his succession to the See (Episcopal see) of Tortosa, and on 14 November 1516 commissioned him Inquisitor General of Aragon. The following year, Pope Leo X (1513–21) made Adrian a cardinal (Cardinal (Catholicism)), naming him Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of Saints John and Paul. ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.


social contributions

, who along with her husband King Ferdinand II of Aragon were the "Catholic Monarchs". The surrender concluded Al-Andalus as a political entity, but the cultural and social contributions under Muslim rule still persist in the region. Cortés did not establish an independent, conquered territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Habsburg Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), who was also King of Spain and its associated European territories


field painting

. Culebra, Isla Chiquita on SalonHogar.net death_date ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.


making tradition

: www.grupoteresa.com modules.php?name Guia_Turistica&file pueblos&id 112&page 3 accessdate 9 July 2008 (The Toledo Blade, the American newspaper in Toledo's Ohio namesake city, is named in honor of that sword-making tradition.) thumb upright The Museum ''Santa Cruz'' (File:Toledo Museo Santa Cruz 1.jpg) According to the Statistical Institute of Castilla-La Mancha, in 2007 the distribution of employment by sectors of occupation was as follows: 86.5


independent history

and Salamanca, was so nearly allied to the Gallican Rite that the term Hispano (Hispania)-Gallican is often applied to the two. But the Iberian Mozarabic Rite has, like the allied Celtic Rite, enough of an independent history to require separate treatment, so that though it will be necessary to allude to both by way of illustration, this article will be devoted primarily to the rite once used in what is now France. Of the origin of the Gallican Rite there are three principal theories, between


public career

and the Duke was admonished by the Regency and forced to pay a fee to the town. The town received the title of "Most Loyal City" (Tenth Siege of Gibraltar).The Duke died in 1507. The powerful influence of his family opened him a public career early in life. He was made archdeacon of Calatrava, and became a member of the king's council while young. In 1338 he was chosen archbishop of Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in succession to his uncle by the favour of the king, Alfonso XI of Castile. At the battle of Rio Salado he successfully fought against a Marinid invasion from Morocco in 1340, and at the taking of Algeciras in 1344 he led the armed levy of his archbishopric. In the Iberian peninsula, as elsewhere, the Empire fell not with a bang but with a whimper. Rather than there being any convenient date for the "fall of the Roman Empire" there was a progressive "de-Romanization" of the Western Roman Empire in Hispania and a weakening of central authority, throughout the 3rd, 4th and 5th centuries. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'' (University of Michigan: Ann Arbor, 1965) p. 20. At the same time, there was a process of "Romanization" of the Germanic and Hunnic tribes settled on both sides of the ''limes'' (the fortified frontier of the Empire along the Rhine and Danube rivers). The Visigoths, for example, were converted to Arian Christianity (Arianism) around 360, even before they were pushed into imperial territory by the expansion of the Huns. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'', p. 25. In the winter of 406, taking advantage of the frozen Rhine, the (Germanic (Germanic tribes)) Vandals and Sueves, and the (Sarmatian) Alans invaded the empire in force. Three years later they crossed the Pyrenees into Iberia (Iberian Peninsula) and divided the Western parts, roughly corresponding to modern Portugal and western Spain as far as Madrid, between them. Rhea Marsh Smith, ''Spain: A Modern History'', p. 14. The Visigoths meanwhile, having sacked Rome two years earlier, arrived in the region in 412 founding the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse (in the south of modern France) and gradually expanded their influence into the Iberian peninsula at the expense of the Vandals and Alans, who moved on into North Africa without leaving much permanent mark on Hispanic culture. The Visigothic Kingdom (Visigoths#Visigothic kingdom in Hispania) shifted its capital to Toledo (Toledo, Spain) and reached a high point during the reign of Leovigild. thumb left Battle of Tours (File:Steuben - Bataille de Poitiers.png). This battle is often considered of macro-importance in European and Islamic history. In 486, Clovis I, leader of the Salian Franks, defeated Syagrius at Soissons (Battle of Soissons (486)) and subsequently united most of northern and central Gaul under his rule. Clovis then recorded a succession of victories against other Germanic tribes such as the Alamanni at Tolbiac (Battle of Tolbiac). In 496, pagan Clovis adopted Catholicism. This gave him greater legitimacy and power over his Christian subjects and granted him clerical support against the Arian Visigoths. He defeated Alaric II at Vouillé (Battle of Vouillé) in 507 and annexed Aquitaine, and thus Toulouse, into his Frankish kingdom. The Goths retired to Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in what would become Spain. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian Dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death. Under Frankish inheritance traditions, all sons would inherit part of the land, so four kingdoms emerged: centered on Paris, Orléans, Soissons, and Rheims. Over time, the borders and numbers of Frankish kingdoms were fluid and changed frequently. Also during this time, the Mayors of the Palace (Mayor of the Palace), originally the chief advisor to the kings, would become the real power in the Frankish lands; the Merovingian kings themselves would be reduced to little more than figureheads. Edward James, ''The Franks'' (1991) * The Arba'ah Turim (The Tur, The Four Columns) by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher (1270–1343, Toledo, Spain). This work traces the Halakha from the Torah text and the Talmud through the Rishonim, with the ''Hilchot'' of Alfasi as its starting point. Ben Asher followed Maimonides's precedent in arranging his work in a topical order, however, the Tur covers only those areas of Jewish religious law that were in force in the author's time. The code is divided into four main sections; almost all codes since this time have followed the Tur's arrangement of material. ** Orach Chayim: "The Way of Life" worship and ritual observance in the home and synagogue, through the course of the day, the weekly sabbath (Shabbat) and the festival cycle. thumb right The game of astronomical tables, from ''Libro de los juegos'' (File:Alfonso LJ 97V.jpg) The '''''Libro de los Juegos''''', ("Book of games"), or '''''Libro de acedrex, dados e tablas''''', ("Book of chess, dice and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile (Kingdom of Castile), Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia) and León (Kingdom of León) and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in 1283, Sonja Musser Golladay, "Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31. Although Golladay is not the first to assert that 1283 is the finish date of the ''Libro de Juegos'', the ''a quo'' information compiled in her dissertation consolidates the range of research concerning the initiation and completion dates of the ''Libro de Juegos''. Wollesen, Jens T. "Sub specie ludi...: Text and Images in Alfonso El Sabio's Libro de Acedrex, Dados e Tablas", ''Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte'' 53:3, 1990. pp. 277-308. is an exemplary piece of Alfonso’s medieval literary legacy. *240 BC – First recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. *1085 – Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. *1420 – Henry the Navigator is appointed governor of the Order of Christ (Order of Christ (Portugal)). Later life In 1922, an important year of his life, Escher traveled through Italy (Florence, San Gimignano, Volterra, Siena, Ravello) and Spain (Madrid, Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Granada). He was impressed by the Italian countryside and by the Alhambra, a fourteenth-century Moorish (Moorish architecture) castle in Granada, Spain. He came back to Italy regularly in the following years. In Italy he met ''Jetta Umiker'', whom he married in 1924. The young couple settled down in Rome and stayed there until 1935, when the political climate under Mussolini (Benito Mussolini) became unbearable. Their son, ''Giorgio Arnaldo Escher'', named after his grandfather, was born in Rome. The family next moved to Château-d'Œx, Switzerland, where they remained for two years. Spain Improvised incendiary devices were used for the first time in the Spanish Civil War between July 1936 and April 1939, Thomas, Hugh (Hugh Thomas) (1994). ''The Spanish Civil War''. Simon & Schuster, p. 468. ISBN 0671758764 before they became known as "Molotov cocktails". In 1936, General Francisco Franco ordered Spanish Nationalists to use the weapon against Soviet T-26 tanks supporting the Spanish Republicans (Second Spanish Republic) in a failed assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña, near Toledo (Toledo, Spain), 40 km south of Madrid. History of the Molotov cocktail After that, both sides used simple petrol bombs or petrol-soaked blankets with some success. Tom Wintringham, a veteran of the International Brigades, later publicised his recommended method of using them: Most of North Island corresponds to central and southern Spain, from Valladolid (opposite the southern point of South Island, Cape Palliser), through Madrid and Toledo (Toledo, Spain) to Cordoba (Córdoba, Spain) (directly antipodal to Hamilton (Hamilton, New Zealand)), Lorca (opposite East Cape), Málaga (Cape Colville), and Gibraltar. Parts of the Northland Peninsula oppose Morocco, with Whangarei nearly coincident with Tangiers. In 1507 he was appointed tutor to Emperor Maximilian I (Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor)'s (1493–1519) seven year old grandson, Charles, who was later to become Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) (1519 – 56). In 1515 Adrian was sent to Spain on a diplomatic errand, and after his arrival at the Imperial Court in Toledo (Toledo, Spain), Charles V secured his succession to the See (Episcopal see) of Tortosa, and on 14 November 1516 commissioned him Inquisitor General of Aragon. The following year, Pope Leo X (1513–21) made Adrian a cardinal (Cardinal (Catholicism)), naming him Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of Saints John and Paul. ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's. Henry Kamen, ''Philip of Spain'', (Yale University Press, 1999), 184-185. In 1521, Hernán Cortés was received by Charles I (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs. ''Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century'', Javier Malagón-Barceló, '''The Americas''', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Oct., 1963), 124. Guillaume's nephew and namesake, Guillaume III de Croÿ (William de Croÿ (archbishop)) (1498-1521), was educated in Louvain (Leuven) with Juan Luís Vives, a great philosopher of the time. As it appeared unlikely that he would succeed to the lands of his grandfather, Philippe I, he was destined to the church. Family interests ensured his rapid promotion: he was elected Bishop of Cambrai at the age of 17. Within a year, Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) bestowed upon his young Burgundian friend the archbishopric of Toledo (Toledo, Spain), making him a cardinal and Primate of Spain. This unprecedented move brought Spain to the brink of a civil war. Guillaume accompanied his uncle and Charles to Worms, where on January 6 he died aged 22, following a fall from his horse. His tomb is in the Celestin monastery of Louvain, founded by his father.


numerous works

imprisonment he composes his ''Spiritual Canticle''. thumb European depiction of the Persian physician Rhazes (Image:Al-RaziInGerardusCremonensis1250.JPG), in Gerard of Cremona's "Recueil des traités de médecine" 1250-1260. Gerard de Cremona translated numerous works by Arab scholars. "Inventions et decouvertes au Moyen-Age", Samuel Sadaune, p.44 '''Gerard of Cremona''' ( ; Latin: '''Gerardus Cremonensis''') (c


highly accurate

, an astronomer, and a mathematician. He developed a new design for a highly accurate astrolabe which was used for centuries afterwards. He constructed a famous water clock that attracted much attention in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) for centuries. He discovered that the Sun's apogee moves slowly relative to the fixed stars, and obtained a very good estimate Linton (2004 (#CITEREFLinton2004), p.97). Owing to the unreliability

Toledo, Spain

'''Toledo''' ( ) is a municipality located in central Spain, 70 km south of Madrid. It is the capital (capital city) of the province (province (Spain)) of Toledo (Province of Toledo) and the autonomous community (autonomous communities of Spain) of Castile–La Mancha. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its extensive cultural and monumental heritage and historical co-existence of Christian, Muslim and Jewish (Judaism) cultures.

Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles I (Charles I of Spain), and as the "City of the Three Cultures", having been influenced by a historical co-existence of Christians, Muslims and Jews. In 1085, the city fell to Alfonso VI of Castile as the first major city in the Christian Reconquista. Toledo has a history in the production of bladed weapons, which are now popular souvenirs of the city.

People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Al-Zarqali (Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī), Garcilaso de la Vega (Garcilaso de la Vega (poet)), Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X and El Greco. It was also the place of important historic events such as the Visigothic (Visigoths) Councils of Toledo. .

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