and organizations to make great efforts to discover Timbuktu and its fabled riches. In 1788 a group of titled Englishmen formed the African Association with the goal of finding the city and charting the course of the Niger River. The earliest of their sponsored explorers was a young Scottish adventurer named Mungo Park (Mungo Park (explorer)), who made two trips in search of the Niger River and Timbuktu (departing first in 1795 and then in 1805). It is believed that Park was the first Westerner
), "''geugeu''" (Gao) and "''mayna''" (Niamey? or a misplaced Niani (Niani, Mali Empire)?) are denoted along the same single river. South of them (barely visible) are what seem like the towns of Kukiya (on the eastern shore of the Island of Gold), and east of that, probably Sokoto (called "Zogde" in the Catalan Atlas) and much further southeast, probably Kano. The inscription above Kano reads merely: "Africa es apelada la terca
or University of Sankore was constructed during his reign. In Niani, he built the Hall of Audience, a building communicated by an interior door to the royal palace. It was "an admirable Monument" surmounted by a dome, adorned with arabesques of striking colours. The windows of an upper floor were plated with wood and framed in silver foil, those of a lower floor were plated with wood, framed in gold. Like the Great Mosque, a contemporaneous and grandiose structure in Timbuktu, the Hall
of the same name published by Cheeky Press. The film is directed by its creator, Craig Clark, an art rock, darkwave musician (Chorus of Souls on Fluxus Records), animator (''Forrest Gump'' and ''The Simpsons''), comic book artist (''Nemesister'' and ''Timbuktu'') and album cover artist (The Nymphs). Clark produced the film little by little over a period of four years, from 1999-2004. Operations Amiot 122 was first used as a long-distance sports plane. From September 13, 1927 the prototype carried out a 10,800 km tour around the Mediterranean Sea, from Paris, through Vienna, Beirut, Cairo, Benghazi, Tunis, Casablanca to Paris. From April 3 to 5, 1928, lieutenant Girardot flew it across the Sahara, on the Paris-Timbuktu-Dakar-Paris 10,100 km route. Ghana At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri (Abu Abdullah al-Bakri)), one centered on Friday prayer.thumb 400px right Timbuktu (Image:TIMBUKTU-EINZUG.jpg) Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81 The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86 Sahelian architecture (Sudano-Sahelian) initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné. Ghana At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri (Abu Abdullah al-Bakri)), one centered on Friday prayer.thumb 400px right Timbuktu (Image:TIMBUKTU-EINZUG.jpg) Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81 The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86 Sahelian architecture (Sudano-Sahelian) initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné. A Qadiriyyah Sufi imam by training, Seku Amadu preached for years against what he saw as the corruption of the Islamic elites governing Timbuktu and Djenné. Inspired by the recent uprising of Usman dan Fodio in neighboring Hausaland (Hausa people), Seku Amadu led his followers in a jihad (Amadu's Jihad) against the then-dominant Bambara Empire in 1818. By 1819, he had decisively defeated the Bambara in battle, seizing Djenné and much of Inner Niger Delta region. He founded a capital for his new Massina Empire at Hamdullahi, northeast of Djenné, just south of the present day city of Mopti. In 1845, Seku Amadu conquered Timbuktu. However, he died within the year, leaving control of the Massina Empire to his son, Amadu Seku. Seku Amadu's Empire outlived him by only seventeen years, falling to Toucouleur conqueror El Hajj Umar Tall in 1862. Cole was murdered by Tuareg (Taureg people) bandits near Timbuktu, Mali, in late October 2000. Under Sundiata's successors, most notably his son Wali Keita (r. c. 1255–1270) and his grand-nephew Kankou Musa I (Mansa Musa) (r. c. 1312–1337), the Mali Empire continued to expand, eventually creating a centralized state including most of West Africa. Trade flourished, while Kankou Musa I founded a university at Timbuktu and instituted a program of free health care and education for Malian citizens with the help of doctors and scholars brought back from his legendary hajj. At the same time, the Europeans started to travel into the interior of Africa to trade and explore. Mungo Park (Mungo Park (explorer)) (1771–1806) made the first serious expedition into the region's interior, tracing the Niger (Niger River) as far as Timbuktu. French armies followed not long after. In the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s the Europeans started to colonize the inland of West Africa, they had previously mostly controlled trading ports along the coasts and rivers. Samory Ture (Samory)'s newly-founded Wassoulou Empire was the last to fall, and with his capture in 1898, military resistance to French colonial rule effectively ended. thumb West Africa after the Moroccan invasion. (File:WestAfrica1625.png) The Songhai Empire, was a western African (West Africa) state centered in eastern Mali. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, it was one of the largest (List of largest empires) African empires in history. On October 16, 1590, Ahmad took advantage of recent civil strife in the empire and dispatched an army of 4,000 men across the Sahara desert under the command of converted Spaniard (Spain) Judar Pasha. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
first K. last Connolly date 25 June 2009 accessdate 10 September 2009 West Africa Between AD 700 to 1600, cities in the West African savanna emerged from the trans-Saharan trade. Some of the more prominent were Kumbi Saleh, Timbuktu, Djenné and Gao. Arabic scholars like Ibn Khaldun have been a very important source of historical accounts from this area and period. Gold mining, iron technology, pottery making and textile production were
the true course of the Niger was presumably known to locals, it was a mystery to the outside world until the late 18th century. Ancient Romans such as Pliny (Pliny the Elder) (N.H. 5.10) thought that the river near Timbuktu was part of the Nile River, a belief also held by Ibn Battuta, while early European explorers thought that it flowed west and joined the Senegal River. East of Mali, the river forms a lake or "Island of Gold" shown here studded with river-washed gold nuggets (this is what the Pizzigani brothers called the island of "''Palolus''", and most commentators take to indicate the Bambuk-Buré goldfields). It is connected by many streams to the southerly "mountains of gold" (labelled "''montanies del lor''", the Futa Djallon Bambouk Mountains and Loma Mountains of Sierra Leone). It is evident the Senegal river morphs east, unbroken, into the Niger River - the cities of "''tenbuch''" (Timbuktu), "''geugeu''" (Gao) and "''mayna''" (Niamey? or a misplaced Niani (Niani, Mali Empire)?) are denoted along the same single river. South of them (barely visible) are what seem like the towns of Kukiya (on the eastern shore of the Island of Gold), and east of that, probably Sokoto (called "Zogde" in the Catalan Atlas) and much further southeast, probably Kano. The inscription above Kano reads merely: "Africa es apelada la terca part del mon, per rao dun rey afer fill d'abrae, qui la senyorega, laquai partida comensa en les pars degipte al flum del cales, e finey en gutzolanes les pars hoccidentals e combren tota la barberia environant tôt lo mis jorn" (trans: "Africa is called the third part of the world, after King Afer, son of Abraham, who lorded over it, its beginning starts in the part of Egypt by the river of Cairo (''Cales'' adjective of Cairo) and the western part ends at Cape Non ("gutzolanes"; Cape Non was called "Caput finis Gozolae" after the Gazzula Berbers of the western Sahara) and covers all of Barbary (land of the Bebers). thumb Senegambia (File:Guillaume Delisle Senegambia 1707.jpg) region, detail from the map of Guillaume Delisle (1707), which still assumes the Senegal connected to the Niger; this would be corrected in subsequent edititions of Delisle's map (1722, 1727), where it was shown ending at a lake, south of the Niger. Portuguese chronicler João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the river's original local Wolof (Wolof language) name was ''Ovedech'' (which according to one source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). Barros, ''Décadas da Ásia'' (p.109). See also Bailot (1853: p.199). His contemporary, Damião de Góis (1567) records it as ''Sonedech'' (from "sunu dekh", Wolof for "our river"). See also A.M. de Castilho (1866) ''Descripção e roteiro da costa occidental de Africa'', vol. 1, p.92. Writing in 1573, the Spanish geographer Luis del Marmol Carvajal asserts that the Portuguese (Portuguese people) called it ''Zenega'', the 'Zeneges' (Berber Zenaga (Zenaga people)) called it the ''Zenedec'', the 'Gelofes' (Wolofs (Wolof people)) call it ''Dengueh'', the 'Tucorones' (Fula Toucouleur (Toucouleur people)) called it ''Mayo'', the 'Çaragoles' (Soninke Sarakole (Soninke people) of Ngalam) called it ''Colle'' and further along (again, Marmol assuming Senegal was connected to the Niger), the people of Bagamo' (Bambara (Bambara people) of Bamako?) called it ''Zimbala'' (Jimbala?) and the people of Timbuktu called it the ''Yça''. Marmol (Luis del Marmol Carvajal) (1573), Lib. VIII, ch.3. See also Phérotée de La Croix (1688: Ch. 2 p.406) and Cooley (1841: p.38) thumb A "livable sculpture", Carlos Páez Vilaró (File:Casapueblo.jpg)'s Casapueblo is his home, hotel and museum. A prominent exponent of Afro-Uruguayan art is abstract painter and sculptor Carlos Páez Vilaró. He drew from both Timbuktu and Mykonos to create his best-known work: his home, hotel and atelier Casapueblo near Punta del Este. Casapueblo is a "livable sculpture" and draws thousands of visitors from around the world. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
préhistorique place Field Report to the Direction Nationale du Patrimoine Culturel, Bamako language French url http: yale.academia.edu DouglasPark Papers 1554818 _3_--_LA_CAMPAGNE_DE_RECHERCHE_ARCHEOLOGIQUE_DANS_LA_REGION_DE_TOMBOUCTOU_ET_LA_REGION_DES_LACS_RAPPORT_SUR_LA_TROISIEME_CAMPAGNE_DE_RESEARCH_A_TOMBOUCTOU_PREHISTORIQUE ref none . * Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
complex of homes in coursed mud, with hipped roofs of shingles (Roof shingle) or palm leaves. The Palace had a sequence of ceremonial rooms, and was decorated with brass plaques (Benin Bronzes). Sjúbídú Skagaströnd was mentioned in the song Sjúbídú, the Iceladic entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1996. According to the lyrics, the word ''shoobe-doo'' can be understood "from Skagaströnd to Timbuktu". Nearby Kálfhamarsvík is considered one of the most beautiful tourist destinations in Iceland. Languages spoken in the city include Moroccan Arabic, Tachelhit and Tamazight. A well known sign at the town border states "Tombouctou (Timbuktu) 52 days", the supposed time it takes to get to Timbuktu, Mali on foot or camel. Languages spoken in the city include Moroccan Arabic, Tachelhit and Tamazight. A well known sign at the town border states "Tombouctou (Timbuktu) 52 days", the supposed time it takes to get to Timbuktu, Mali on foot or camel. * Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
of the Tuareg rebellion. Many of the old guns are embedded in cement at the base of the monument. The monument is in a rather bad shape, perhaps fitting as the relations between the Tuareg and Mali government have deteriorated. The '''Grand Marché''' is a two-story market with stalls and shops selling all kinds of things, it is well worth going just for the incredible view from the roof, across the whole of Timbuktu to the desert. You can also hire a Tuareg and camels, however the "sunset tours" are too short to really appreciate the surroundings as the Tuareg camps are only a few hundred metres away from the edge of town. However it is interesting to visit one of the camps (usually just a small family group) and see the sun set over the desert. Even if you don't visit the camps it is worth walking to the dunes on the edge of the town just to see them. A tour over several days will however be fascinating. You may even go to do the 40 day trip to the salt fields. Negotiate with the Tuaregs themselves and not so-called "guides". The flame of peace is a monument to the ceasefire of the Tuareg rebellion. It's just to the northeast of the Petite marché. Although it is pretty new it is clearly falling apart already. It is not a bad idea to take a child as guide, it prevents you from being hassled as much. Don't forget to visit the tourist office so you can get your passport stamped with a Timbuktu stamp. Buy Take some salt along as well as the '''Tuareg sabres or knives'''. You'll be pretty hard pressed to get away from vendors selling all the same "unique" necklaces, earrings, knives and other handicrafts, so make sure to drive them down to a good price. A fair rule is to offer about a third of the price they originally quote, then haggle so you pay half their first price. They are used to this and so always start at too high a price. However, the things they sell are generally of good quality and great for souvenirs. There is a shop (called 'objets artes boutique' or something similar) that sells the '''souvenirs''' to the sellers you see around town. If you head north from the hotel colom the road forks, take the left fork and about 100-200m down the road,on the left hand side, is this shop. Prices are 6-10 times cheaper here, you cannot barter but you may get a small (5-10%) discount for buying several items. Another good idea is to get a '''postcard''' and post it, it will have the '''Timbuktu postal stamp''' on it. The Post office is down the main street south of the roundabout. The staff in there will give you the right stamps, you can sometimes buy postcards from there or from the many street vendors. Just don't expect to receive the postcard too soon; it can take over a month to get through to many Western countries! Eat Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
of the same name published by Cheeky Press. The film is directed by its creator, Craig Clark, an art rock, darkwave musician (Chorus of Souls on Fluxus Records), animator (''Forrest Gump'' and ''The Simpsons''), comic book artist (''Nemesister'' and ''Timbuktu'') and album cover artist (The Nymphs). Clark produced the film little by little over a period of four years, from 1999-2004. Operations Amiot 122 was first used as a long-distance sports plane. From
Movie Database . Retrieved 24 October 2009 Timbuktu has provided the main setting for at least one movie: the 1959 film ''Timbuktu (Timbuktu (1959 film))'' was set in the city in 1940, although it was filmed in Kanab, Utah. Ali Farka Touré inverted the stereotype: "For some people, when you say 'Timbuktu' it is like the end of the world, but that is not true. I am from Timbuktu, and I can tell you that we are right at the heart of the world." Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
'''Timbuktu''' ( north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali (Regions of Mali). It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.
Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg (Tuareg people) tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan (Morocco) army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.
The invaders established a new ruling class, the arma (Arma people), who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.
In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place.
On 1 April 2012, one day after the capture of Gao, Timbuktu was captured from the Malian military by the Tuareg rebels (2012 Tuareg rebellion) of the MNLA and Ansar Dine.
On 28 January 2013, French and Malian government troops began retaking Timbuktu from the Islamist rebels.
On 30 March, jihadist rebels infiltrated (2nd Battle of Timbuktu) into Timbuktu just nine days prior to a suicide bombing (Battle of Timbuktu) on a Malian army checkpoint at the international airport killing a soldier. Fighting lasted until 1 April, when French warplanes helped Malian ground forces chase the remaining rebels out of the city center.