of twenty to win the chancellor's gold medal." He published his first solo collection of poems, ''Poems Chiefly Lyrical'' in 1830. "Claribel" and "Mariana (Mariana (poem))", which later took their place among Tennyson's most celebrated poems, were included in this volume. Although decried by some critics as overly sentimental, his verse soon proved popular and brought Tennyson to the attention of well-known writers of the day
of Bondoukou" photo collection : Ray Silverman (1987), African Online Digital Library This further led to the town's importance as a center of religious learning. Drinking the Word of God, 2002 The French introduced Christianity, and the town is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bondoukou. Prominent buildings include the house used by French explorer Binger, Samori's headquarters, the old market building which houses the "Bondoukou Museum of Art and Traditions" ("''Musée des Arts et des Traditions''"), and the Limamisso and Kamagaya mosques. Outside the old town, major neighbourhoods include "Mont Zanzan", "Lycée", "TP", and "Camp Militaire." Outside the town, historic sites include an Akan (Akan people) ceremonial center at Soko (Soko, Ghana) (just east), pottery works at Montiamo, the treasure house of the Abron war-leader at Wéletchéi (just north), and the French colonial era plantations at Goli (just west). The town is also known for cultural events, including the yam (Yam (vegetable)) harvest festival, and the Sakaraboutou (warriors' parade) and Kourouby women's parade (both celebrated at the end of Ramadan). Karel Arnaut, Performing displacements and rephrasing attachments. Ethnographic explorations of mobility in art, ritual, media, and politics. Chapter II: ‘Sakaraboutou is a Bondoukou custom’: an investigation into ritual spaces and performative positions. pp.115-202, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Ghet (2004). "la ville aux mille mosquées" bondoukou2000 website & ''Traditions'' on the same site. Apart from Diola, Mande, and Akan peoples, the Department is home to a patchwork of ethinc groups including the Nafaanra (Nafaanra language), Koulango, and Lobi (Lobi language). * Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
mascula ''). Fez was also the end of a north-south gold trading route from Timbuktu. Fez was also a prime manufacturing location for leather goods such as the Adarga. The modern Sahara, though, is not lush in vegetation, except in the Nile Valley, at a few oases (oasis), and in the northern highlands, where Mediterranean plants such as the olive tree are found to grow. The region has been this way since about 3600 years ago. http
accessdate 17 September 2010 Long part of colloquial language, Timbuktu also found its way into literature: in Tom Robbins' novel ''Half Asleep in Frog Pajamas'', Timbuktu provides a central theme. One lead character, Larry Diamond, is vocally fascinated with the city. In the stage play ''Oliver!'', a 1960 musical, when the title character (Oliver Twist (character)) sings to Bet, "I'd do anything for you, dear", one of her responses is "Go
height, the English edition of his book includes the description: According to Leo Africanus, there were abundant supplies of locally produced corn, cattle, milk and butter, though there were neither gardens nor orchards surrounding the city.
coast of Africa and to some extent into the interior (see Swahili people). Timbuktu was a trading outpost that linked West Africa with Berber (Berber people), Arab, and Jewish traders throughout the Arab World. As a result of these interactions, some female-mediated gene flow into the Middle East from Sub-Saharan Africa can be observed in certain populations. "Extensive Female-Mediated Gene
as Sagmandir put down yet another rebellion in Gao. Historically, in accordance with traditional Islamic law, Jews generally enjoyed freedom of religion in Islamic states as People of the Book. However, certain rulers did historically enact forced conversions for political reasons and religious reasons in regards to youth and orphans. A number of groups who converted from Judaism to Islam have remained Muslim, while maintaining a connection to and interest
and many times forced to convert to Islam. Abbas, Najam. "The Outsiders" (review of ''Chala'' (The Outcast) by Mansur Surosh Dushanb), kulanu.org. Retrieved 16 April 2007. Historically, in accordance with traditional Islamic law, Jews generally enjoyed freedom of religion in Islamic states as People of the Book. However, certain rulers did historically enact forced conversions for political reasons and religious
reasons in regards to youth and orphans. A number of groups who converted from Judaism to Islam have remained Muslim, while maintaining a connection to and interest in their Jewish heritage. These groups include the ''anusim'' or Daggataun of Timbuktu who converted in 1492, when Askia Muhammed came to power in Timbuktu and decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave, Primack, Karen. "The Renewal of Jewish Identity
Natural Reserves – Threats to the Site (1992) url http: whc.unesco.org en list 573 threats publisher UNESCO accessdate 10 September 2011 oil and gas projects and mining, declines
: Timbuktu's mosques show a cultural and scholarly Golden Age during the Songhay Empire. * Criterion V: The construction of the mosques, still mostly original, shows the use of traditional building techniques. An earlier nomination in 1979 failed the following year as it lacked proper demarcation:
'''Timbuktu''' ( north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali (Regions of Mali). It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.
Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg (Tuareg people) tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan (Morocco) army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.
The invaders established a new ruling class, the arma (Arma people), who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.
In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place.
On 1 April 2012, one day after the capture of Gao, Timbuktu was captured from the Malian military by the Tuareg rebels (2012 Tuareg rebellion) of the MNLA and Ansar Dine.
On 28 January 2013, French and Malian government troops began retaking Timbuktu from the Islamist rebels.
On 30 March, jihadist rebels infiltrated (2nd Battle of Timbuktu) into Timbuktu just nine days prior to a suicide bombing (Battle of Timbuktu) on a Malian army checkpoint at the international airport killing a soldier. Fighting lasted until 1 April, when French warplanes helped Malian ground forces chase the remaining rebels out of the city center.