accessdate 17 September 2010 Long part of colloquial language, Timbuktu also found its way into literature: in Tom Robbins' novel ''Half Asleep in Frog Pajamas'', Timbuktu provides a central theme. One lead character, Larry Diamond, is vocally fascinated with the city. In the stage play ''Oliver!'', a 1960 musical, when the title character (Oliver Twist (character)) sings to Bet, "I'd do anything for you, dear", one of her responses is "Go
;Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge 1988 Etymology The Niger is called ''Jeliba'' or ''Joliba'' "great river" in Manding (Manding languages), ''Orimiri'' or ''Orimili'' "great water" in Igbo (Igbo language), ''Egerew n-Igerewen'' "river of rivers" in Tuareg (Tuareg languages), ''Isa Ber'' "big river" in Songhay (Songhay languages), Kwara in Hausa and ''Oya'' in Yoruba (Yoruba language). The origin of the name ''Niger'', which originally applied only to the middle reaches of the river, is uncertain. The likeliest possibility is an alteration, by influence of Latin ''niger'' "black", of the Tuareg name ''egerew niger ewen'', which is used along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu. The Arabic name ''nahr al-anhur'' is a direct translation of the Tuareg. Online Etymological Dictionary As Timbuktu was the southern end of the principal Trans-Saharan trade route to the western Mediterranean, it was the source of most European knowledge of the region. The river 'loses' nearly two-thirds of its potential flow in the Inner Delta between Ségou and Timbuktu due to seepage and evaporation. All the water from the Bani River, which flows into the Delta at Mopti, does not compensate for the 'losses'. The average 'loss' is estimated at 31 km 3 year, but varies considerably between years. FAO:Irrigation potential in Africa: A basin approach, The Niger Basin, 1997 The river is then joined by various tributaries, but also loses more water due to evaporation. The quantity of water entering Nigeria measured in Yola was estimated at 25 km 3 year before the 1980s and at 13.5 km 3 year during the 1980s. The most important tributary of the Niger in Nigeria is the Benue River which merges with the river at Lokoja in Nigeria. The total volume of tributaries in Nigeria is six times higher than the inflow into Nigeria, with a flow near the mouth of the river standing at 177.0 km 3 year before the 1980s and 147.3 km 3 year during the 1980s. While the true course of the Niger was presumably known to locals, it was a mystery to the outside world until the late 18th century. Ancient Romans such as Pliny (Pliny the Elder) (N.H. 5.10) thought that the river near Timbuktu was part of the Nile River, a belief also held by Ibn Battuta, while early European explorers thought that it flowed west and joined the Senegal River. East of Mali, the river forms a lake or "Island of Gold" shown here studded with river-washed gold nuggets (this is what the Pizzigani brothers called the island of "''Palolus''", and most commentators take to indicate the Bambuk-Buré goldfields). It is connected by many streams to the southerly "mountains of gold" (labelled "''montanies del lor''", the Futa Djallon Bambouk Mountains and Loma Mountains of Sierra Leone). It is evident the Senegal river morphs east, unbroken, into the Niger River - the cities of "''tenbuch''" (Timbuktu), "''geugeu''" (Gao) and "''mayna''" (Niamey? or a misplaced Niani (Niani, Mali Empire)?) are denoted along the same single river. South of them (barely visible) are what seem like the towns of Kukiya (on the eastern shore of the Island of Gold), and east of that, probably Sokoto (called "Zogde" in the Catalan Atlas) and much further southeast, probably Kano. The inscription above Kano reads merely: "Africa es apelada la terca part del mon, per rao dun rey afer fill d'abrae, qui la senyorega, laquai partida comensa en les pars degipte al flum del cales, e finey en gutzolanes les pars hoccidentals e combren tota la barberia environant tôt lo mis jorn" (trans: "Africa is called the third part of the world, after King Afer, son of Abraham, who lorded over it, its beginning starts in the part of Egypt by the river of Cairo (''Cales'' adjective of Cairo) and the western part ends at Cape Non ("gutzolanes"; Cape Non was called "Caput finis Gozolae" after the Gazzula Berbers of the western Sahara) and covers all of Barbary (land of the Bebers). thumb Senegambia (File:Guillaume Delisle Senegambia 1707.jpg) region, detail from the map of Guillaume Delisle (1707), which still assumes the Senegal connected to the Niger; this would be corrected in subsequent edititions of Delisle's map (1722, 1727), where it was shown ending at a lake, south of the Niger. Portuguese chronicler João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the river's original local Wolof (Wolof language) name was ''Ovedech'' (which according to one source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). Barros, ''Décadas da Ásia'' (p.109). See also Bailot (1853: p.199). His contemporary, Damião de Góis (1567) records it as ''Sonedech'' (from "sunu dekh", Wolof for "our river"). See also A.M. de Castilho (1866) ''Descripção e roteiro da costa occidental de Africa'', vol. 1, p.92. Writing in 1573, the Spanish geographer Luis del Marmol Carvajal asserts that the Portuguese (Portuguese people) called it ''Zenega'', the 'Zeneges' (Berber Zenaga (Zenaga people)) called it the ''Zenedec'', the 'Gelofes' (Wolofs (Wolof people)) call it ''Dengueh'', the 'Tucorones' (Fula Toucouleur (Toucouleur people)) called it ''Mayo'', the 'Çaragoles' (Soninke Sarakole (Soninke people) of Ngalam) called it ''Colle'' and further along (again, Marmol assuming Senegal was connected to the Niger), the people of Bagamo' (Bambara (Bambara people) of Bamako?) called it ''Zimbala'' (Jimbala?) and the people of Timbuktu called it the ''Yça''. Marmol (Luis del Marmol Carvajal) (1573), Lib. VIII, ch.3. See also Phérotée de La Croix (1688: Ch. 2 p.406) and Cooley (1841: p.38) thumb A "livable sculpture", Carlos Páez Vilaró (File:Casapueblo.jpg)'s Casapueblo is his home, hotel and museum. A prominent exponent of Afro-Uruguayan art is abstract painter and sculptor Carlos Páez Vilaró. He drew from both Timbuktu and Mykonos to create his best-known work: his home, hotel and atelier Casapueblo near Punta del Este. Casapueblo is a "livable sculpture" and draws thousands of visitors from around the world. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
is impoverished and suffers from desertification. In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from
: weekly.ahram.org.eg 2003 665 bo3.htm "Vegetal and mineral memory" , November 2003. Considers, among other things, encyclopedias Eco's interest in East West dialogue to facilitate international communication and understanding also correlates with his related interest in the international auxiliary language Esperanto. Mali (West Africa) * The Festival in the Desert takes place every year at Essakane, near Timbuktu, in Mali, West Africa and has achieved international status in spite of the difficulties of reaching its location. Festival in the Desert - Artist Detail Information ; BBC Four, "Festival in the Desert 2004", 5 November 2004. The Arabized Berber (Berber people) tribes controlled key oasis settlements of the Sahara and played an important role in the trans-Saharan slave trade (Arab slave trade). They already used to impose heavy taxation on any traffic through their lands, while also furnishing protection, supplies, and camels. When trans-Saharan trade intensified, they developed departure and arrival centers with slave depots and intermediary secure caravan stops. In these centers, they oversaw the traffic from sub-Saharan regions to Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Timbuktu (Mali) was a central crossroad to all four routes. Ouadane, Idjil (near Atar (Atar, Mauritania)), Azougui, Araouane, Taoudenni and later Tindouf were important stopping-places. Map on http: les.traitesnegrieres.free.fr At the same time the number of slaves kept in Western Sahara itself increased drastically. *The horse and slave trade between the western Sahara and Senegambia, Webb, J.L.A., Journal of African history, 1993, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 221-246, ISSN 0021-8537 *The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade by Elizabeth Savage (ed.), 1992 * 1456: The Siege of Belgrade (Siege of Belgrade (1456)) halts the Ottoman's advance into Europe. * 1462: Sonni Ali Ber (Sonni Ali), the ruler of the Songhai (or Songhay) Empire (Songhai Empire), along the Niger River, conquers Mali (Mali Empire) in the central Sudan by defeating the Tuareg (Tuareg people) contingent at Tombouctou (Timbuktu) (or Timbuktu) and capturing the city. He develops both his own capital, Gao, and the main centres of Mali, Timbuktu and Djenné, into major cities. Ali Ber controls trade along the Niger River with a navy of war vessels. * 1462: Mehmed the Conqueror is driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. * 1456: The Siege of Belgrade (Siege of Belgrade (1456)) halts the Ottoman's advance into Europe. * 1462: Sonni Ali Ber (Sonni Ali), the ruler of the Songhai (or Songhay) Empire (Songhai Empire), along the Niger River, conquers Mali (Mali Empire) in the central Sudan by defeating the Tuareg (Tuareg people) contingent at Tombouctou (Timbuktu) (or Timbuktu) and capturing the city. He develops both his own capital, Gao, and the main centres of Mali, Timbuktu and Djenné, into major cities. Ali Ber controls trade along the Niger River with a navy of war vessels. * 1462: Mehmed the Conqueror is driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. * June 7 – France: Day of the Tiles, which some consider the beginning of the French Revolution. * June 9 – The African Association, an exploration group dedicated to plotting the Niger River and finding Timbuktu, is founded in England. * June 17 – English (English people) captains Thomas Gilbert (Thomas Gilbert (sea captain)) and John Marshall (John Marshall (British captain)), returning from Botany Bay, become the first Europeans to encounter the Gilbert Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu
as the most inaccessible of cities, but at the time Leo visited, it was the center of a busy trade carried on by traders in African products, gold, printed cottons and slaves (slavery), and in Islamic books. Nothing is known of Leo's later life. Igloolik is also the home-base of the only Inuit circus, Artcirq. This collective is active in video-making, music production and live circus show performances. Early in 2008, when temperatures in Igloolik were at
instead of scrolls; they could be found in mosques, private homes, and universities, from Timbuktu to Afghanistan and modern day Pakistan. In Aleppo, for example, the largest and probably the oldest mosque library, the Sufiya, located at the city's Grand Umayyad Mosque, contained a large book collection of which 10,000 volumes were reportedly bequeathed by the city's most famous ruler, Prince Sayf al-Dawla.
Timbuktu, an important city on the trans-Saharan caravan route, was flooded at least 13 times by the Niger River; there are no records of similar flooding before or since. In China, warm weather
in biodiversity, and structural damage to buildings.
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a relatively autonomous position. Merchants from Ghadames, Awjilah (Awjilah, Libya), and numerous other cities of North Africa gathered there to buy gold and slaves in exchange for the Saharan salt of Taghaza (History of salt#The socio-political history of salt) and for North African cloth and horses.
on the verge of economic depletion and bankruptcy, as they needed to pay for the defenses used to hold off the siege) under the eunuch Judar Pasha. Judar Pasha was a Spaniard by birth, but had been captured as an infant and educated at the Saadi court. After a march across the Sahara desert, Judar's forces captured, plundered, and razed the salt mines at Taghaza and moved on to Gao. When Emperor Askia Ishaq II (r. 1588-1591) met Judar at the 1591 Battle of Tondibi, Songhai forces
with the Tuareg (Taureg people) whom Ali expelled to gain control of the town. '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located
Arts & Life in Africa date 15 October 1998 url http: www.uiowa.edu ~africart toc countries Mali.html accessdate 5 November 2010 By then, the canal linking the city with the Niger River had already been filled with sand from the encroaching desert (desertification). Severe droughts hit the Sahel region in 1973 and 1985, decimating the Tuareg population around Timbuktu who relied on goat herding. The Niger's water level dropped, postponing the arrival of food
'''Timbuktu''' ( north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali (Regions of Mali). It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.
Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg (Tuareg people) tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan (Morocco) army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.
The invaders established a new ruling class, the arma (Arma people), who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.
In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place.
On 1 April 2012, one day after the capture of Gao, Timbuktu was captured from the Malian military by the Tuareg rebels (2012 Tuareg rebellion) of the MNLA and Ansar Dine.
On 28 January 2013, French and Malian government troops began retaking Timbuktu from the Islamist rebels.
On 30 March, jihadist rebels infiltrated (2nd Battle of Timbuktu) into Timbuktu just nine days prior to a suicide bombing (Battle of Timbuktu) on a Malian army checkpoint at the international airport killing a soldier. Fighting lasted until 1 April, when French warplanes helped Malian ground forces chase the remaining rebels out of the city center.