, Thuringia, and died in Darmstadt, aged 76. Born in Greiz, Thuringia, Beck grew up in the town of Zirndorf, beginning his toy making career as a creator of little vehicles and figures for his younger siblings. Beck received training as a cabinetmaker (Cabinet (furniture)) but worked simultaneously on model airplanes, a product he pitched to the company Geobra Brandstätter. The owner of the company, Horst Brandstätter, asked him to develop toy figures
princes received what later became Thuringia and founded several small states there (see ''Ernestine duchies''). The remaining Saxon state became still more powerful, becoming known in the 18th century for its cultural achievements, although it was politically inferior to Prussia and Austria, which pressed Saxony from either side. 4 January 1428 Nicknamed "the Warlike." After the Wittenberg line of the Ascanians became extinct, the Electorate was given
of the city on reconnaissance (…)", extraordinary Professor at University of Jena * Carl Zeiss (1816–1888), German maker of optical instruments commonly known for the company he founded, Carl Zeiss Jena (Carl Zeiss AG), born in Weimar * Karl Marx (1818–1883), German philosopher, economist, social scientist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, PhD awarded by University of Jena * Johannes Brahms (1833–1897), German composer and pianist
. The larger settlemental region surrounding Gera has been recorded in documents as early as the year 1000. It is thought to have been inhabited since late 7th or early 8th century by Slavic Settlers (Slavic peoples) who tribally belonged to the Sorbs. Large portions of the Vogtland, however, still were covered with pristine forests and were not settled before the High Middle Ages, especially until the period called ''Deutsche Ostsiedlung (Ostsiedlung)''. Those settlers
). Originally the western part of the Landgraviate (Landgrave) of Thuringia, in the mid 13th century it was inherited by the younger son of Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and became a distinct political entity. From the late 16th century it was generally divided into several branches, the most important of which were those of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). In the early 19th century the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel was elevated
(''Beutel''). A variety of ''Blutwurst'', the ''Rotwurst'' from Thuringia (''Thüringer Rotwurst'') has geographical indication protection under EU law, with '''PGI (Protected geographical indications in the European Union)''' status. ''Kartoffelwurst'' (potato sausage) is a post-World War II variety popular in the Palatinate (Palatinate (region)), a fat-reduced version of ''Blutwurst'' using potato cubes instead of bacon. Castles in Thuringia between Gotha and Erfurt The first
) instead. The three districts that shared the territory of Thuringia were centered in Erfurt, Gera and Suhl. Also present Altenburg kreis was part of Leipzig bezirk. The State of Thuringia was restored with slightly altered borders during Germany's reunification (German reunification) in 1990. Geography Topography From the northwest going clockwise, Thuringia borders on the German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony, Bavaria and Hesse. The landscapes of Thuringia are quite diverse. The far north is occupied by the Harz mountains, followed by the Goldene Aue, a fertile floodplain around Nordhausen with the Helme as most important river. The north-west includes the Eichsfeld, a hilly and sometimes forested region, where the Leine river emanates. The central and northern part of Thuringia is defined by the 3000 km² wide Thuringian Basin, a very fertile and flat area around the Unstrut river and completely surrounded by the following hill chains (clockwise from the north-west): Dün, Hainleite, Windleite, Kyffhäuser, Hohe Schrecke, Schmücke, Finne (Finne (hills)), Ettersberg, Steigerwald (Steigerwald (Erfurt)), Thuringian Forest, Hörselberge and Hainich. Within the Basin the smaller hill chains Fahner Höhe (Fahner Höhe (hills)) and Heilinger Höhen. South of the Thuringian Basin is the Land's largest mountain range, marked by the Thuringian Forest in the north-west, the Thuringian Highland in the middle and the Franconian Forest in the south-east. Most of this range is forested and the Großer Beerberg (983 m
Turnout was 52.7%. CDU and SPD form Thuringia state coalition, The Local; 19 October 2009. Local government Thuringia is divided into 17 districts ( ''Landkreise''<
; span ): - valign top style "width:33%;" # Altenburger Land # Eichsfeld (Eichsfeld (district)) # Gotha (Gotha (district)) # Greiz (Greiz (district)) # Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen (district)) # Ilm-Kreis style "width:33%;" <
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the USPD (Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany); less than two years later, he became a member of the Thuringian parliament (Landtag) for the first time, where he stayed until 1933. Brill was born in the small town of Gräfenroda, Thuringia on February 9, 1895 as the son of a tailor; after finishing school, he attended the ''Herzog-Ernst-Seminar'' in Gotha (Gotha (town)) to become a teacher. His political career began in 1918, when he entered the Independent Social Democratic
of Erfurt. Early years Willi Münzenberg was born 14 August 1889 in Erfurt, Thuringia the son of a tavern keeper, Münzenberg grew up in poverty. As a young man, he became involved with trade unions and in the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Following the SPD split in 1914 between the moderate majority (known as the Majority SPD, MSPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany)) and the radical minority (known as the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany Independent
. Back in Germany, he married a Frau von Centener. Lincoln appointed him U. S. consul at Sonneberg in 1865, but the Thuringian states refused to issue his exequatur due to his radical writings. In the last years of his life, he became a leading figure in the initial stage of the German vegetarian movement. He had become a vegetarian as early
The '''Free State of Thuringia''' ( ) is a federal state (States of Germany) of Germany, located in the central part of the country. It has an area of and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area !-- area: 408 bremen, 892 berlin, 2569 saarland 15763 schleswig-holstein, 16171 thüringeen, 18416 sachsen 19847 rheinland-pfalz, 20445 sachsen-anhalt, 21100 hessen, 24174 mecklenburg-vorpommern, 29479 brandenburg, 34084 nordrhein-westphalen, 35752 baden-wurttemberg, 47624 niedersachsen, 70549 bayern, 755264 hamburg. -- and the fifth smallest by population !-- pop: 665000 bremen, 1045555 saarland, 1697800 mecklenburg-vorpommern, 1750194 hamburg, 2319000 thüringen, 2451000 saxony-anhalt, 2551000 brandenburg, 2832912 schleswig-holstein, 3402312 berlin 4054081 rheinland-pfalz, 4261896 sachsen, 6078000 hessen, 7996942 lower saxony, 10736000 baden-wurttemberg 12482000 bayern, 18039847 nordrhein-westphalen. -- of Germany's sixteen states . Most of Thuringia is within the watershed of the Saale, a left tributary of the Elbe (Elbe River). Its capital is Erfurt .
Thuringia has been known by the nickname of "the green heart of Germany" (''das grüne Herz Deutschlands'') from the late 19th century, due to the dense forest covering the land.
Thuringia is known in Germany for nature and winter sports. It is home to the Rennsteig, Germany's most famous hiking trail (hiking), and the winter resort of Oberhof (Oberhof, Germany). Germany has won more Winter Olympics gold medals than any other country in the last 20 years, and half of Germany's all-time total of 136 Winter Olympic gold medals (through the Sochi games in 2014) have been won by Thuringian athletes.
Johann Sebastian Bach spent the first part of his life (1685–1717) and important further stages of his career in Thuringia. In the classical period, Goethe and Schiller lived at Weimar. Both worked also in the famous University of Jena nearby, which now hosts the most important centre of science in Thuringia. Other Universities of this federal state (States of Germany) are the Ilmenau University of Technology (Technische Universität Ilmenau), the University of Erfurt, and the Bauhaus University of Weimar (Bauhaus-Universität Weimar).