, and preachers urged the Christian community to be as compassionate as their God was, reiterating that creation was for all of humanity. They also accepted and developed the identification of Christ with the poor and the requisite Christian duty to the poor. Religious congregations and individual charismatic leaders promoted the development of a number of helping institutions-hospitals, hospices for pilgrims, orphanages, shelters for unwed mothers-that laid the foundation for the modern "large network of hospitals, orphanages and schools, to serve the poor and society at large." accessdate 2007–10–18 Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
Republic , and all Syrian political parties, as well as the communists therein, ceased overt activities. Meanwhile, a group of Syrian Ba'athist officers, alarmed by the party's poor position and the increasing fragility of the union, decided to form a secret Military Committee; its initial members were Lieutenant-Colonel Muhammad Umran, Major Salah Jadid and Captain Hafez al-Assad. When Syria seceded on 28 September 1961, the ensuing instability culminated in the 8 March 1963 coup (1963 Syrian coup d'état). The takeover was engineered by members of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region), led by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar. The new cabinet was dominated by Ba'ath members. Ba'athist Syria thumb left Hafez al-Assad greets Richard Nixon (File:NixonAssad.jpg) on his arrival at Damascus airport in 1974 On 23 February 1966, the Military Committee carried out an intra-party overthrow (1966 Syrian coup d'état), imprisoned President Amin Hafiz and designated a regionalist, civilian Ba'ath government on 1 March. Although Nureddin al-Atassi became the formal head of state, Salah Jadid was Syria's effective ruler from 1966 until 1970. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
(Calah Nimrud). The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth, science, architecture and art. He also built a number of new heavily fortified towns, such as Imgur-Enlil (Balawat), Tushhan, Kar-Ashurnasirpal and Nibarti-Ashur. Ashurnasirpal II also had a keen interest in Botany and Zoology; collecting all manner of plants, seeds and animals to be displayed in Assyria. Under Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC
government during the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s. During that period, he is alleged to have met Osama Bin Laden and been given $6 million to establish a more Islamic group with the M.N.L.F. in the southern Philippines, made up of members of the extant M.N.L.F.
Bureau of Asian Research accessdate September 20, 2006 format PDF archiveurl http: web.archive.org web 20060927184541 http: www.nbr.org publications analysis pdf vol14no5.pdf archivedate September 27, 2006 deadurl no *1149 – Pope Eugene III takes refuge in the castle of Ptolemy II of Tusculum. *1271 – In Syria, sultan Baybars conquers the Krak of Chevaliers. *1730 – Shearith Israel
with the King as Grand Duke ceased to exist since 1890) and Netherlands. At a summit in Aleppo, Syria, in 1997, the World Council of Churches (WCC) proposed a reform in the calculation of Easter which would have replaced the present divergent practices of calculating Easter with modern scientific knowledge taking into account actual astronomical instances of the spring equinox and full moon based on the meridian of Jerusalem, while also following the Council of Nicea position of Easter
battalion position 1.5 km forward from its previous defensive position, a maneuver that saved his men and machines from the Syrian artilerry barrage. His was the only remaining tank force, equipped with 36 Israeli modified Centurion tanks to fight the Syrians for 3 continuous days, until enforcements and reserves were moved into positions. His battalion was reinforced with a tanks company from the 53rd battalion. After 4 days of fighting, his battalion was reduced to 5 operational tanks. More than 102 soldiers and officers died defending the southern Golan Line, from reinforced points (bunkers) 107 to 114. For his gallant, professional and courageous behavior during the war, Yair Nafshi received Israel's second highest decoration, the Medal of Valor. He retired from the army with the rank of Brigadier General. The target figure for recruitment was 10,000, but by mid-March 1948 the number of volunteers to have joined the Army reached around 6,000 and did not increase much beyond this figure. The actual number deployed might have been as low as 3,500, according to General Safwat. Its ranks included Syrians, Lebanese (Lebanon), including a few hundred Druze and Circassians, Iraqis, Transjordanians, Muslim Brothers (Muslim Brotherhood) from Egypt and Palestinians trained in Syria. There were also a few Yugoslavs (Yugoslavia), Germans (Germany), Turks (Turkey) and British deserters. The target figure for recruitment was 10,000, but by mid-March 1948 the number of volunteers to have joined the Army reached around 6,000 and did not increase much beyond this figure. The actual number deployed might have been as low as 3,500, according to General Safwat. Its ranks included Syrians, Lebanese (Lebanon), including a few hundred Druze and Circassians, Iraqis, Transjordanians, Muslim Brothers (Muslim Brotherhood) from Egypt and Palestinians trained in Syria. There were also a few Yugoslavs (Yugoslavia), Germans (Germany), Turks (Turkey) and British deserters. Early years of the Church of the East The Church of the East originally developed during the 1st century in the Aramaic speaking regions of Assyria, Babylonia, and northwestern Persia (today's Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and western Iran), to the east of the Roman-Byzantine empire. It is an Apostolic church, established by the apostles St Thomas (Mar Toma), St Thaddeus (Mar Addai (Thaddeus of Edessa)), and St Bartholomew (Mar Bar Tulmay). St Peter (Mar Shimun Keapa), the chief of the apostles added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the see at Babylon, in the earliest days of the church when stating, "The elect church which is in Babylon, salutes you; and Mark, my son (1 Peter 5:13). http: www.oikoumene.org member-churches regions north-america united-states-of-america holy-apostolic-catholic-assyrian-church-of-the-east.html The Church is governed by an episcopal polity, which is the same as other Catholic churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses and archdioceses. The Patriarch is head of the church, and under him there are four archdioceses in the Assyrian Church: one for Australia and New Zealand, one for Lebanon, Syria, and Europe, another for India, and one that serves Iraq and Russia. Individual dioceses exist in the eastern United States (including Chicago), the western United States, California, Canada, Syria, Iran and Europe. Several congregations (Wiktionary:congregation) exist in Georgia (Georgia (country)), India, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, and Syria. A single parish exists in Moscow. Video showing service at the Moscow church in 2008 The present Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, has his headquarters (along with four other houses of worship) in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The Church is governed by an episcopal polity, which is the same as other Catholic churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses and archdioceses. The Patriarch is head of the church, and under him there are four archdioceses in the Assyrian Church: one for Australia and New Zealand, one for Lebanon, Syria, and Europe, another for India, and one that serves Iraq and Russia. Individual dioceses exist in the eastern United States (including Chicago), the western United States, California, Canada, Syria, Iran and Europe. Several congregations (Wiktionary:congregation) exist in Georgia (Georgia (country)), India, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, and Syria. A single parish exists in Moscow. Video showing service at the Moscow church in 2008 The present Patriarch, Mar Dinkha IV, has his headquarters (along with four other houses of worship) in Chicago, Illinois, United States. thumb right 210px Minaret of the Mansouri Great Mosque (File:TripoliLebGreatMosqueMinaret.jpg) During the Mamluk period, Tripoli became a central city and provincial capital of the Mamlakah or kingdom (one of six in Mamluk Syria). Tripoli ranked third after Aleppo and Damascus. The kingdom was subdivided into six willayahs or provinces and extended from Jubayl and Aqra mountains south, to Latakia and al Alawiyyin mountains north. It also included al-Hermel, the plain of Akkar, and Hosn al-Akrad (Krak des Chevaliers). Tadmouri, O. AS., Tarih Tarablus AlSiyasi WalHadari Aabr AlOusour: Aasr AlMamalik, Tripoli, 1981. Arabic. Myth In the myth of Osiris and Isis, Osiris was killed by Set (Set_(god)) by being tricked into a coffin made to fit Osiris exactly. Set then had the coffin with the now deceased Osiris flung into the Nile. The coffin was carried by the Nile to the ocean and on to the city of Byblos in Syria. It ran aground and a sacred tree took root and rapidly grew around the coffin, enclosing the coffin within its trunk. The king of the land, intrigued by the tree's quick growth, ordered the tree cut down and installed as a pillar in his palace, unaware that the tree contained Osiris's body. Meanwhile, Isis searched for Osiris aided by Anubis, and came to know of Osiris's location in Byblos. Isis maneuvered herself into the favor of the king and queen and was granted a boon. She asked for the pillar in the palace hall, and upon being granted it, extracted the coffin from the pillar. She then consecrated the pillar, anointing it with myrrh and wrapping it in linen. This pillar came to be known as the pillar of djed. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
, Pakistan, Jordan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, northwestern India, Australia, and Cyprus. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
Arab historians as the major check in Arab expansions toward the west. The villages of Zahlé, Baalbeck, Niha, Anjar, Qab Elias, Kfar Zabad, Karaon Dam, Chtaura, and Furzul are the area's main tourism destinations. The Béqaa Governorate lies on an ancient route between Lebanon, Syria, and the rest of the Arab world. The governorate is known for its wine industry, summer festivals, and its cuisine. The ancient Egyptians called the Levant '''''Reṯenu (Retjenu)'''''. Ancient Egyptian texts (c. 14 century BC) called the entire coastal area along the Mediterranean Sea between modern Egypt and Turkey ''rṯnw'' (conventionally ''Reṯenu (Retjenu)''). Reṯenu was subdivided into four regions: ''Kharu'' (''ḥ ''' Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
Cairo, Paris, London, Madrid, Jeddah and Delphi, never staying in one place long but always returning to the Middle East. For the remainder of his life, Al-Bayati moved between his homeland and the rest of the world. "I've always searched for the sun's springs," he said, "When a human being stays in one place, he's likely to die. People too stagnate like water and air. Therefore the death of nature, of words, of the spirit has prompted me to keep travelling, so as to encounter new
to the incident. During the interrogation, Hindawi claimed to have arranged the plot with high-ranking officers in Syrian Air Force intelligence a year earlier in Damascus, where he was given Syrian papers and instructions for operating the explosives. He supposedly conducted a training run back in England before returning again to Syria for final details and preparation. As for the explosives themselves, Hindawi said that they were delivered to him in the Royal Garden Hotel in London on April 5, less than two weeks prior to the attempted bombing. This story is supported by the fact that Hindawi first sought refuge in the Syrian embassy after he had learned of the failed bombing, and Syrian officials were in the process of altering his appearance before he fled again, only to surrender to police. Also, British intelligence had previously intercepted Syrian communications with Hindawi's name, Hindawi was using genuine Syrian documents although he was not Syrian, and Hindawi's original escape plan involved leaving England with Syrian agents working on Syrian Arab Airlines. Hindawi's confession during the interrogation was the basis for the prosecution case. According to a report in late November 2006 in ''Newsday'', internal strife, the assassination of a cabinet minister (Pierre Amine Gemayel) in Lebanon, and opposition from President Bush (George W. Bush) to the group recommending negotiations with Iran and Syria was challenging the commission's intent to issue a consensus report. An Iraq expert told the newspaper that there "has been a lot of fighting" among the expert advisers to the group, mainly between conservatives (American conservatism) and liberals (American liberalism). Timothy M. Phelps, "Nothing but woes for Baker group", ''Newsday'', November 22, 2006 Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
'''Syria''' ( A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups (demographics of Syria), including the Arab (Syrian people), Greeks, Armenians (Armenians in Syria), Assyrians (Assyrians in Syria), Kurds (Kurds in Syria), Circassians (Circassians in Syria), Gammer, 2004, p. 64. Mhallami, Mandeans Who Cares for the MANDAEANS?, Australian Islamist Monitor and Turks (Syrian Turks). Religious groups include Sunni (Islam in Syria#Sunni Islam), Christians (Christianity in Syria), Alawite (Alawites), Druze religion (Druze#In Syria), Mandeanism and Yezidi. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria.
In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as ''al-Sham'') while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC (Before Christ). In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) in Egypt.
The modern Syrian state was established after World War I as a French mandate (French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon), and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman (Ottoman Empire)-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958-61, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt (United Arab Republic), which was terminated by a military coup. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in 1963, transforming from the Republic of Syria in the Ba'athist coup d'état (1963 Syrian coup d'état). Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.
Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it is currently suspended from the Arab League