and the Golan Heights came under Israeli military administration. During the Autumn of 2003, following the declassification of key Aman documents, the newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth released a series of controversial articles which revealed that key Israeli figures were aware of considerable danger that an attack was likely, including Golda Meir and Moshe Dayan, but had decided not to act. The two
, Pakistan, Jordan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, northwestern India, Australia, and Cyprus. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
Africa as "Sephardic", whether or not they were descended from Spanish Jews, which is what the terms "Sephardic Jews" and "Sepharadim" properly implied when used in the ethnic as opposed to the religious sense. Many of the Sephardic Jews exiled from Spain (Alhambra decree) resettled in greater or lesser numbers in many Arabic-speaking countries (Arab world), such as Syria and Morocco. In Syria, most eventually intermarried with and assimilated into the larger established community of Arabic-speaking Jews (Arab Jews). In North African countries, by contrast, where the Sephardim came to outnumber the pre-existing Mizrahi Jew communities it was some of the latter who assimilated into the more prosperous and prestigious Sephardic communities. In Morocco a distinction remained with the purely Sephardic ''Gerush Castilia'' of the Spanish-speaking northern strip who kept their Judeo-Spanish language known as Haketia. Either way, this assimilation, combined with the use of the Sephardic rite, led to the popular designation and conflation of most non-Ashkenazic Jewish communities from the Middle East and North Africa as "Sephardic", whether or not they were descended from Spanish Jews, which is what the terms "Sephardic Jews" and "Sepharadim" properly implied when used in the ethnic as opposed to the religious sense. Born in Kafroun, tartous (tartous Governorate), Syria into a Christian household, he was called "the miraculous of his time" for his artistic talent in singing. Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
, France, Germany, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Palestine, Romania, Russia, Spain, Syria and Uganda. Many of these projects are supported by the British Council and more recently by the Genesis Foundation, who also support the production of international plays. The International Department has been the recipient of a number of awards including the 1999 International Theatre Institute award. Syria
, 24 March 2003. Since the war he has signed the 'Unite Against Terror' declaration, arguing that "the ''pseudo-left'' reveals its shameless hypocrisy and its wholesale abandonment of humanitarian values" by supporting resistance and insurgent groups in Iraq that resort to indiscriminate terrorism, killing innocent civilians. In 2002 he reiterated his support for Iraqis bidding to overthrow Saddam, noting that "Saddam's repression is, if anything, getting worse
are interested in abstract science but also by those who are concerned with nationbuilding in practice. Whatever might have been the views of our older "Nation builders" we younger folk approach the task of nation building in a thoroughly scientific spirit and we desire to be armed with all the knowledge which modern science and culture can afford us. It is not possible however, for political workers with their unending preoccupations to glean that knowledge themselves, it is therefore
) Abilene and from that name local tradition has long held it as the site where the grave of Abel, slain brother of Cain, lies. Scholars consider it likely that the capital of Abilene was the city of Saidnaya. Vasilakē, 2005, p. 278. Garrett, 2007, p. 2-4. Background Barkett has had an unusual career path for a judge. One of seven children who survived into adulthood, Barkett, whose birth surname is Barakat, was born in Ciudad Victoria, Mexico to parents recently immigrated from Syria, Assad and Mariam Barakat. In January, 1946, at age six, she moved to Miami, Florida. By birth she was a Mexican citizen, speaking only Spanish until she came to Miami, making Barkett the first Hispanic judge to serve on the Florida Supreme Court, as well as the first female judge and the first Arab American judge. She became a U.S. citizen in 1958. Alaouites Alaouites ('''Alawi''') is a district of Syria lying on the coast between Hatay (Hatay Province) and Lebanon. It was formerly part of the Turkish Empire but was placed under a French mandate in 1920. It became an independent republic and was renamed Latakia (after the capital) in 1930. On 28 February 1937, it was incorporated into Syria. Stamps of France were issued in 1925 with overprint '''ALAOUITES'''. These were soon superseded by stamps of Syria bearing the same overprint. In July 1931, stamps of Syria were issued with overprint '''LATTAQUIE'''. Since 1 March 1937, stamps of Syria without overprint have been in constant use. ;Dates Stamps of France were issued in 1925 with overprint '''ALAOUITES'''. These were soon superseded by stamps of Syria bearing the same overprint. In July 1931, stamps of Syria were issued with overprint '''LATTAQUIE'''. Since 1 March 1937, stamps of Syria without overprint have been in constant use. ;Dates Stamps of France were issued in 1925 with overprint '''ALAOUITES'''. These were soon superseded by stamps of Syria bearing the same overprint. In July 1931, stamps of Syria were issued with overprint '''LATTAQUIE'''. Since 1 March 1937, stamps of Syria without overprint have been in constant use. ;Dates Alawi The State of the Alawi, called Alaouites in French, had a separate existence between the World Wars but is now part of Syria. It was a coastal enclave between Hatay (Hatay Province) and Lebanon. ;Refer An estimate of approximately 10–13% of the world's Muslims are Shi'a, which corresponds to about 130–190 million Shi'a Muslims worldwide. Shi'a Muslims also constitute over 30% of the population in Lebanon, "Religious Distribution in Lebanon" ''New York Times'' over 45% of the population in Yemen, How many Shia? over 35% of the population in Kuwait, 20–25% of the population (primarily Alevi) in Turkey, 20% (primarily Bektashi) of the population in Albania, 15% of the population in Pakistan and 3% of population in Afghanistan. They also make up at least 25% Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
the Protocols of Paris of 28 May 1941 signed by Admiral Darlan (François Darlan), agreements which granted bases to the Axis in Aleppo (Syria), Bizerte (Tunisia), and Dakar (Senegal) and envisaged an extensive military collaboration with Axis forces in the event of Allied countermeasures. As Simon Kitson demonstrated in his book ''The Hunt for Nazi Spies'', Weygand remained outspoken in his criticism of Germany. Simon Kitson, ''The Hunt for Nazi Spies'', Chicago
, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0) '''Ali Bey al-Abbasi (علي باي العباسي)''', was the false name pseudonym that '''Domingo Badía y Leblich''' (Barcelona 1766 – Syria 1818), a Spanish explorer and spy in the early 19th century, used for several years in his travels to North Africa and the Middle East. Notably, he witnessed the Saudi (House of Saud) conquest of Mecca in 1807. Badía travelled to and wrote descriptions of Morocco, Tripoli, Cyprus, Egypt, Arabia, Syria (including modern Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine, then considered part of Syria,) and Turkey during the period of 1803–1807. He went to Mecca ostensibly to perform the hajj, saying that he was a descendant of the Abbassid Caliphs of the West. Birth and education Ibn Qayyim was born on the 7th of the Islamic month Safar in the year 691 A.H. (circa Feb. 4, 1292) in the village of Izra' in Hauran, near Damascus, Syria. There is little known of his childhood except that he received a comprehensive Islamic education from his father, centered around Islamic jurisprudence, Islamic theology, and Ulum al-Hadith (lit. the science of Hadith) From an early age, he was interested in the field of Islamic sciences, learning from the scholars of his time Commons:Category:Syria WikiPedia:Syria Dmoz:Regional Middle East Syria
afterwards, this was followed by the seizure on the part of the Phalangists of nearly all their positions in and outside East Beirut, including the vital Naas and Adma training camps. The remaining 3,000 or so militiamen founded themselves being consolidated by the end of October of that year into the Damouri Brigade within the Lebanese Forces. In addition to PLO backing, the Free Tigers also received some support from Syria in 1981, though Hannache seems to have taken
'''Syria''' ( A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, it is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups (demographics of Syria), including the Arab (Syrian people), Greeks, Armenians (Armenians in Syria), Assyrians (Assyrians in Syria), Kurds (Kurds in Syria), Circassians (Circassians in Syria), Gammer, 2004, p. 64. Mhallami, Mandeans Who Cares for the MANDAEANS?, Australian Islamist Monitor and Turks (Syrian Turks). Religious groups include Sunni (Islam in Syria#Sunni Islam), Christians (Christianity in Syria), Alawite (Alawites), Druze religion (Druze#In Syria), Mandeanism and Yezidi. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria.
In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as ''al-Sham'') while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC (Before Christ). In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate (Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)) in Egypt.
The modern Syrian state was established after World War I as a French mandate (French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon), and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman (Ottoman Empire)-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958-61, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt (United Arab Republic), which was terminated by a military coup. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in 1963, transforming from the Republic of Syria in the Ba'athist coup d'état (1963 Syrian coup d'état). Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.
Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it is currently suspended from the Arab League