as '''Karl Rodbertus-Jagetzow,''' was a German (Germany) economist and socialist of the scientific or conservative school from Greifswald. He defended the labor theory of value G.D.H. Cole points out that Rodbertus defended this theory "not in its Marxian form, but in the form in which it had been advanced by earlier writers such as William Thompson and John Francis Bray, and echoed by Proudhon." See G.D.H. Cole's ''History
of Swedish Pomerania, and of Prussian Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1653-1815)) thereafter. In 1808, Pölitz became independent from Stettin again. In 1815, Pölitz became part of the restructured Province of Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1815–1945)), administered within Landkreis Randow county. In 1939, this county was dissolved and Pölitz was made part of Groß-Stettin. Johannes Hinz, ''Pommern Lexikon'', Kraft, 1994, p.236, ISBN 3-8083-1164-9 ref>
: www.spiegel.de spiegel 0,1518,646123,00.html Five years of harsh treatment in Copenhagen brought his life to a close. Hans Henrik von Essen was appointed Colonel in 1787, Major General in 1795 and Field Marshal (List of Swedish Field Marshals) in 1811. He served as the Over-Governor of Stockholm from 1795 to 1797 and as the Governor-General (Governor-General in the Swedish Realm) of Pomerania (Swedish Pomerania) from 1800 to 1809. Upon the revolution of 1809 he received the title
was Lord of several estates. His education was imperfect, and in later life he always regretted his want of familiarity with the French language. He entered the cuirassier regiment of his uncle, Major-General von Winterfeld (now the 12th) until 1720, and was promoted cornet (cornet (military rank)) after two years service. But he was fortunate enough, by his stature and soldierly bearing, to attract the notice of Frederick William I (Frederick William I of Prussia), who transferred him
as '''Karl Rodbertus-Jagetzow,''' was a German (Germany) economist and socialist of the scientific or conservative school from Greifswald. He defended the labor theory of value G.D.H. Cole points out that Rodbertus defended this theory "not in its Marxian form, but in the form in which it had been advanced by earlier writers such as William Thompson and John Francis Bray, and echoed by Proudhon." See G.D.H. Cole's ''History of Socialist Thought: Volume II Part II''. London: Macmillan, 1960. p. 21. as well as the view, as an inference from that, that interest or profit is theft. He believed that capitalist economies tend toward overproduction. Charles XII and his political pro-war ally, the Crimean khan Devlet II Giray, continued their lobbying to have the Sultan declare another war. On next Spring the pro-war party, which accused the Russians of delaying to meet the terms negotiated in the peace treaty, came close to achieving their goal. War was avoided by diplomatic means and a second treaty was signed on 17 April 1712. A year after this new settlement, the war party succeeded, this time accusing the Russians of delaying in their retreat from Poland. Ahmed III declared another war on 30 April 1713. However, there were no significant hostilities and another peace treaty was negotiated very soon. Finally the Sultan became annoyed by the pro-war party and decided to help the Swedish king to return to his homeland. Ahmed III also deposed Devlet II Giray from the throne of the Crimean Khanate and sent him into exile to the Ottoman island of Rodos (Rhodes) because he didn't show enough respect to Charles XII during the campaigns against Russia (Devlet II Giray considered Charles XII a prisoner and ignored his commands.) Charles XII left the Ottoman Empire for Stralsund in Swedish Pomerania which by then was besieged (Siege of Stralsund (1711–1715)) by troops from Saxony, Denmark, Prussia and Russia. thumb Thomas Thorild. (File:Thomas Thorild (ur Svenska Familj-Journalen).png) '''Thomas Thorild''' (Svarteborg (Munkedal Municipality), Bohuslän, 18 April 1759 - Greifswald, Swedish Pomerania, 1 October 1808), was a Swedish (Sweden) poet, critic, feminist and philosopher. He was born in Svarteborg (Munkedal Municipality), Sweden and died at Greifswald, which was then Swedish Pomerania, and is now part of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. His original name was ''Thomas Thorén'' and he studied at Lund University in Sweden and worked or studied at the University of Greifswald in Germany. Duchy Ruled by the House of Griffins (House of Pomerania), internally divided (Partitions of the Duchy of Pomerania) from 1532 to 1625, Swedish Pomerania from 1637 on, Farther Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1653–1815)) to Brandenburg-Prussia in 1653 - * Marta Orlyk (1713 -?) - born in Bender, Ottoman Empire. Her godfather was king Stanisław Leszczyński of Poland (Stanisław Leszczyński). * Maryna Orlyk (1715 - ?) - born in Altefähr, Rügen, Swedish Pomerania. Her godparents were king Charles XII of Sweden's sister Ulrika Eleonora and king Stanisław Leszczyński of Poland (Stanisław Leszczyński). * Kateryna Orlyk (November 5, 1718 - ?) - born in Kristianstad, Skåne, Sweden and probably died already in 1719. The '''Battle of Fehrbellin''' was fought on June 18, 1675 between Swedish (Swedish Empire) and Brandenburg-Prussian troops. The Swedes, under Count Waldemar von Wrangel (stepbrother of ''Riksamiral (Lord High Admiral of Sweden)'' Carl Gustaf Wrangel), had invaded and occupied parts of Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg) from their possessions in Pomerania (Swedish Pomerania), but were repelled by the forces of Frederick William (Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg), the Great Elector, under his ''Feldmarschall (Field Marshal (Germany))'' Georg von Derfflinger near the town of Fehrbellin. The battle went down in history as Prussia's baptism of fire. Historical significance Upon the Brandenburgian victory, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark finally met their obligations and declared war on Sweden. While Frederick William forces invaded Swedish Pomerania, the Swedes did not enter the margraviate again until the 1679 Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679)), which—to the elector's great disappointment—largely restored the ''status quo ante bellum''. History According to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, the former prince-bishopric was secularized as the Principality of Halberstadt and together with Magdeburg (Archbishopric of Magdeburg), Minden (Bishopric of Minden) and Cammin (Bishopric of Cammin) given to the Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg) Elector Frederick William I of Hohenzollern (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg) as a compensation for Western Pomerania, which in the aftermath of the Brandenburg-Pomeranian conflict he had to cede to Sweden (Swedish Pomerania). This agreement was negotiated by Frederick William's representative Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal, who in reward was appointed Halberstadt's first secular governor. thumb left Halberstadt, Dompropstei (File:Dompropstei 1.jpg) '''Christoph Beetz''' (May 1, 1670, Swedish Pomerania – April 18, 1746, Stralsund) was ennobled by Emperor Charles VI (Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor) in Vienna, Austria on 27 January 1734 as "Beez von Beezen" (Beetz von Beetzen) after receiving an heritable membership of the old class of the Holy Roman Empire (higher nobility). His military career is highlighted by his command of a regiment at the age of 20 and his final appointment as Swedish (Sweden) Platz-Major and Stabs-Major of the military garrison in Stralsund. He was ranked as a Stadt-General. His 1746 portrait still graces the interior of Saint Mary's Church, Stralsund, Germany (German: Kirche St. Marien zu Stralsund (:de:Marienkirche (Stralsund))) where he is buried. The treaty came into being after Russia had allied to Prussia on 5 May, making it impossible for Sweden to continue the war which she had entered to regain territories in Pomerania (Swedish Pomerania) which they had previously lost (Treaty of Stockholm (Great Northern War)). The treaty reaffirmed the pre-war status quo. In 1613, Bergen was granted Lübeck law city rights. This is exceptional compared to most other Pomeranian cities, that had been granted city rights in the 13th century already. After the Thirty Years' War, the city became Swedish (Swedish Empire) as part of Swedish Pomerania in 1648. In 1815, it became part of the Prussian Province of Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1815–1945)). The town burnt down twice in great fires in 1475 and 1688. After the Treaty of Stettin (1630) and the subsequent Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Stettin (1653), Usedom, along with all of Western Pomerania, became a Dominion of Sweden (Swedish Pomerania) until 1720, when it was acquired by Prussia. From 1720 to 1945, the town was Prussian. The town had a railway connection from 1876. *Altona (Altona, Hamburg) was a Danish (Denmark) enclave in Germany between 1640 and 1864. * Bremen-Verden, Swedish Pomerania, and Wismar, Swedish (Sweden) enclaves in Germany after the Peace of Westphalia. * Cheikh Saïd - former French enclave near Aden
men) in order to cover besieged Stralsund (Siege of Stralsund (1711–1715)) in Swedish Pomerania. He won the Battle of Gadebusch, but numbers prevailed against him in the end. Cut off in Tönning (Siege of Tönning) he was forced to surrender after a gallant resistance, and passed into captivity. During his captivity he produced extraordinary fine ivory miniatures, which often included referrals to the number 51 - a reference to Psalm 51 "Have mercy on me, O God" http
in the Swedish Pomeranian town of Greifswald, where he began his studies in art as a youth. He studied in Copenhagen until 1798, before settling in Dresden. He came of age during a period when, across Europe, a growing disillusionment with materialistic society was giving rise to a new appreciation of spirituality. This shift in ideals was often expressed through a reevaluation of the natural world, as artists such as Friedrich, J.M.W. Turner (1775–1851) and John Constable (1776
area and the infrastructure, while most of the province retained a rural and agricultural character. Buchholz (1999), pp.412,413,464ff Since 1850, the net migration rate was negative, Pomeranians (Pomeranians (German people)) emigrated primarily to Berlin, the West German industrial regions and oversees. Buchholz (1999), pp.400ff In areas where Polish population lived along with Germans
any formal guarantees of the legal position of Finland's inhabitants. The Russians refused, and the Swedes were not in a position to insist. Similar clauses had been common in peace treaties, but they were also regularly circumvented. At the period of Russification of Finland, 90 years later, the Russian government argued that the treaty wasn't violated and hence no outside party had any right to intervene, the question being solely a matter of the emperor who had granted the original
, ISBN 3886802728 The former Brandenburg-Prussian Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1653-1815)) and the former Swedish parts were reorganized into the Prussian Province of Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1815–1945)), Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.366, ISBN 3886802728 while Pomerelia was made part of the Province of West Prussia. With Prussia, both provinces joined the newly constituted German Empire
) Province of Pomerania , Buchholz (1999), p.366 while Pomerelia taken from Poland was made part of the Province of West Prussia. Early Modern Age thumb 225px Pomerelia (File:K0nigl+BherzoglPreussen en.png) as a part of Royal Prussia (light blue), 16th century; Duchy of Pomerania in brown thumb right 225px The former Duchy of Pomerania (Image:Pomerania 1653.PNG) (center) partitioned between the Swedish Empire
of Schivelbein and Dramburg, formerly belonging to the Neumark. Buchholz (1999), p.366 While in the Kingdom of Prussia, the province was heavily influenced by the reforms of Karl August von Hardenberg Buchholz (1999), pp.393ff and Otto von Bismarck. Buchholz (1999), pp.420ff The industrial revolution had an impact primarily on the Stettin
'''Rügen''' was a ''Kreis'' (district) in the northeastern part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. The district of Rügen was created in 1806 by the Swedish administration of Swedish Pomerania. At first it was named ''Amt Bergen'', in 1810 it was renamed to ''Kreis Bergen''. On 4 September 2011, Rügen was merged to Vorpommern-Rügen.
Frederick VI of Denmark joined the anti-French alliance, ceded Heligoland to George III of the United Kingdom, and further ceded most of the Kingdom of Norway to Charles XIII of Sweden in return for Swedish Pomerania. Specifically excluded from the exchange were the Norwegian dependencies of Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands which remained in the union with Denmark. Dörr (2004), p. 103 Norway unsuccessfully contested the Danish claim to all of Greenland in the East Greenland case (#East Greenland case) of 1931–1933. Cavell (2008), pp. 433ff
However, not all provisions of the treaty would come into force. Norway declared its independence, adopted a Constitution (Constitution of Norway) and elected Christian Frederick (Christian Frederik) as their own king. Sweden therefore refused to hand over Swedish Pomerania, which instead passed to Prussia after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. After a short war with Sweden (Swedish-Norwegian War (1814)), Norway accepted entering into a personal union with Sweden (Union between Sweden and Norway) at the Convention of Moss.
In the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark-Norway and Kingdom of Sweden tried to maintain neutrality, Olesen (2008), p. 285 but soon became involved in the fighting joining opposite camps. Swedish king Gustav IV Adolf (Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden) entered an alliance with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Russian Empire against Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804, and declared war on Napoleonic France in 1805. The United Kingdom, which had declared war on France in 1803, paid subsidies to Sweden. Before Gustav IV Adolf marched his forces out of Swedish Pomerania, a province long coveted by Prussia (Brandenburg-Pomeranian conflict), he negotiated an agreement that Prussia would not attack it. Denmark remained neutral.
Article VII ruled that Swedish Pomerania was to be handed over to Denmark. In article XV, it was ruled that the Swedish forces were to take over the Norwegian fortresses as soon as the treaty was ratified, and that they were to abandon Swedish Pomerania as soon as the Norwegian fortresses Fredriksten, Fredrikstad (Fredrikstad Fortress), Kongsvinger and Akershus (Akershus Fortress) were handed over. Jenssen-Tusch (1852), p. 167 In article XIII, the Swedish king promised the Danish king to negotiate full compensation for the cession of Norway in a pending final peace, and the cession of Swedish Pomerania is described as a "proof" of this intention.
Due to the refusal of Norway to subordinate itself to the Swedish king, Charles XIII of Sweden did not hand over Swedish Pomerania to Frederick VI of Denmark. Büsch (1992), p. 104 The problem was solved at the Congress of Vienna, when the Great Powers followed a plan worked out by Karl August von Hardenberg, prime minister of (Minister President of Prussia) the Kingdom of Prussia, who proposed a ring exchange of territories and payments between the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Hanover (ruled in personal union with Great Britain and Ireland (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)), the Kingdom of Prussia and the Kingdom of Sweden.
The Great Northern War had now entered upon its later stage, when Sweden, beset on every side by foes, employed her fleet principally to transport troops and stores to the distressed Swedish Pomerania provinces. The audacity of Wessel impeded her at every point. He was continually snapping up transports, dashing into the fjords where her vessels lay concealed, and holding up her detached frigates. He was a part of Gyldenløve's fleet which succeeded in destroying a large number of Swedish transport ships at Rügen on September 29, 1712, and was promoted from Second Lieutenant to Captain Lieutenant. His successes compelled the Swedes to post a reward (Bounty (reward)) for his capture, while his free and easy ways also won him enemies in the Danish navy, who deplored his almost Privateer-like conduct.
thumb upright The ''Rubenow-Denkmal'' (Rubenow Monument) was erected in 1856 for celebration of the 400th anniversary of the university in honour of its founder and first rector, Heinrich Rubenow. (File:Greifswald - Rubenowdenkmal bei Nacht.jpg) When Swedish Pomerania became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815, the University of Greifswald became the oldest university on Prussian territory. Prussia recognised the potential of science and universities, thus extensive building activity and growing financial support enabled the University of Greifswald to grow further both in size and reputation.
His father died when he was 3, his mother when he was 14. In 1774, at age 17, he started studies at Lund University and produced two dissertations within two years, but was expelled just before presenting the second one. In 1776 he joined a ship of the Swedish East India Company from Gothenburg to China, but fled in Cape Town in April and in September he enlisted as a student of the University of Greifswald, which then was situated in Swedish Pomerania. There he wrote a dissertation on the justification of the American declaration of independence (United States Declaration of Independence), but was told this subject was too sensitive, because of Sweden's diplomatic relation with Great Britain.