Straits Settlements

What is Straits Settlements known for?


military+contribution

establishments amounted to $4,450,791, of which $2,586,195 were personal emoluments and $1,864,596 other charges. The military expenditure (the colony paid on this account 20% of its gross revenue to the British government by way of military contribution) amounted in 1906 to $1,762,438; $578,025 was expended on upkeep and maintenance of existing public works, and $1,209,291 on new roads, streets, bridges and buildings. See also * Governor of the Straits Settlements (List of Governors of the Straits Settlements) * Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements * History of Malaysia * History of Singapore * Federation of Malaya * Postage stamps and postal history of the Straits Settlements Notes '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. Some Chinese convicts deported from the Straits Settlements were sent to Madras in India, the "Madras district gazetteers, Volume 1" reported an incident where the Chinese convicts escaped and killed the police sent to apprehend them: "Much of the building work was done by Chinese convicts sent to the Madras jails from the Straits Settlements (where there was no sufficient prison accommodation) and more than once these people escaped from the temporary buildings' in which they were confined at Lovedale. In 186^ seven of them tjot away and it was several days before they were apprehended by the Tahsildar, aided by Badagas sent out in all directions to search. On the 28th July in the following year twelve others broke out during a very stormy night and parties of armed police were sent out to scour the hills for them. They were at last arrested in Malabar a fortnight later. Some police weapons were found in their possession, and one of the parties of police had disappeared—an ominous coincidence. Search was made all over the country for the party, and at length, on the 15th September, their four bodies were found lying in the jungle at Walaghát , half way down the Sispára ghát path, neatly laid out in a row with their severed heads carefully placed on their shoulders. It turned out that the wily Chinamen, on being overtaken, had at first pretended to surrender and had then suddenly attacked the police and killed them with their own weapons."


Currency

latd 1 latm 22 latNS N longd 103 longm 48 longEW E common_languages title_leader

and calculation by modern instruments.” Winichakul 1997, p.47 During the expedition, King Mongkut and Prince Chulalongkorn were infected with malaria. The king died six weeks later in the capital, and was succeeded by his son, who survived the malaria. In previous times, the Indian rupee was regarded as an official currency of other countries, including the Straits Settlements (now

in Malaysia were founded in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Melaka, and Singapore. The oldest English-language school in Malaya is the Penang Free School, founded in 1816, followed by Malacca High School, and Anglo Chinese School, Klang. Many English-language schools are considered quite prestigious. At the end of the 19th century, there was no single currency in use in Macau, but the predominant circulating coins were the silver Mexican dollars, the British silver


singapore

event2 Labuan (Crown colony of Labuan) incorporated date_event2 1 January 1907 event3 Fall of Singapore date_event3 15 February 1942 event4 Formal surrender Military Administration date_event4 12 September 1945 event_end Federated to br>

; North Borneo date_post 15 July 1946 p1 History of Penang#Early days flag_p1 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg p2 Founding of modern Singapore flag_p2 Flag of the United

Kingdom.svg p3 Dutch Malacca flag_p3 Flag of the Netherlands.svg p4 Dindings flag_p4 Flag of Perak.svg s1 Malayan Union flag_s1 Flag of the Federated Malay States (1895 - 1946).svg s2 Post-war Singapore flag_s2 Flag of Singapore (1946-1959).svg s3 Australia flag_s3 Flag of Australia.svg s4 Dindings flag_s4 Flag of the Federated Malay States (1895 - 1946).svg national_anthem "God Save the Queen" capital Singapore


fact book

in ''The Long Dark Hall (The Long Dark Hall (1951 film))'' (1951). The Chinese (Malaysian Chinese) have been settling in Malaysia for many centuries, and form the second-largest ethnic group. The first Chinese to settle in the Straits Settlements, primarily in and around Malacca, gradually adopted elements of Malaysian culture and intermarried with the Malaysian community and with this, a new ethnic group called emerged, the '' Peranakan

'' ("Straits Chinese"). These Chinese have adopted Malay traditions while maintaining elements of Chinese culture such as their largely Buddhist and Taoist religion. The more common dialects of Chinese spoken in Peninsular Malaysia are Cantonese, Mandarin (Mandarin language), Hokkien, Hakka (Hakka Chinese), Hainanese, and Foochow. The earliest predecessor of the Cabinet


quot design'

friends would pronounce "Phaik" as "fake". Design The construction of the Istana Singapore (then called Government House) and Sri Temasek was ordered by the Governor (List of Governors of the Straits Settlements) of the Straits Settlements, Sir Harry St. George Ord (Harry Ord), after the original governor's residence had to be demolished in 1859 to make way for Fort Canning on the hill that bears its name.


academic+amp

. 155) (UK), also known as the Charter Act 1813. . Section 377 became


portrait+location

author Tan Siok Sun title Goh Keng Swee: A Portrait location Singapore publisher Editions Didier Millet year 2007 pages 114–115 isbn 978-9-814-15582-3 . Gibson was 27 and in Los Angeles at the time of the murder. There is no record her name was ever mentioned in connection with the investigation. Soon after the murder she got work in a number of films produced by Famous Players-Lasky (Paramount Pictures), Taylor's studio at the time of his death. One of these films was among


elaborate design

Chinese . Initial values included 2c, 4c, and 8c, followed by large 50c and $1 stamps of a more elaborate design with the arms flanked by two natives. Notably in certain complex colonial units within the British Empire, the High Commissioner to whom was given the highest 'regional' supervision (either residing in one of the constitutive territories, e.g. in the British Western Pacific Territories (BWPT), first by the Governor on Fiji, then from 1952 onwards on the Solomon Islands; or even in a neighbouring colony, e.g. the Governor of the Straits Settlements as High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States) would commonly be represented in territories not comprising his residence by a Resident Commissioner, though in some places (including some of the Federated Malay States) similar officials were formally styled as Residents (Resident (title)), a more diplomatic title; otherwise another type of official was also possible (e.g. the British Consul (Consul (representative)) in the protected state of Tonga, a Polynesian kingdom; an Administrator (Administrator of the Government) on Nauru; a mere Chief Magistrate on tiny Pitcairn). In some cases one could compare his task to the Lieutenant-governor of a minor colony, especially as the High Commissioner indeed could be a British colonial Governor doubling as such. Secular schools in Malaysia were largely an innovation of the British colonial government. Many of the earliest schools in Malaysia were founded in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Melaka, and Singapore. The oldest English-language school in Malaya is the Penang Free School, founded in 1816, followed by Malacca High School, and Anglo Chinese School, Klang. Many English-language schools are considered quite prestigious. At the end of the 19th century, there was no single currency in use in Macau, but the predominant circulating coins were the silver Mexican dollars, the British silver trade dollars of Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements, as well as the silver dollars and fractional coinage of the neighbouring province of Canton (Guangdong). In 1901, it was decided to have a uniquely Macau currency, and for that purpose, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino was granted exclusive rights to issue legal tender banknotes that were to be denominated in patacas. On January 27, 1906, pataca notes in denominations of 1, 5, 50 and 100 were introduced and all foreign coinage was outlawed, the idea being to make the pataca paper notes the sole legal tender currency in Macau. However, the Chinese, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, were suspicious of this new paper money, and as such, the paper pataca always circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins. On the contrary, a similar action at exactly the same time in the Straits Settlements, and for the same purpose, had the different effect of putting the new Straits dollar unto the gold exchange standard. Hence both the Macau pataca and the Straits dollar were launched at a sterling value of 2 shillings and 4 pence, but where the Straits dollar remained at that value until the 1960s, the Macau pataca fluctuated with the value of silver, just like the Hong Kong unit. At the end of the 19th century, there was no single currency in use in Macau, but the predominant circulating coins were the silver Mexican dollars, the British silver trade dollars of Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements, as well as the silver dollars and fractional coinage of the neighbouring province of Canton (Guangdong). In 1901, it was decided to have a uniquely Macau currency, and for that purpose, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino was granted exclusive rights to issue legal tender banknotes that were to be denominated in patacas. On January 27, 1906, pataca notes in denominations of 1, 5, 50 and 100 were introduced and all foreign coinage was outlawed, the idea being to make the pataca paper notes the sole legal tender currency in Macau. However, the Chinese, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, were suspicious of this new paper money, and as such, the paper pataca always circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins. On the contrary, a similar action at exactly the same time in the Straits Settlements, and for the same purpose, had the different effect of putting the new Straits dollar unto the gold exchange standard. Hence both the Macau pataca and the Straits dollar were launched at a sterling value of 2 shillings and 4 pence, but where the Straits dollar remained at that value until the 1960s, the Macau pataca fluctuated with the value of silver, just like the Hong Kong unit. Straits Settlements The Straits Settlements were originally an outlier of the British East India Company. The Spanish dollar had already taken hold in the Straits Settlements by the time the British arrived in the nineteenth century, however, the East India Company tried to introduce the rupee in its place. These attempts were resisted by the locals, and by 1867 when the British government took over direct control of the Straits Settlements from the East India Company, attempts to introduce the rupee were finally abandoned. After disembarking the refugees at Constantinople, ''Whipple'' resumed her station ship and mail carrying duties with the Near Eastern Naval Detachment and continued the task through the end of 1920 and into the spring of 1921. On 2 May 1921, the destroyer, along with her division mates, sailed for the Far East, transiting the Suez Canal and called at Bombay, India; Colombo, Ceylon; Batavia (Jakarta), Java (Java (island)); Singapore, Straits Settlements; and Saigon, French Indochina. She arrived at her new home port, Cavite, Philippine Islands, near Manila, on 29 June. For the next four years, the destroyer served in the Asiatic Fleet, "showing the flag" and standing ready to protect American lives and property in strife-torn China. She operated out of Cavite in the winter months, conducting tactical exercises in the Philippines until heading north to North China ports in the spring for summer operations out of Tsingtao (Qingdao). In 1837 the Indian rupee was made the sole official currency in the Straits Settlements, but in 1867 silver dollars were again legal tender. In 1903 the Straits dollar, pegged at two shillings and fourpence (2s. 4d.), was introduced by the Board of Commissioners of Currency and private banks were prevented from issuing notes. Since then, the continuity of the currency has been broken twice, first by the Japanese occupation 1942 - 1945, and again by the devaluation of the Pound Sterling in 1967 when notes of the Board of Commissioners of Currency of Malaya and British Borneo lost 15% of their value. '''Goh Keng Swee''' ( '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. Some Chinese convicts deported from the Straits Settlements were sent to Madras in India, the "Madras district gazetteers, Volume 1" reported an incident where the Chinese convicts escaped and killed the police sent to apprehend them: "Much of the building work was done by Chinese convicts sent to the Madras jails from the Straits Settlements (where there was no sufficient prison accommodation) and more than once these people escaped from the temporary buildings' in which they were confined at Lovedale. In 186^ seven of them tjot away and it was several days before they were apprehended by the Tahsildar, aided by Badagas sent out in all directions to search. On the 28th July in the following year twelve others broke out during a very stormy night and parties of armed police were sent out to scour the hills for them. They were at last arrested in Malabar a fortnight later. Some police weapons were found in their possession, and one of the parties of police had disappeared—an ominous coincidence. Search was made all over the country for the party, and at length, on the 15th September, their four bodies were found lying in the jungle at Walaghát , half way down the Sispára ghát path, neatly laid out in a row with their severed heads carefully placed on their shoulders. It turned out that the wily Chinamen, on being overtaken, had at first pretended to surrender and had then suddenly attacked the police and killed them with their own weapons."


silver made

Empire . - Silver made a partial come back in the first decade of the 20th century, such that the silver dollar coins of the Straits Settlements and silver Peso coins of the Philippines had to be made smaller in size, and with a reduced silver content in order to prevent their silver value exceeding their recently established gold exchange value. An even larger rise in the price of silver after the First World War (World War I) caused the Royal Mint in London to reduce the silver


free school

in Malaysia were founded in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Melaka, and Singapore. The oldest English-language school in Malaya is the Penang Free School, founded in 1816, followed by Malacca High School, and Anglo Chinese School, Klang. Many English-language schools are considered quite prestigious. At the end of the 19th century, there was no single currency in use in Macau, but the predominant circulating coins were the silver Mexican dollars, the British silver trade dollars of Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements, as well as the silver dollars and fractional coinage of the neighbouring province of Canton (Guangdong). In 1901, it was decided to have a uniquely Macau currency, and for that purpose, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino was granted exclusive rights to issue legal tender banknotes that were to be denominated in patacas. On January 27, 1906, pataca notes in denominations of 1, 5, 50 and 100 were introduced and all foreign coinage was outlawed, the idea being to make the pataca paper notes the sole legal tender currency in Macau. However, the Chinese, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, were suspicious of this new paper money, and as such, the paper pataca always circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins. On the contrary, a similar action at exactly the same time in the Straits Settlements, and for the same purpose, had the different effect of putting the new Straits dollar unto the gold exchange standard. Hence both the Macau pataca and the Straits dollar were launched at a sterling value of 2 shillings and 4 pence, but where the Straits dollar remained at that value until the 1960s, the Macau pataca fluctuated with the value of silver, just like the Hong Kong unit. At the end of the 19th century, there was no single currency in use in Macau, but the predominant circulating coins were the silver Mexican dollars, the British silver trade dollars of Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements, as well as the silver dollars and fractional coinage of the neighbouring province of Canton (Guangdong). In 1901, it was decided to have a uniquely Macau currency, and for that purpose, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino was granted exclusive rights to issue legal tender banknotes that were to be denominated in patacas. On January 27, 1906, pataca notes in denominations of 1, 5, 50 and 100 were introduced and all foreign coinage was outlawed, the idea being to make the pataca paper notes the sole legal tender currency in Macau. However, the Chinese, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, were suspicious of this new paper money, and as such, the paper pataca always circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins. On the contrary, a similar action at exactly the same time in the Straits Settlements, and for the same purpose, had the different effect of putting the new Straits dollar unto the gold exchange standard. Hence both the Macau pataca and the Straits dollar were launched at a sterling value of 2 shillings and 4 pence, but where the Straits dollar remained at that value until the 1960s, the Macau pataca fluctuated with the value of silver, just like the Hong Kong unit. Straits Settlements The Straits Settlements were originally an outlier of the British East India Company. The Spanish dollar had already taken hold in the Straits Settlements by the time the British arrived in the nineteenth century, however, the East India Company tried to introduce the rupee in its place. These attempts were resisted by the locals, and by 1867 when the British government took over direct control of the Straits Settlements from the East India Company, attempts to introduce the rupee were finally abandoned. After disembarking the refugees at Constantinople, ''Whipple'' resumed her station ship and mail carrying duties with the Near Eastern Naval Detachment and continued the task through the end of 1920 and into the spring of 1921. On 2 May 1921, the destroyer, along with her division mates, sailed for the Far East, transiting the Suez Canal and called at Bombay, India; Colombo, Ceylon; Batavia (Jakarta), Java (Java (island)); Singapore, Straits Settlements; and Saigon, French Indochina. She arrived at her new home port, Cavite, Philippine Islands, near Manila, on 29 June. For the next four years, the destroyer served in the Asiatic Fleet, "showing the flag" and standing ready to protect American lives and property in strife-torn China. She operated out of Cavite in the winter months, conducting tactical exercises in the Philippines until heading north to North China ports in the spring for summer operations out of Tsingtao (Qingdao). In 1837 the Indian rupee was made the sole official currency in the Straits Settlements, but in 1867 silver dollars were again legal tender. In 1903 the Straits dollar, pegged at two shillings and fourpence (2s. 4d.), was introduced by the Board of Commissioners of Currency and private banks were prevented from issuing notes. Since then, the continuity of the currency has been broken twice, first by the Japanese occupation 1942 - 1945, and again by the devaluation of the Pound Sterling in 1967 when notes of the Board of Commissioners of Currency of Malaya and British Borneo lost 15% of their value. '''Goh Keng Swee''' ( '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. '''British Malaya''' loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British (United Kingdom) control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. Some Chinese convicts deported from the Straits Settlements were sent to Madras in India, the "Madras district gazetteers, Volume 1" reported an incident where the Chinese convicts escaped and killed the police sent to apprehend them: "Much of the building work was done by Chinese convicts sent to the Madras jails from the Straits Settlements (where there was no sufficient prison accommodation) and more than once these people escaped from the temporary buildings' in which they were confined at Lovedale. In 186^ seven of them tjot away and it was several days before they were apprehended by the Tahsildar, aided by Badagas sent out in all directions to search. On the 28th July in the following year twelve others broke out during a very stormy night and parties of armed police were sent out to scour the hills for them. They were at last arrested in Malabar a fortnight later. Some police weapons were found in their possession, and one of the parties of police had disappeared—an ominous coincidence. Search was made all over the country for the party, and at length, on the 15th September, their four bodies were found lying in the jungle at Walaghát , half way down the Sispára ghát path, neatly laid out in a row with their severed heads carefully placed on their shoulders. It turned out that the wily Chinamen, on being overtaken, had at first pretended to surrender and had then suddenly attacked the police and killed them with their own weapons."

Straits Settlements

The '''Straits Settlements''' ( Modern historians refer to the Crown colony as '海峽殖民地', or '海峡殖民地', in Chinese, a lietral translation of the Crown colony's English name, rather than the official Chinese name of '叻嶼呷' adopted by the Government of the Straits Settlements. ) were a group of British (British Empire) territories located in Southeast Asia. Originally established in 1826 as part of the territories controlled by the British East India Company (East India Company), the Straits Settlements came under direct British control as a Crown colony on 1 April 1867. The colony was dissolved in 1946 as part of the British reorganisation of its Southeast Asian dependencies following the end of the Second World War.

The Straits Settlements consisted of the four individual settlements of Malacca, Dinding (Manjung), Penang (also known as Prince of Wales Island) and Singapore (with Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands (Cocos (Keeling) Islands)). The island of Labuan (Labuan Territory), off the coast of Borneo, was also incorporated into the colony with effect from 1 January 1907, becoming a separate settlement within it in 1912. Most of the territories now form part of Malaysia, from which Singapore gained independence in 1965, while Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were transferred to Australian control.

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