Soviet Union

What is Soviet Union known for?


early performance

with older active infrared systems or floodlights. A total of 23 M1A1s were damaged or destroyed during the war. Of the nine Abrams destroyed, seven were destroyed by friendly fire, and two were purposely destroyed to prevent capture after being damaged. GAO NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early performance assessment of Bradleys and Abrams", p. 24. GAO, January 1992. Quote: "According to the Army’s Office of Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 23 Abrams tanks were destroyed or damaged in the Persian Gulf area. Of the nine Abrams destroyed, seven were due to friendly fire, and two were intentionally destroyed to prevent capture after they became disabled. Other Abrams tanks were damaged by enemy fire, land mines, on-board fires, or to prevent capture after they became disabled." Some others took minor combat damage, with little effect on their operational readiness. Very few M1 tanks were hit by enemy fire, and there was only one fatality, along with a handful of woundings as a result. On 6 May 1945, near end of World War II, Plzeň was liberated from Nazi Germany by the 16th Armored Division (16th Armored Division (United States)) of General Patton's (George S. Patton) 3rd Army (U.S. Third Army). Also participating in the liberation of the city were elements of the 97th and 2nd Infantry Divisions. Other Third Army units liberated major portions of Western Bohemia. The rest of Czechoslovakia was liberated from German control by the Soviet (Soviet Union) Red Army. Elements of Third Army, as well as units from the First Army, remained in Plzeň until late November 1945, assisting the Czechs with re-building from the war. After seizing power in 1948, the Communists undertook a systematic campaign to suppress all acknowledgement of the U.S. Army's role in liberating the city and Western Bohemia. This continued until 1989 when the Communists were removed from power. Since 1990, the city of Plzeň has organised the annual Liberation Festival, taking place in May, which has already become a local tradition, and has been attended by many American and Allied veterans. Tamar's marriage to the Rus prince Yuri has become a subject of two resonant prose works in modern Georgia. Shalva Dadiani's play, originally entitled ''The Unfortunate Russian'' (უბედური რუსი; 1916–1926), was attacked by the Soviet (Soviet Union) critics for distorting the "centuries-long friendship of the Russian and Georgian peoples." Suny (1994), p. 290 Under the Communist Party (Communist Party of the Soviet Union) pressure, Dadiani had to revise both the title and the plot to bring it into line of the official ideology. Tillett, Lowell (1969), ''The Great Friendship: Soviet Historians on the Non-Russian Nationalities'', p. 329. University of North Carolina Press In 2002, a satyrical short-story ''The First Russian'' (პირველი რუსი) penned by the young Georgian writer Lasha Bughadze and focused on a frustrated wedding night of Tamar and Yuri outraged many conservatives and triggered a nationwide controversy, including heated discussions in the media (Georgian media), the Parliament of Georgia and the Patriarchate of the Georgian Orthodox Church. Spurling, Amy (2003), "The Georgian Literary Scene". ''PEN (International PEN) Bulletin of Selected Books''. '''53-54''': 100 Russia The population of Tajiks in Russia is 200,303 according to the 2010 census, up from 38,000 in the last Soviet (Soviet Union) census of 1989. 2002 Russian census Most Tajiks came to Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


family main

Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


film theory

York '''Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky''' ( ; April 4, 1932 – December 29, 1986) was a Soviet (Soviet Union) and Russian (Russians) filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist (film theory), theatre and opera director, widely regarded as one of the finest filmmakers of the 20th century. Posthumously, he was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1990, one of the highest state honors in the Soviet Union. In 1989 the ''Andrei Tarkovsky

Russian (Russian people) film director and film theorist (Film theory), often considered to be the "Father of Montage". He is noted in particular for his silent films ''Strike (Strike (film))'' (1924), ''Battleship Potemkin (The Battleship Potemkin)'' (1925) and ''October (October: Ten Days That Shook the World)'' (1927), as well as the historical (Historical movie) epics (Epic film) ''Alexander Nevsky (Alexander Nevsky (film))'' (1938) and '' Ivan the Terrible (film


experimental design

Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-3 ) was a Soviet (Soviet Union) fighter aircraft used during World War II. It was a development of the MiG-1 (Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1) by the OKO (opytno-konstrooktorskiy otdel — Experimental Design Department) of Zavod (Factory) No. 1 to remedy problems that had been found during the MiG-1's development and operations. It replaced the MiG-1 on the production line at Factory No. 1 on 20 December 1940 and was built in large numbers during 1941 before Factory No. 1 was converted to build the Ilyushin Il-2. World War II and after Bishop Maximilian Kaller was forced to leave his office by the Nazi (Nazism) Schutzstaffel for his safety in February 1945 during World War II, as the Soviet Red Army advanced into East Prussia. During the last months of the Second World War, the Potsdam Agreement went along with the Soviet conquests and the southern portion of the diocese was administered by Poland, while the northern part found itself in the Soviet Union as part of the Kaliningrad Oblast; the German population was subject to expulsion (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) along with the last Ermland bishop Maximilian Kaller. During World War II, it was the site of a Soviet (Soviet Union) prison camp for Polish (Poland) prisoners of war (Prisoner of war) (POWs), especially officers. 48 of them died in the camp and were buried in Chmirov cemetery. A very large proportion of the prisoners from the camp were massacred during the Katyn massacre in the Kharkiv NKVD building, later buried in Pyatykhatky (Piatykhatky, Kharkiv) forest. The division initially aided local self-defence units during the massacres of Poles in Volhynia and fought against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. It also fought German anti-partisan units and regular Wehrmacht troops. Despite orders by the Polish government not to harm civilians, Home Army partisans retaliated against the massacre of Poles by burning down Ukrainian villages and killing ethnic Ukrainians whom they encountered on Volhynian roads. Timonthy Snyder. (2003). ''The Reconstructuion of Nations.'' New Haven: Yale University Press. pg. 174. In 1944 the division fought several major battles near Włodzimierz Wołyński (Volodymyr-Volynskyi) (February 23), Hołoby (March 9) and Zasmyki (March 17). During the latter two battles the division cooperated with local Soviet (Soviet Union) partisan groups and the advancing Red Army. After reaching the frontline and contacting with the Soviets, Col. Jan Kiwerski "Oliwa" (Jan Kiwerski) was asked to combine the unit with the Red Army as a regular unit of Soviet-backed Polish army. He declined and returned to partisan fighting. The division was surrounded by the Germans near Kowel on April 2. 200px left thumb ''M1 Tank Platoon'' screen capture showing the gunners view (Image:Game screenshot, gunners view, m1 tank platoon, ibm pc vga.png) The player is put in the position of a tank platoon commander in charge of four American M1 Abrams tanks in a fictional campaign of battles against the Soviet (Soviet Union) army in Central Europe. The player can give orders to friendly units via a tactical map of the battle area as well as taking control of a single tank - assuming the role of either the tank commander, driver or gunner. The Soviet (Soviet Union) authorities bound the Highland Jews to collective farms, but allowed them to continue their traditional cultivation of grapes, tobacco, and vegetables; and making wine. The former isolated lifestyle of the Jews has practically ended, and they live side by side with other ethnic groups. Religious and educational institutions Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Soviet (Soviet Union) dissident (Soviet dissidents) novelist Soviet Union The flag of the Soviet Union has been burned many times by protestors against its government's policies. For instance in Brazil by those protesting the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia of 1968, Protest against Czech invasions mounts in capitals of the world, UPI, August 22, 1968 and in New York City in 1985 by protesters against the Soviet War in Afghanistan. Afghans Protest Soviet Presence, ''New York Times'', March 22, 1985 The '''Tupolev Tu-107''' was a prototype Soviet (Soviet Union) military transport aircraft developed from the Tu-104 (Tupolev Tu-104). It featuring a rear ramp loading door and was intended to carry light vehicles, artillery pieces, or up to 70 paratroopers. The fuselage was unpressurized which meant the paratroopers had to use oxygen masks. A single prototype was built and flown but the aircraft was not put in production. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


influential basketball

and international titles. RC AIA Kutaisi won the Soviet Championship (Soviet Championship (rugby)) several times in rugby (Rugby union), and after independence, national championship (Georgia Championship)s and cups. Kutaisi also had an influential basketball club BC Kutaisi 2010. It was the largest single party in the Legislative Assembly of Kyrgyzstan between 2001 and 2005 with 15 of the 60 seats. Since 2005 it has only 1 of 75 seats. It was led by Absamat Masaliyev


population providing

Uzbekistan ) **Victory and Peace Day (Public holidays in Armenia), mark the capture of Shusha in the Karabakh War and the end of World War II. (Armenia) Mao styled himself "The Great Helmsman" and supporters continue to contend that he was responsible for a range of positive changes which came to China during his three decade rule. These included doubling the school population, providing universal housing, abolishing unemployment and inflation, increasing health care


green news

Tukhachevsky , but later had a complex and difficult relationship with the government. Nevertheless, he received accolades and state awards and served in the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR (1947–1962) and the USSR (from 1962 until death). * 1936: Mercedes-Benz built the 260D (Mercedes-Benz 260 D) diesel car.green news 0807_mercedes_benz_diesel_history index.html Mercedes Benz Diesel History, The 260D Diesel Car. ref>


literary school

and Research Cooperation: A Brief History, 1973-2000 first Wayne last Nelles journal Canadian and International Education volume 29 issue 2 page 91 date December 2000 url http: www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk en cie 2902 2902091.htm In the first half of the 10th century, the Cyrillic script was devised in the Preslav Literary School, Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire), based on the Glagolitic (Glagolitic alphabet), the Greek (Greek alphabet) and Latin alphabets. Modern

century. The two literary schools of Preslav (Preslav Literary School) and Ohrid (Ohrid Literary School) developed a rich literary and cultural activity with authors of the rank of Constantine of Preslav, John Exarch, Chernorizets Hrabar, Clement (Clement of Ohrid) and Naum of Ohrid. Bulgaria exerted similar influence on her neighbouring countries in the mid to late 14th century, at the time of the Tarnovo Literary School, with the work of Patriarch Evtimiy, Gregory Tsamblak, Constantine of Kostenets (Konstantin Kostenechki). Bulgarian cultural influence was especially strong in Wallachia and Moldova where the Cyrillic script was used until 1860, while Church Slavonic (Church Slavonic language) was the official language of the princely chancellery (chancellor) and of the church until the end of 17th century. Spinks won the 1974 156-pound Golden Gloves Light Middleweight Championship by defeating Wilber Cameron in Denver, Colorado and then took the Silver Medal in the National AAU 165-pound Championship Competition in 1975, losing in three rounds to Tom Sullivan in Shreveport, Louisiana. He rebounded to take the 1976 National Golden Gloves Middleweight championship with a three-round victory over Lamont Kirkland in Miami, Florida, and that same year captured the United States Olympic Trials Middleweight Championship by defeating Keith Broom in Cincinnati, Ohio. He went on to defeat the Soviet Union’s Rufat Riskiev to win the Gold Medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. Spinks finished with a 93-7 amateur record with 35 knockouts. BoxRec, Michael Spinks http: boxrec.com media index.php Michael_Spinks '''''Pravda''''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


modern interpretations

a high point in the Soviet (Soviet Union) era when his works were promoted by the state as a musician of the people and he was known throughout Kyrgyzstan simply as "Toktogul". Toktogul at Kyrgyz Music This distinction was founded largely on his works in the pre-revolutionary era (Imperial Russia) which were interpreted as reflecting the class struggle. Modern

interpretations, however, suggest that they had more to do with clan rivalries. Despite this, he welcomed the revolution, writing "''What woman gave a birth to such a person like Lenin?''" in celebration. Even after the fall of the Soviet Union Toktogul's songs remain popular among Kyrgyz performers and many streets, parks, schools, and even his home town (Toktogul) are named


commercial scale

: Part 1 publisher U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory year 1998 accessdate 2007-01-28 archiveurl http: web.archive.org web 20060926155637 http: web.em.doe.gov tie history.html archivedate September 26, 2006 deadurl yes The world's first commercial scale nuclear power station, Obninsk (Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant) in the Soviet Union, began generation with its reactor AM-1 on 27 June 1954. Other early nuclear power plants were Sellafield Calder

society. However, there are signs of growth and development. Kapan is primarily a mining city, hence its Persian (Persian language) name of the Qajar (Qajar dynasty) time معدن (Ma'dan, meaning "mine"). Kapan's industry is dependent on the newly privatized polymetallic deposit, though additional operations have developed including mining support services, commercial scale animal husbandry, and an expanding retail sector. The furniture and textile industries have grown in recent

Soviet Union

The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.

The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.

In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.

Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.

In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).

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