. Sputnik Crashed Here, Manitowoc, Wisconsin Demolition After the Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1917) and, more specifically, the death of Lenin, the prominent site of the cathedral was chosen by the Soviets (Soviet Union) as the site for a monument to socialism known as the Palace of the Soviets. This monument was to rise in modernistic, buttressed tiers to support a gigantic statue of Lenin perched on top of a dome with his arm raised in the air. thumb 200px Moldavian ASSR (in orange) and Romania, 1924-1940 (File:Romania MASSR 1920.png) Transnistria became an autonomous political entity in 1924 with the proclamation of the Moldavian ASSR, which included today's Transnistria (4,000 km 2 ) as well as an adjacent area (9,000 km 2 ) around the city of Balta (Balta, Ukraine) in modern-day Ukraine, but nothing from Bessarabia, which at the time formed part of Romania (Kingdom of Romania). One of the reasons for the creation of the Moldavian ASSR was the desire of the Soviet Union at the time to eventually incorporate Bessarabia. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
. In 1938 he published his ''Polityka gospodarcza Niemiec hitlerowskich'' (''Economical Policies of Nazi Germany''), in which he was the first economist to compare the Nazi and Soviet ''socialist (socialism)'' economies. He was also a journalist on various newspapers, including the Kurier Wileński. Due to protests from Hispanic fans, MLS opted to choose another nickname, "Dynamo". It refers to Houston's energy-based industrial economy, as well as a previous Houston soccer team
Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
, Commander Second Fleet (United States Second Fleet), was the overall commander of U.S. forces, designated Joint Task Force 120, which included elements of each military service and multiple special operations units. Fighting continued for several days and the total number of U.S. troops reached some 7,000 along with 300 troops from the OAS. The invading forces encountered about 1,500 Grenadian soldiers and about 700 Cubans. Also present were 60 advisors from the Soviet Union, North
Russians , but there were also more serious, probing works like ''The Spy Who Came in from the Cold'' which also emerged from the Cold War. As the Cold War ended, the newest villain became terrorism and more often involved the Middle East. http: www.allrovi.com movies genre spy-film-d515 After the German surrender After the surrender of May 8, 1945, eliminated the threat of Nazi Germany, Patton was quick to assert the Soviet Union would cease
the invading outside forces. The '''Пулемёт Дегтярёвa Пехотный''' (''Pulemyot Degtyaryova Pekhotny'') (Degtyarev's infantry machine gun) or '''DP''' is a light machine gun firing the 7.62×54mmR cartridge that was used primarily by the Soviet Union starting in 1928. It was cheap and easy to manufacture - early models had fewer than 80 parts and could be built by unskilled labour. The DP was especially able to withstand dirt. In tests it was buried in sand and mud and was still capable
as 1921, Stalin himself listed his birthday as 18 December 1878 in a curriculum vitae in his own handwriting. However, after his coming to power in 1922, Stalin changed the date to 21 December 1879 (Old Style date (Old Style and New Style dates) 9 December 1879). That became the day his birthday was celebrated in the Soviet Union.
;something that has not been seen before". , but the yield was reduced to 50 megatons in order to reduce nuclear fallout. This attempt
Criticism Sonia Ketchian: The Poetic Craft of Bella Akhmadulina ref>
;). Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
, a considerable number of Tatars moved across to the Polish side of the border and settled in several locations in eastern Poland (esp. in Białystok and nearby towns) as well as in western and northern Poland (esp. in Gdańsk and Gorzów Wielkopolski). Nowdays no more than 400 - 4,000 Muslims of Tatar origin live in Poland and a much larger and active Tatar community lives in Belarus and also in Lithuania. In 1971 the Muslim Religious Association was reactivated and since 1991 the Society
Nastupatelnaya Operaciya), began on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet (Soviet Union) invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was the largest campaign of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War (Soviet–Japanese War (1945)). The Soviets conquered Manchukuo, Mengjiang (Inner Mongolia), northern Korea, southern Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. The rapid defeat of Japan's Kwantung Army was a very significant factor in the Japanese surrender and the end of World War II, as Japan realised the Russians were willing and able to take the cost of invasion of its Home Islands (Japanese archipelago), after their rapid conquest of Manchuria and Sakhalin. Robert Butow, ''Japan's Decision to Surrender'', Stanford University Press, 1954 ISBN 978-0804704601. Richard B. Frank, ''Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire'', Penguin, 2001 ISBN 978-0141001463. Robert James Maddox, ''Hiroshima in History: The Myths of Revisionism'', University of Missouri Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0826217325. Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, ''Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan'', Belknap Press, 2006 ISBN 0-674-01693-9. right thumb Location of Mainila on the Karelian Isthmus (Image:Mainila.png) (according to the borders prior to the signing of the Moscow peace treaty). The '''Shelling of Mainila''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).