Soviet Union

What is Soviet Union known for?


program food

of Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. Humphrey became known for his advocacy of liberal (liberalism) causes (such as civil rights, arms control, a nuclear test ban (nuclear testing), food stamps (Food Stamp Program), and humanitarian foreign aid), and for his long and witty speeches. During the period of McCarthyism (Joseph McCarthy) (1950–1954), Humphrey was accused of being "soft on Communism", despite having been one of the founders of the anti-communist liberal organization Americans for Democratic Action, having been a staunch supporter of the Truman Administration's efforts to combat the growth of the Soviet Union, and having fought Communist political activities in Minnesota and elsewhere. In addition, Humphrey "was a sponsor of the clause in the McCarran Act of 1950 (McCarran Internal Security Act) threatening concentration camps for 'subversives'", Rothbard, Murray N. (Murray Rothbard). Confessions of a Right-Wing Liberal, ''Ludwig von Mises Institute'' and in 1954 proposed to make mere membership in the Communist Party (CPUSA) a felony — a proposal that failed. He was chairman of the Select Committee on Disarmament (U.S. Senate Select Committee on Disarmament) (84th (84th United States Congress) and 85th (85th United States Congress) Congresses). Although "Humphrey was an enthusiastic supporter of every U.S. war from 1938 to 1978", in February, 1960, he introduced a bill to establish a National Peace Agency. Schuman, Frederick L. ''Why a Department of Peace''. Beverly Hills: Another Mother for Peace, 1969. As Democratic whip (whip (politics)) in the Senate in 1964, Humphrey was instrumental in the passage of the Civil Rights Act (Civil Rights Act of 1964) of that year. Humphrey's consistently cheerful and upbeat demeanor, and his forceful advocacy of liberal causes, led him to be nicknamed "The Happy Warrior" by many of his Senate colleagues and political journalists. thumb right Gloster Meteor F.8 (Image:Gloster Meteor F. MK. 8 1.jpg) The F.8 also featured a fuselage stretch of 76 centimetres (30 inches), intended to shift the aircraft's centre of gravity and also eliminate the use of ballast that had been necessary in earlier marks. The F.8 incorporated uprated engines, Derwent 8s, with 16 kN (1,633 kgp 3,600 lbf) thrust each combined with structural strengthening, a Martin Baker ejection seat and a "blown" teardrop cockpit canopy that provided improved pilot visibility. Between 1950 and 1955, the Meteor F.8 was the mainstay of RAF Fighter Command, and served with distinction in combat in Korea (Korean War) with the RAAF as well as operating with many air forces worldwide, although it was clear that the original design was obsolete compared to contemporary swept-wing fighters such as the North American F-86 Sabre and the Soviet (Soviet Union) MiG-15 (Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15). After an initial period of independent feudal consolidation, Belarusian lands were incorporated into the Kingdom of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and later in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire and eventually the Soviet Union. Belarus became an independent country in 1991 after declaring itself free from the Soviet Union. Estonia had pursued a policy of neutrality, but it was of no consequence after the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on August 23, 1939. In the agreement, the two great powers agreed to divide up the countries situated between them (Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland) with Estonia falling in the Soviet "sphere of influence". After the invasion of Poland, the Orzeł incident took place when Polish submarine ORP ''Orzeł'' (ORP Orzeł) looked for shelter in Tallinn but escaped after the Soviet Union attacked Poland on September 17. Estonian's lack of will and or inability to disarm and intern the crew caused the Soviet Union to accuse Estonia of "helping them escape" and claim that Estonia was not neutral. On September 24, 1939, the Soviet Union threatened Estonia with war unless provided with military bases in the country –- an ultimatum with which the Estonian government complied. The Estonian government decided, given the overwhelming Soviet force both on the borders and inside the country, not to resist, to avoid bloodshed and open war. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


long resistance

, which has been reflected in the materials of General Prosecutor's office of the Russian Federation. Fate of ethnic Russian Grozny residents (Russian Line) ''Chechnya: The White Book'' (Globalsecurity.org) Chechnya within Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union Following long resistance during the 1817−1864 Caucasian War, Russia finally defeated Chechnya and annexed it in the 1870s. The Chechens' subsequent attempts at gaining independence after the fall of the Russian Empire failed and in 1922 Chechnya was incorporated into Bolshevist Russia (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) and later into the Soviet Union (USSR). In 1936, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin created the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1944, on the orders of NKVD chief Lavrenti Beria, more than a half million Chechens, the Ingush (Ingush people), and several other North Caucasian peoples (Peoples of the Caucasus) were deported to Siberia Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


romantic art

, Stalin's Russia'', p259 ISBN 0-393-02030-4 Writers were explicitly enjoined to develop "heroization." This reflected a call for romantic art, which reflected the ideal rather than the realistic. Richard Overy, ''The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia'', p 355-6 ISBN 0-393-02030-4 Furthermore, it should show one clear and unambiguous meaning. Richard Overy


characters based

, ''Elseworlds'' stories are usually simply new continuities that tell stories which are alternative versions of established characters based around the different time period or location the story is set in (for example, ''Superman: Red Son'', in which Superman was raised in the Soviet Union instead of the United States). India also sought to improve relations with the United States, which had been strained due to the latter's support for Pakistan during the 1971 war and India's subsequent proximity with the Soviet Union. The Janata government announced its desire to achieve "genuine" non-alignment (Non-Aligned Movement) in the Cold War, which had been the long-standing national policy. In 1978, Jimmy Carter became the first U.S. President to make an official visit to India. Both nations sought to improve trade and expand cooperation in science and technology. Vajpayee represented India at the U.N. conference on nuclear disarmament, defending India's nuclear programme and its refusal to sign non-proliferation treaties. Operation Ivy Bells, 1979 ''Parche'' successfully tapped into Soviet (Soviet Union) underwater military communication cables in the Barents Sea in 1979 as part of Operation Ivy Bells. When the war came, Amery was one of the few anti-appeasers who was opposed to co-operation with the Soviet Union in order to defeat Nazi Germany. This came from a life-long fear of Communism. Industry The oblast's industrial production dropped rapidly during the 1990s, as an industrial crisis was stimulated by the nationwide economic crisis which followed the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, by the end of the decade output was increasing. Moreover, the manufacturing sector, despite a sagging economy in the late 20th century, continues to accounts for about 40% of the oblast's GDP (Gross domestic product). The engineering, electric-power, metal-working, chemicals, and food processing are the dominant industries. In 1972, Harold E. Puthoff and Russell Targ initiated a series of human subject studies to determine whether participants could reliably identify and accurately describe salient features of remote locations or targets. The term remote viewing was coined to describe this overall process. In order to explore the nature of remote viewing channel, the viewer in some experiments was secured in a double-walled copper-screened Faraday cage. Although this provided attenuation of radio signals over a broad range of frequencies, the researchers found that it did not alter the subject's remote viewing capability. They postulated that extremely low frequency (ELF) propagation might be involved, since Faraday cage screening is less effective in the ELF range. Such a hypothesis had previously been put forward by telepathy researchers in the Soviet Union. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


construction+life

to this approach because of equipment depreciation, it was a widespread view of the correct industrial policy to adopt. Many economists pointed to the Soviet (Soviet Union) command economy as a model of high-growth through tireless re-investment of output in further industrial construction. Life as a man Hajdu was born near Budapest in 1920. In the wake of World War II she moved to England, and in 1948 began to use the name Baron '''Carl Hajdu'''. In 1956 she collected money for Hungarian freedom fighters (Hungarian Revolution of 1956) resisting the then Soviet (Soviet Union) occupation. The People (Sunday People) newspaper, which specialised in lurid exposés (exposé (journalism)), alleged that Hajdu had in fact pocketed all the proceeds. She was sentenced for fraud in 1957 and forced into bankruptcy. When the Soviet Union took over Lithuania in 1940, some Jewish Dutch residents in Lithuania approached Zwartendijk to get a visa (visa (document)) to the Dutch Indies. With de Decker's permission, Zwartendijk agreed to help them. The word spread and Jews who had fled from German-occupied Poland (General Government) also sought his assistance. They expected to be killed after Mengele had finished his experiments, but lived to see the liberation of Auschwitz on January 27, 1945. The Red Army took them to the Soviet Union where they lived in a refugee camp for some time before they were released. The coat of arms was banned by the Soviet Union during their occupation of Lithuania. It was confirmed again on April 17, 1991, soon after Lithuania declared independence, by the Supreme Council of Lithuania. '''Zavod imeni Likhachova''', more commonly called '''ZIL''' (or '''ZiL''', Russian: Завод имени Лихачёва (ЗиЛ)—Likhachev Factory, literally "Factory named after Likhachov") is a major Russian truck and heavy equipment manufacturer, which also produced armored cars for most Soviet (Soviet Union) leaders, as well as buses, armored fighting vehicles, and aerosani. The company also produces hand-built limousines and high-end luxury sedans (автомобиль представительского класса, also translated as "luxury vehicle") in extremely low quantities, primarily for the Russian government. ZIL passenger cars are priced at the equivalent of models from Maybach and Rolls-Royce (Rolls-Royce car), but are largely unknown outside the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) and production rarely exceeds a dozen cars per year. The explosion sent flames bursting out of the mine shaft entrance. Miners' relatives rushed to the site but were denied entry by a cordon of Japanese guards who erected electric fences to keep them out. In an attempt to curtail the fire underground, the Japanese shut off the ventilation and sealed the pit head. Witnesses say that the Japanese did not evacuate the pit fully before sealing it; trapping many Chinese workers underground to suffocate in the smoke. Thus the actions of the Japanese are blamed for needlessly increasing the death toll. It took workers ten days to remove all the corpses and rubble from the shaft. The dead were buried in a mass grave nearby. Many victims could not be properly identified due to the extent of the burns. The Japanese at first reported the death toll to be just 34. Initial newspaper reports were short, as little as 40 words, and downplayed the size of the disaster as a minor event. Later the Japanese erected a monument to the dead. This stone gave the number of dead to be 1327. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


involvement education

involvement, education and the environment. Trade and creating business ventures also featured importantly at the conference. From there, the mayors visited their individual sister cities for five days. The conference sought to encourage international understanding and communication amongst ordinary citizens. This event followed the failed August coup against President Mikhail Gorbachev and preceded the eventual independence of the Soviet Republics at the end of 1991. birth_date Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


poor track

Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


temple agricultural

a cooperative called the "People's Temple Agricultural Project". Regarding the former goal, Jones purported to establish Jonestown as a benevolent model communist community stating, "I believe we’re the purest communists there are." Jones, Jim. "Transcript of Recovered FBI tape Q 50." ''Alternative Considerations of Jonestown and Peoples Temple''. Jonestown


teaching quot

AZERBAIJAN: Baha'is and Baptists want confiscated property back first Felix last Corley publisher Forum 18 News Service date 2005-11-23 accessdate 2007-03-03 In 2004, Tavachur Aliev, a Bahá'í, claimed to have been arrested for mentioning his religion and was released when he promised not to mention his religion again.


writing stance

November 2010) was a Soviet (Soviet Union) and Russian poet, short story writer, and translator, known for her apolitical writing stance. She was part of the Russian New Wave literary movement. She was cited by Joseph Brodsky as the best living poet in the Russian language. Bella Akhmadulina

Soviet Union

The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.

The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.

In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.

Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.

In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).

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