of radical green politics and socialism and their political "red-green alliances" in the post-Soviet (Soviet Union) era. This focus on eco-socialism has informed an essay, ''On Socialist Ecological Civilisation'', published in September 2006, which, according to chinadialogue, "sparked debate" in China (People's Republic of China). show single en 493--The-rich-consume-and-the-poor-suffer-the-pollution
Bryan I. Fugate. Strategy and tactics on the Eastern Front, 1941. Novato: Presidio Press, 1984. Beginning on 22 June 1941, over 3.9 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a front, World War II Chronicle, 2007. Legacy Publications International, Ltd. Page 146. the largest invasion in the history of warfare. In addition to troops, Barbarossa involved 600,000 motor vehicles and 750,000
The Lenin Peace Prize, a Soviet equivalent of Nobel Peace Prize, helped lift Faiz's image even higher in the international community. It brought Soviet Union and Pakistan much closer, putting past behind and working for development of people of both sides. Most of his work was translated was translated in Russian language. Accolades and international recognition Faiz was the first Asian poet to receive the Lenin Peace Prize, awarded by the Soviet Union in 1962. In 1976 he was award the Lotus Prize for Literature. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
emerged in the last twenty years. Seven of ten matches with the largest audience in Russian Premier League (including top three) were Spartak-CSKA derbies. Samye poseschaemye matchi v istorii chempionatov Rossii One of the most celebrated rivalries is "Spartak-Dinamo", with neighbours Dinamo Moscow (FC Dynamo Moscow). However, this has faded somewhat due to Dinamo's poor performances. Matches against
through the post-Soviet countries." Thieves In Law are given the title by other ''vory'' and in order to be accepted they must demonstrate considerable leadership skills, personal ability, intellect, charisma, along with a well- documented criminal record. Once accepted they must live according to the thieves' code. The penalty for violation of this code is often mutilation or death. Reportedly, "today the Vory have spread around the world, to Madrid
at Cleveland, against the former record holder of the fastest serve, Australian, Colin Dibley, both in 1976. The station compromises a standard pylon trivault (pylon station) built during the flamboyant architecture (Stalinist Architecture) of the late 1940s — early 1950s. Architect Leonid Popov (and co-authors M. Zelenin and M. Ilin) based inspired by the historic connotation with respect to the city of Serpukhov, based the overall design on ancient Russian architecture (Architecture of Kievan Rus) and in particular the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, which is repeated in the design of the portals and the beige marble composition. Other innovations by Popov include the station walls on the platform halls where above a dark red marble runs white cylindrical marble plinths designed to reflect right into the eyes of passengers. To keep the bright and light appearance of the station, the vaults of the station were left simply plastered and painted white, but the lighting comes from a a zigzag arrangement of horizontal fluorescent tubes, and the floor in a dark gray granite, typical for Orthodox Churches. Contrasting with the ancient connotation, are 12 bas-reliefs on the pylons by Yelena Yason-Manizer on the theme of the traditional labor (hunting, fishing, grape-picking etc.) of different nationalities of the Soviet Union. Yelena Yason-Manizer was also author of the original bas-relief at the end of the station which featured a large profile of Joseph Stalin and Coat of Arms of the Soviet Union which was removed in 1961 and in 1967 replaced with present mosaic by the same author ''Morning of the Cosmic Era''. In April 1941 the Geschwader briefly served in the Balkans, before (with the exception of I. JG 27) participating in the opening offensive (Operation Barbarossa) against the Soviet Union on the central front in June 1941. On the first day of action Major Wolfgang Schellmann bailed out over Soviet territory when he collided with a I-153 ''Chayka'' fighter flown by a Lt. Kuzmin. Kuzmin was killed in the collision but Schellmann managed to bail out, but failed to make his way back to German lines and was captured and later executed by NKVD troops. Bergström 2007, p.18. In September a Spanish Air Force volunteer staffel was attached to JG 27, becoming 15.(span.) JG 27. Recalled to Spain in January 1942, 460 missions were flown on the Eastern Front for 10 air kills claimed. In November the Gruppen were returned to Germany for re-fitting. The theatre continued to thrive after the October Revolution of 1917 and was one of the foremost state-supported theatres of the Soviet Union, with an extensive repertoire of leading Russian and Western playwrights. Although several revolutionary groups saw it as an irrelevant marker of pre-revolutionary culture, the theatre was initially granted support by Vladimir Lenin, a frequent patron of the Art Theatre himself. Mikhail Bulgakov wrote several plays for the MAT and satirised the organisation mercilessly in his novel ''Black Snow''. Isaac Babel's ''Sunset (Sunset (play))'' was also performed there during the 1920s. A significant number of Moscow Art Theatre's actors were awarded the prestigious title of People's Artist of the USSR. Many actors became nationally known and admired thanks to their film roles. However, the Civil War saw many of the theatre’s actors being cut off from Moscow, and the support it received from the government diminished under Lenin’s New Economic Policy. The subsidies it had come to rely on were withdrawn and the theatre was forced to survive on its own profits. By 1923, the MAT was in $25,000 debt. Early life Abdul Hafiz Pirzada belongs to a prominent Sindhi (Sindhi people) family of Sindh, and is the son of Pirzada Abdus Sattar, a former Chief Minister (Chief Minister of Sindh) of Sindh. Hafeez is a graduate of Karachi University where he obtained LLB (Bachelor of Laws) degree, followed by LLM (Master of Laws) from Sindh University. Pirzada also obtained M.Sc. (Master of Science) in Political Science where he wrote brief thesis on Soviet Union and the rise of Communism. Pirzada began his professional career at Sindh High Court. Hafiz Pirzada was one of the 30 members who founded the Pakistan People's Party on November 30, 1967, along with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Abdul Hafiz Pirzada began his political career in the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (Zulfikar Ali Bhutto) as he was serving Bhutto's legal expert. In short span of time, Pirzada became one of Bhutto's closest aides advising him on complicated and critical legal issues. Elected a Member of the MNA (National Assembly of Pakistan) in 1970, Pirzada remained a loyal member of the PPP Government from 1971-1977. As Law Minister (Law Minister of Pakistan) of Pakistan, he was the lead government member of the committee that drafted the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan. When the Soviet Union gained control under Moldova, there was an order to destroy the wine collection, but the workers made a secret door were they stored the collection. Many knowledgeable chess people believe that Alexander had Grandmaster (Grandmaster (chess)) potential, had he been able to develop his chess abilities further. Many top players peak in their late twenties and early thirties, but for Alexander this stretch coincided with World War II, when high-level competitive opportunities were unavailable. After this, his professional responsibilities as a senior cryptanalyst limited his top-class appearances. He defeated Mikhail Botvinnik in one game of a team radio match against the Soviet Union in 1946, at a time when Botvinnik was likely the world's top player. Alexander made important theoretical contributions to the Dutch Defence and Petroff Defence. Nevskiye Nunataks '''Nevskiye Nunataks''' ( Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
;Shooting at the Moon: The Story of America's Clandestine War in Laos, Steerforth Press, 1996 isbn 9781883642365 They also organized and led the Mujaheddin as an irregular force against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan in the 1980s, Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
) and the German Red Army Faction terrorists during the time before the latter turned to violent crime and murder. Later Ton Steine Scherben toned down on political issues and explored more personal themes like freedom, love, drugs, and sadness. They also contributed to two full-length concept album (concept albums) about homosexuality which were issued under the name ''Brühwarm
, Zhu De, and Ren Bishi donated their war horses to the park. The park was renamed the Beijing Zoo in 1955. The zoo sent staff to study zoo management in the Soviet Union and Poland, and began to trade animals with Eastern Bloc countries, Japan, Burma, India, and Indonesia to expand its collection. Leading Chinese universities also established research presence in the zoo to study animal behavior and to breed endangered species. The Soviet (Soviet Union) rank of chief marshal of a troop arm (Chief Marshal) was established in 1943 as an analogue to the British rank of marshal of the Royal Air Force and as an equivalent rank to the Soviet rank of general of the army (General of the Army (Soviet Union)). As there was no direct correspondence between Soviet and British ranks, chief marshal was only approximately equivalent to marshal of the Royal Air Force and it might also be considered equivalent to air chief marshal. Officers were promoted to the rank of chief marshal of air forces (or chief marshal of aviation, depending on translation). In addition officers were promoted in other troop arms such as artillery and armoured troops which are not covered in this article. - Soviet Union 1944 Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov (Alexander Novikov) Chief Marshal of Air Forces (Chief Marshal) 1900 1976 Promoted 21 February 1944. Deprived of the rank on 11 May 1946, restored to the rank in 1953. - - Soviet Union 1944 Alexander Evgenievich Golovanov Chief Marshal of Air Forces (Chief Marshal) 1904 1975 Promoted 19 August 1944. - - Soviet Union 1955 Pavel Fedorovich Zhigarev Chief Marshal of Air Forces (Chief Marshal) 1900 1963 Promoted 11 March 1955. - - Soviet Union 1959 Konstantin Andreevich Vershinin Chief Marshal of Air Forces (Chief Marshal) 1900 1973 Promoted 8 May 1959. - - Soviet Union 1972 Pavel Stepanovich Kutakhov Chief Marshal of Air Forces (Chief Marshal) 1914 1984 Promoted March 1972. - - Soviet Union 1977 Boris Pavlovich Bugaev Chief Marshal of Air Forces (Chief Marshal) 1923 2007 Promoted 28 October 1977. - - Soviet Union 1984 Alexander Ivanovich Koldunov Chief Marshal of Air Forces (Chief Marshal) 1923 1992 Promoted 31 October 1984. - World War II The town is the place where during the Second World War, United States Army forces coming from the west met forces of the Soviet Union coming from the east during the invasion of Germany on April 25, 1945, which is now remembered as "Elbe Day". This marked the beginning of the line of contact between Soviet and American forces, but not the finalized occupation zones. In fact the area surrounding Torgau initially occupied by U.S. forces was later, in July 1945, given over to Soviet forces in compliance with the Yalta agreement. After the war, in 1949, a film called the Encounter at the Elbe was released from Mosfilm about this meeting of the two armies. Since the Eritrean-Ethiopian War, it has grown as a major export port for Ethiopia, and is now the main source of foreign currency for the secessionist Somaliland region. On 29 July 2009, State Minister of Foreign Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ethiopia)), Dr. Tekeda Alemu met with Somaliland Foreign Affairs Minister, Abdillahi Mohamed Dualeh over improving Ethiopia's use of the port. "Ethiopia, Somaliland envisage exploiting Barbara port", Ethiopian News Agency, 29 July 2009 (accessed 1 November 2009) The city is also home to a long runway, built by the Soviet Union in the mid-1970s and from the 1980s onward was designated by NASA as an emergency landing strip for the U.S. Space Shuttle Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
together as "The Family," a cult of nocturnal albino (albinism) mutants who seek to destroy all technology. '''Sergei Kopeikin''' (born April 10, 1956) is a USSR (Soviet Union)-born theoretical physicist presently living and working in the United States, where he holds the position of Professor of Physics at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri. He specializes in the theoretical and experimental study of gravity and general relativity. He
The '''Union of Soviet Socialist Republics''' ( A union (political union) of multiple subnational Soviet republics (Republics of the Soviet Union), its government (Politics of the Soviet Union) and economy (Economy of the Soviet Union) were highly centralized.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire. The Bolsheviks, the majority faction of the Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party), led by Vladimir Lenin, then led a second revolution (October Revolution) which overthrew the provisional government (Russian Provisional Government) and established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (renamed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1936), beginning a civil war (Russian Civil War) between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire, and helped local Communists take power through soviets (Soviet (council)) that nominally acted on behalf of workers and peasants. In 1922, the Communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic), Ukrainian (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), and Byelorussian (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic) republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika (Troika (triumvirate)) collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed political opposition to him, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and initiated a centrally planned economy. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation and collectivisation (Collectivisation in the Soviet Union) which laid the basis for its later war effort and dominance after World War II. However, Stalin established political paranoia, and introduced arbitrary arrests on a massive scale (Great Purge) after which the authorities transferred many people (military leaders, Communist Party members, ordinary citizens alike) to correctional labour camps (GULAG) or sentenced them to execution.
In the beginning of World War II, after the United Kingdom and France rejected an alliance with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany, the USSR signed a non-aggression pact (Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union) with Germany; the treaty delayed confrontation between the two countries, but was disregarded in 1941 when the Nazis invaded (Operation Barbarossa), opening the largest and bloodiest theatre (Eastern Front (World War II)) of combat in history. Soviet war casualties (World War II casualties of the Soviet Union) accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the cost of acquiring the upper hand over Axis (Axis powers) forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad (Battle of Stalingrad). Soviet forces eventually drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (Battle of Berlin) in 1945, inflicting the vast majority of German losses. Norman Davies: "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the Western allies accounted for only 20%–25%". Source: Sunday Times, 5 November 2006. Soviet occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. Ideological and political differences with Western Bloc counterparts directed by the United States led to the forming of economic (Comecon) and military pacts (Warsaw Pact), culminating in the prolonged Cold War.
Following Stalin's death in 1953, a period of moderate social and economic liberalization (known as "de-Stalinization") occurred under the administration of Nikita Khrushchev. The Soviet Union then went on to initiate significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including launching the first ever satellite (Sputnik 1) and world's first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), which led it into the Space Race. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis marked a period of extreme tension between the two superpowers, considered the closest to a mutual nuclear confrontation. In the 1970s, a relaxation of relations (detente) followed, but tensions resumed when the Soviet Union began providing military assistance (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in Afghanistan (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) at the request of its new socialist government (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) in 1979. The campaign drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.
In the late 1980s the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform the Union and move it in the direction of Nordic-style (Nordic model) social democracy, Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). ''The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy).'' Routledge. ISBN 0415476291 p. 108 "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Klein, Naomi (Naomi Klein) (2008). ''The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.'' Picador (Picador (imprint)). ISBN 0312427999 p. 276 introducing the policies of ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation (Era of Stagnation) and democratize the government. However, this led to the rise of strong nationalist (Nationalism) and separatist movements. Central authorities initiated a referendum (Soviet Union referendum, 1991), boycotted by the Baltic republics, Armenia, Georgia, and Moldova, which resulted in the majority of participating citizens voting in favour of preserving the Union as a renewed federation (Union of Sovereign States). In August 1991, a coup d'état was attempted (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) by hardliners against Gorbachev, with the intention of reversing his policies. The coup (1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt) failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation (formerly the Russian SFSR) assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognised as its continued legal personality. "Russia is now a party to any Treaties to which the former Soviet Union was a party, and enjoys the same rights and obligations as the former Soviet Union, except insofar as adjustments are necessarily required, e.g. to take account of the change in territorial extent. ... The Russian federation continues the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and is thus not a successor State in the sense just mentioned. The other former Soviet Republics are successor States.", United Kingdom Materials on International Law 1993, BYIL 1993, pp. 579 (636).