Soule

What is Soule known for?


releasing album

Contest . That very year in the same city the prolific Oskorri band (see above) got together featuring folk music, launching first album in 1976, where they paid homage to poet Gabriel Aresti, while in the Northern Basque Country Michel Ducau and Anje Duhalde teamed up and put together the first Basque rock band: The celebrated and politically engagé Errobi, releasing album ''Errobi'' (1975) to critic and public acclaim, ''Bizi bizian'' ensued. The group disbanded (not definitely) in 1979


tradition+elegant

French accessdate 2011-12-24 Soule is also renowned for its singing tradition, elegant dances and local music instruments, such as ''xirula'' and ''ttun-ttun (Psalterium (instrument))''. These instruments are gaining new dynamism thanks to music schools founded to that end by local cultural activists. ), is the Basque dialect (Basque dialects) spoken in Soule, France.


century ancient

, ''Toponymie du Pays Basque Français et des Pays de l'Adour'', Picard 1977, ISBN 2-7084-0003-7 History Soule has been continuously inhabited since the last glaciation, there are several deposits from the neolithic as well as fifteen protohistoric (Protohistory) settlements. The first text written in Soule dates from the 7th century. Ancient Soule The territory was already inhabited in the Middle Paleolithic; Neanderthal prehistoric settlements have been found in the caves of Xaxixiloaga in Aussurucq and Etxeberri. At the end of the Neolithic the population had extended and assimilated knowledge from other peoples. There are protohistoric settlements that show a simple material life and a lifestyle dominated by migration. Rests of coins and other monetary artifacts have been found, proving the existence of an exchange economy in Soule, which very likely worked as an access point between Aquitaine—Novempopulania—in the north and the southern side of the Pyrenees. At the time of the Roman (Ancient Rome) arrival in the 1st century, Soule was inhabited by an Aquitani tribe named Suburates, who spoke the Aquitanian language (a form of Proto-Basque (Proto-Basque language)). As with other peoples in Aquitaine, the Romans had a somewhat important influence in the territory, although Soule kept its language and culture and was relatively unimportant during the times of the Roman Empire, due to its isolation. The only evidence of Roman influence in Soule exists in the chapelle of the Madeleine, in Tardets (Tardets-Sorholus). Soule is first mentioned as a territory in a text from the 7th Century. In 636 (or 635) the Frankish (Francia) army led by the Duke Arembert was ambushed and defeated by the Basques in a place named "vallis subola". La mort du duc Arembert en Soule massacré par les Basques en 636 This valley is then included in the territory of the "''Wascones''" (Duchy of Vasconia), whicn included intermittently lands to either side of the western and central Pyrenees. It was later referred to as Gascony. Middle Ages right thumb 250px The fort of Mauléon. (File:Fort de Mauléon vu des Allées.jpg) The region of Soule may have developed a primeval political structure before the 11th century with a strong influence of the Kingdom of Pamplona, established in the year 824. However, it would be in 1023 when Sancho VI (Sancho VI William of Gascony) Duke of Gascony would name Guillaume Fort as first Viscount of Soule. His descendants would inherit the title for around two centuries. The Viscounts of Soule had their base in the fortress of Mauléon (Mauléon-Licharre), a strategic region that controlled the pass from Aquitaine to the Iberian peninsula. The viscounts of Soule take advantage of their territory. Despite being small in size, it held a strategic position between the Kingdom of Navarre to the south and the Duchy of Aquitaine to the north. In the year 1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry II of England, thus the Duchy of Aquitaine joins the Crown of England. In 1261, after ten years of conflict, the last viscount of Soule, Auger III, surrenders the castle of Mauléon to Edward I of England, and as a result the territory of Soule is administrated by the crown of England. It is now when the current network of roads between the Souletin villages is constructed. Soule under English rule The English Soule was under direct authority of the Duke of Aquitaine, who was as well the King of England. Soule is rather unimportant and as a result the control over the territory is delegated to a lord, who keeps the castle of Mauléon and recollects the taxes. The lord of Soule had fourteen captains; from them only one was English, the rest were either natives or Gascons. The ex-viscount Auger III allies with the Kingdom of Navarre, and taking advantage of the war between Philip IV (Philip IV of France), king of Navarre, and Edward I of England, retakes his fortress at Mauléon in 1295, but he is forced to hand it back after Aquitaine is formally declared English is 1303. The Hundred Years' War kept Soule isolated from the exterior for many years. Finally, in 1449, an army led by Gaston IV (Gaston IV, Count of Foix), the Count of Foix and Viscount of Béarn, takes possession of the castle in the name of the French king. It is the end of the English presence in Soule. Modern Period Soule under French rule thumb 250px Church of Musculdy Muskildi (File:Église de Musculdy.jpg) In the mid 15th century, Soule finally recognizes the King of France (Kingdom of France) as his own, with the Basque district becoming the smallest province and exclave of the kingdom and the most distant from the centre of power, Paris. It came to be surrounded by the sovereign Kingdom of Navarre on the south and west and the independent principality of Viscounty of Béarn (Béarn) on the east. In 1511, King Francis I of France urged the Souletins to set down their institutional and legal framework (Fuero#Basque and Pyrenean fueros) on paper, which they did in Bearnese (Bearnese dialect), the administrative written language up to that point. In 1539, an amendment to their region specific laws went on to be written in French, the new official language as decreed by King Francis I. Despite numbering more than fifty towns and villages, Soule was populated by less than 4,000 people. The only town was Mauléon (Mauléon-Licharre), with a population totalling less than 350 people. As of 1512, given its proximity to France and its particular geographic situation surrounded by the Kingdom of Navarre-Bearn and the recently invaded Navarre (Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre) to the south, Soule got trapped in the political, religious and military manoeuvres derived from its shaky position, with the French Wars of Religion affecting the province tremendously. The end of home rule thumb 250px The pastoral of Soule sinks its roots in the Middle Ages (File:Mendiague1.jpg) thumb 250px Bela Street in Mauléon (1910) (File:Mauléon - Rue Béla (1910).jpg) The province of Soule relied largely on the commons set on the highlands and lowlands of the valley for the use of local farmers and shepherds. However, they were also coveted by local and alien lords with estate grants on Soule. By the mid 17th century and in the context of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, anger spread like fire among common Souletins at the aristocracy's takeover of lands and the curtailment of their legal and institutional sovereignty. In 1661, a widespread rebellion erupted (History of the Basque people#Navarre divided and home rule) led by the priest Bernard Goihenetche 'Matalaz', but was harshly suppressed by an army sent over from Gascony. Still Soule managed to retain many native laws and institutions, with its representatives attending the Parliament of Navarre-Béarn (Kingdom of Navarre#Independent Navarre north of the Pyrenees) (six deputies, two for each estate). The representatives of Soule in the Assembly of the Third Estate turned National Assembly (National Assembly (French Revolution)) held in Paris (1790) voted against the suppression of the French provinces (Provinces of France) and the establishment of a new administrative arrangement that wiped out the existence of their native order, giving way to the ''départément'' system (French department#History). Attempts by the Basque deputies in Paris (French Basque Country) to create a Basque department failed, their districts merged with Béarn among protests of the Basque representatives, and even Soule was divided into two cantons. After the end of the First Carlist War in Spain and the relocation of customs to the Pyrenees from the Ebro (1841), trade with Navarre (Kingdom of Navarre#Later history and the end of the fueros) collapsed. In the late 19th century, the establishment of espadrille factories in Mauleón (Mauléon-Licharre) made up for the decay of economic life and emigration, with a number of inhabitants in Navarre and Aragón pouring in and being recruited on the workforce. Geography thumb right 250px Soule is a very mountainous territory. (File:Sainte-Engrâce vue générale.jpg) Soule is located in the northern basin of the western Pyrenees, and is the smallest of the Basque region (Basque Country (greater region)). It is surrounded by Lower Navarre on the west, Navarre on the south, Béarn on the east and north. Along with Labourd and Lower Navarre, it forms the Northern Basque Country, also known as French Basque Country or ''Pays basque''. Its entire territory extends around the axis provided by the river Saison (Saison (river)), known in Basque as Uhaitza, that flows from south to north until it joins the river Oloron (Gave d'Oloron), that works as a border between Soule and Béarn. Soule includes three geographical regions: the lowlands at north on a territory known as ''Pettara'' or Lower Soule, a forest region known as ''Arbaila'' and the highlands at south, in a region named ''Basabürüa'' with a highest peak at 2,017 meters at the Pic d'Orhy. Orography thumb right 250px The river Saison or Ühaitza. (File:SaisonSoule.jpg) Soule's orography divides into three regions: the northern lowlands, made up by extensive plains; the central region, which is fairly hilly and the southern highlands, which are part of the northwestern Pyrenees, with altitudes reaching up to 2,017 meters above sea level at the Pic d'Orhy. In the Pyrenees, from west to east, the first peak is the Pic d'Orhy, above 2,000 meters and the fourth highest peak in the Basque Country after Iror Errege Maia (Mesa de los Tres Reyes) and Euzkarre among others, all of them in Navarre. Also in the highlands are located the Otsogorrigaina (1,922 m) and Sardekagaina (1,893 m), which are the second and third highest mountains in Soule. In total, there exist more than 20 peaks higher than 1,000 m. Hydrography The river Saison (Saison (river)) (known as Ühaitza in Souletin Basque) is the main river of Soule. It is 60 km long and originates at Licq, in the highlands region. Smaller rivers rising at the Pyrenees join the Saison before it converges with the river Oloron, together flowing into the river Adour. Climate The oceanic climate of Soule is generally warm and humid. The highlands and Pyrenees experience an alpine climate. Demography Soule is the province with the lowest population density of the Northern Basque Country, with 17 people per square kilometer. Soule has experienced a significant population decline since the 19th century; many people have emigrated to larger cities and regions outside the province, such as Labourd, Béarn and Paris. In the last century, Soule has lost more than three quarters of its population, which has caused the need for different municipalities to be merged in order to assure the maintenance of public services. Largest cities class "toc" cellpadding 0 cellspacing 0 width 35% style "float:left; text-align:center;clear:all; margin-left:10px; font-size:95%;" !bgcolor green colspan 8 style "color:white;" Most populated communes -bgcolor #efefef !width 4% Position !width 86% Name !width 10% Inhabitants - 1st '''Mauléon-Licharre''' (''Maule-Lextarre'') 3,347 - 2nd '''Chéraute''' (''Sohüta'') 1,104 - 3rd '''Barcus''' (''Barkoxe'') 774 - 4th '''Viodos-Abense-de-Bas''' (''Bildoze-Onizepea'') 743 - 5th '''Tardets-Sorholus''' (''Atharratze-Sorholüze'') 590 - ), is the Basque dialect (Basque dialects) spoken in Soule, France.


critically

Carlos Perez as its lead vocalist and frontman, releasing that very year the critically acclaimed album ''Itoiz'', which contained such poignant tracks as ''Hilzori'', ''Lau teilatu'' etc. Akin ensemble Haizea delivered a couple of good LPs in this period. Pierre de Marca, a Béarnese author, suggests that the attackers were


elegant

French accessdate 2011-12-24 Soule is also renowned for its singing tradition, elegant dances and local music instruments, such as ''xirula'' and ''ttun-ttun (Psalterium (instrument))''. These instruments are gaining new dynamism thanks to music schools founded to that end by local cultural activists.


rock music

about music in 1972, so turning into a forerunner of Basque rock music (''Euskal Rock&Roll'' released in 1979) alongside the band Errobi, while especially in the traditional Northern Basque Country some lashed out at his looks, manners and music. He alternately performed onstage in "verbenas" (dancing music in local festivities) with the band Minxoriak up to the late 80s. In the area of Mutriku, Itoiz, a milestone in Basque folk-pop music, was formed in 1978, with Juan


centuries

with a strong influence of the Kingdom of Pamplona, established in the year 824. However, it would be in 1023 when Sancho VI (Sancho VI William of Gascony) Duke of Gascony would name Guillaume Fort as first Viscount of Soule. His descendants would inherit the title for around two centuries. The Viscounts of Soule had their base in the fortress of Mauléon (Mauléon-Licharre), a strategic region that controlled the pass from Aquitaine to the Iberian peninsula. The viscounts of Soule take

: «Errolda: zonbat züberotar?» Culture After decades of emigration and demographic, social and cultural decay, the territory is showing a strong determination to recover the lost vitality of centuries ago. Assorted cultural events linked to old traditions bear witness to that dynamism. thumb 250px ''Maskarada'' actors in a melée (File:Jokalariak melean.JPG) There is a tradition

publisher Ethnotempos accessdate 2008-01-28 language French Language The proper language of Soule has been Basque (Basque language) for centuries, with the region featuring its own dialect, the Souletin (Zuberoan). Notwithstanding this fact, the neighbouring Béarnais (Gascon language) has been widely understood, even spoken in recent centuries as a lingua franca. However, both Basque and Béarnese have lost ground to French (French language) with both


rock amp

about music in 1972, so turning into a forerunner of Basque rock music (''Euskal Rock&Roll'' released in 1979) alongside the band Errobi, while especially in the traditional Northern Basque Country some lashed out at his looks, manners and music. He alternately performed onstage in "verbenas" (dancing music in local festivities) with the band Minxoriak up to the late 80s. In the area of Mutriku, Itoiz, a milestone in Basque folk-pop music, was formed in 1978, with Juan


political religious

to the south, Soule got trapped in the political, religious and military manoeuvres derived from its shaky position, with the French Wars of Religion affecting the province tremendously. The end of home rule thumb 250px The pastoral of Soule sinks its roots in the Middle Ages (File:Mendiague1.jpg) thumb 250px Bela Street in Mauléon (1910) (File:Mauléon - Rue Béla (1910).jpg) The province of Soule relied largely on the commons set on the highlands and lowlands of the valley for the use


shows long

with a characteristic rhythmic pattern that could be sung: this is similar to traditional practices elsewhere in Europe (Oral-formulaic composition). So, for example, the first work of literature in Basque ''Linguæ Vasconum Primitiæ'' (1545) by Bernard Etxepare shows long verses that, while deceptively fashioned in metres resembling those used in Romance poetry, follow an internal rhythmic pattern similar to a ''kopla'', so they can be popularly sung. Even today, it is not unusual to see groups of people marching around a town at some local festival singing and asking the neighbours for a food, drink or money donation, while the most famous celebrations following this pattern across the whole Basque Country may be those taking place on Christmas Eve (Olentzero) and the Saint Agatha's Eve (Basque music#Samples), with singers dressing up in traditional costumes. A key figure bridging the old singing tradition of Soule and the folk song revival of the 20th century should be noted here, Pierre Bordazaharre (1907–1979), aka Etxahun Iruri. A xirula player and singer, he collected old songs and fashioned new ones, which eventually caught on and spread, take for instance, ''Agur Xiberoa''. He also contributed to new pastoral (Pastoral (theatre of Soule)) plays in the tradition of Soule, reshaping the pastoral and adding new topics. Meanwhile, new and more urban style musical ensembles and bands sprang up in the 70s, performing first to other's songs of the time at summer local festivities. Yet they gradually developed their own repertoire fashioned in line with the Basque revival and activism (special focus on the lyrics) and ongoing Western musical trends, e.g. folk (Gwendal for one), progressive rock (Pink Floyd,...). As regards choral bands, Mocedades from Bilbao should be highlighted, founded in 1967 initially by Amaya Uranga and two sisters of her. They soon gained public notability by ranking second at the 1973 Eurovision Song Contest. That very year in the same city the prolific Oskorri band (see above) got together featuring folk music, launching first album in 1976, where they paid homage to poet Gabriel Aresti, while in the Northern Basque Country Michel Ducau and Anje Duhalde teamed up and put together the first Basque rock band: The celebrated and politically engagé Errobi, releasing album ''Errobi'' (1975) to critic and public acclaim, ''Bizi bizian'' ensued. The group disbanded (not definitely) in 1979. thumb 310px Rock band Zamara's live performance (Image:Zarama.jpg)Beginning at the mid-60s, Imanol Larzabal led a solo career as a singer songwriter, featuring a deep voice as well as a socially committed and poetic subjects, with the collaboration of domestic and foreign poets and singers. He went through a short period in prison and came back from exile in 1977. Friend of his and son of emigrant Souletin parents, Niko Etxart came back to the Basque Country from Paris with brand-new ideas about music in 1972, so turning into a forerunner of Basque rock music (''Euskal Rock&Roll'' released in 1979) alongside the band Errobi, while especially in the traditional Northern Basque Country some lashed out at his looks, manners and music. He alternately performed onstage in "verbenas" (dancing music in local festivities) with the band Minxoriak up to the late 80s. In the area of Mutriku, Itoiz, a milestone in Basque folk-pop music, was formed in 1978, with Juan Carlos Perez as its lead vocalist and frontman, releasing that very year the critically acclaimed album ''Itoiz'', which contained such poignant tracks as ''Hilzori'', ''Lau teilatu'' etc. Akin ensemble Haizea delivered a couple of good LPs in this period. ), is the Basque dialect (Basque dialects) spoken in Soule, France.

Soule

thumb 250px Mauléon, capital of Soule (File:Maule.jpg)

'''Soule''' (Basque (Basque language): '''Zuberoa'''; Zuberoan Basque: '''Xiberoa''' or '''Xiberua'''; Gascon (Occitan language): ''Sola'') is a former viscounty and French (France) province (Provinces of France) and part of the present day Pyrénées-Atlantiques ''département (département in France)''. It is divided into two cantons of the arrondissement (district) of Oloron-Sainte-Marie (Mauleon-Licharre and Tardets-Sorholus), and a part of the canton of Saint Palais (arrondissement of Bayonne).

Its provincial capital is Mauléon, which fused with Licharre in 1841 to form "Mauléon-Licharre", but today is often known as "Mauléon-Soule". Historically, Soule is the smallest province of the Basque Country (Basque Country (historical territory)) (785 km 2 .). Its population has been decreasing (23,803 in 1901; 16,006 in 1990; 15,535 in 1999).

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