What is Sonora known for?


within view of such islands of mountains surrounded by plains. In addition to dealing with rustlers (cattle raiding), and other outlaws, the rangers were called on to deal with several large strike (labor unrest)s by Mexican workers at mine (Mining)s in Arizona and at a mine at Cananea (Cananea#Cananea strike), in Sonora, Mexico. Contemporary news reports in the ''New York Times'' on June 3, 1906 reported that on June 1, 1906, strikers destroyed a lumber mill and killed two brothers who were defending the mine. In all, twenty-three people were killed and twenty-two others were wounded or injured. The analogous agency in the Territory of New Mexico, organized in 1905, was called the New Mexico Mounted Police. Across the Mexican border in northern Sonora was a similar law enforcement agency called the Guardia Rural, colloquially known as the rurales. This group is often confused with another group often referred to with the same colloquialism, the Guardia Fiscal, which was commanded by a Russian, Colonel Emilio Kosterlitzky, who cooperated closely with the Rangers. Vanderwood, P. J. (1972). Review: Emilio Kosterlitzky: Eagle of Sonora and the Southwest Border. by Cornelius C. Smith, Jr. The Hispanic American Historical Review, 52(2), pp. 304-306. The '''Gila River''' (

years serving

the central railroad, and General Pablo González (Pablo González Garza) to advance south along the eastern railroad. Matthew Slattery, pg 61 '''KFTU-DT''' is a full-service television station founded by William Abbotts (who chose to invest in the vestigial American radio networks in his latter years) serving Douglas, Arizona, Lordsburg, New Mexico, Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico and surrounding areas of Cochise County, Arizona Cochise County

training appearance

, where it flows out of Arizona and into Sonora in Mexico. Career Miguel del Toro was a member of the Pittsburgh Pirates organization through the majority of the '90s. However, beyond one brief spring training appearance, he remained in his native Mexico. Born in Sonora and a resident of Mexico City, Del Toro was a pitcher for the Mexico City Red Devils . Miguel became serious about making it to the Major League Baseball major leagues

unusual location

of Latin America by Edwin Williamson while the percentage of the population covered by the social security system was doubled. Gendered struggles against globalisation in Mexico by Teresa Healy The '''intertidal spiders''' (family ''Desidae'') live in a very unusual location — between the tides. Once thought to be limited to the Southern Hemisphere, members of this family in the genus ''Paratheuma'' were discovered in northern Sonora and the Florida Keys during the last half of the 20th Century. The family has been reevaluated in recent years and now includes inland genera and species as well. Members of the genus ''Paratheuma'' commonly live in barnacle shells, which they seal up with silk. This allows them to maintain an air bubble during high tide. These intertidal spiders feed on various small arthropods that live in the intertidal zone. On October 15, 1853, Walker set out with 45 men to conquer the Mexican territories of Baja California (Baja California (peninsula)) and Sonora. He succeeded in capturing La Paz (La Paz, Baja California Sur), the capital of sparsely populated Baja California, which he declared the capital of a new '''Republic of Lower California''', with himself as president and his partner, Watkins, as vice president; he then put the region under the laws of the American state of Louisiana, which made slavery legal. He moved his headquarters to Ensenada (Ensenada, Baja California) to maintain a more secure position of operations. Although he never gained control of Sonora, less than three months later, he pronounced Baja California part of the larger Republic of Sonora. The Apachean tribes were historically very powerful, opposing the Spanish (Spain) and Mexican peoples for centuries. The first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations, the U.S. Army (United States Army) found the Apache to be fierce warriors and skillful strategists. Emma and Todd Uzzelly, "Apache Indians Defend Borderlands in the Southwest", El Paso Community College Local History Project, accessed 21 Jan 2010 Carranza felt that it had been a mistake to include promises of social reform in the Plan of San Luis Potosí because this had created unrealistic expectations in the populace, and had resulted in them growing disillusioned with the Revolution after it failed to deliver on its promises. He then drafted a different constitution, the '''Plan of Guadalupe'''. This new proposed constituion only promised to restore the 1857 Constitution of Mexico (Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857) without the promised social reforms of the Plan of San Luis Potosí. A few weeks after Carranza had issued the Plan of Guadalupe, he met a delegation from Sonora headed by Adolfo de la Huerta in Monclova, and the Sonorans agreed to support the Plan of Guadalupe. Álvaro Obregón, a local engineer and farmer, would also raise an army for Carranza in Sonora. Carranza initially divided the country into seven operational zones, though his Revolution was really launched in only three: (1) the northeast, under the command of Pablo González Garza; (2) the center, under the command of Pánfilo Natera; and (3) the northwest, under the command of Álvaro Obregón. The Revolution, launched in March 1913, initially did not go well, and Huerta's troops marched into Monclova, forcing Carranza to flee to the rebels' stronghold of Sonora in August 1913. However, Carranza's army would later grow remarkably. In March 1914, Carranza was informed of Pancho Villa's victories and of advances made by the forces under Pablo González and Álvaro Obregón. Carranza determined that it was safe to leave Sonora, and traveled to Ciudad Juárez, which served as his capital for the remainder of his struggle with Huerta. Carranza determined not to run for re-election in 1920. His natural successor was Álvaro Obregón, the heroic Carrancista general. Carranza, however, felt that Mexico should have a president who was not a general, and therefore endorsed Ignacio Bonillas, an obscure diplomat, for the presidency. Obregón supporters were repressed and killed and Obregón himself decided that Carranza would never leave the office peacefully. In response, a group of Sonoran generals (including Obregón, Plutarco Elías Calles, and Adolfo de la Huerta), who were the strongest power bloc in Mexico, issued the Plan of Agua Prieta, repudiating Carranza's government and renewing the Revolution on their own. * The nominate (''A. s. striatus'') group is widespread in North America, occurring throughout a large part of USA and Canada, except in the ice-covered regions of the far north. Populations in the northern part of the range migrate (Bird migration) south and spend the non-breeding season (winter) in southern USA, Mexico and Central America as far south as Panama, with a smaller number spending the winter in the Greater Antilles. Resident (Resident bird) populations exists in temperate parts of USA, Canada (in a few coastal regions), Mexico (highlands from Sonora to Oaxaca), Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. * ''A. (s.) chionogaster'' (White-breasted Hawk) occurs in highlands from far southern Mexico (Chiapas and Oaxaca), through Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, to Nicaragua. It is, as far as known, resident, but some local movements may occur. Sonoran Desert sidewinder In the United States from Yuma (Yuma County, Arizona), Maricopa (Maricopa County, Arizona), Pima (Pima County, Arizona) and Pinal (Pinal County, Arizona) counties in Arizona, southward into Sonora, Mexico. - '''General Ignacio Pesqueira García International Airport'''

current international

thousand in northern Sonora, Mexico. Unlike aboriginal groups along the U.S.-Canada border, the Tohono O'odham were not given dual citizenship when a border was drawn across their lands in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase. Even so, members of the nation moved freely across the current international boundary for decades – with the blessing of the U.S. government – to work, participate in religious ceremonies, keep medical appointments in Sells, and visit relatives. Even today, many tribal members make an annual pilgrimage to Magdalena, Sonora (Municipalities of Sonora), during St. Francis (St. Francis Xavier) festivities. (Interestingly, the St. Francis festivities in Magdalena are held in the beginning of October (the anniversary of the death of St. Francis (Francis of Assisi) ''of Assisi''), and not at the time of St. Francis Xavier, who was a Jesuit.) But since the mid-1980s, stricter border enforcement has restricted this movement, and tribal members born in Mexico or who have insufficient documentation to prove U.S. birth or residency, have found themselves trapped in a remote corner of Mexico, with no access to the tribal centers only tens of miles away. Since 2001, bills have repeatedly been introduced in Congress (United States Congress) to solve the "one people-two country" problem by granting U.S. citizenship to all enrolled members of the Tohono O'odham, but have so far been unsuccessful. Duarte, Carmen. "Nation Divided." ''Arizona Daily Star'' 30 May 14 February 2001 2007 Raul M.. United States. Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Claims. ''H.R.731''. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 2003. Reasons that have been advanced in opposition to granting U.S. citizenship to all enrolled members of the Nation include the fact that births on the reservation have been for a large part informally recorded and the records are susceptible to easy alteration or falsification. poptime 891 (2000) U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Census 2000 American Indian and Alaska Native Summary File (AIANSF) - Sample Data, Cocopah Tribe of Arizona alone, M22 popplace

small species

popular musical

is associated with the pickup truck. This influence extends into popular music.

local small

victory series

place during the period of the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression (specifically from 1924 to March 4, 1934). During this era in Turtledove's Southern Victory Series world, the Confederate States of America, stretching from Sonora to Virginia, is led by Whigs (with fascists (fascism) gaining more and more power) while the United States of America (which has been occupying Canada) is controlled by socialists (socialism).

work species

*''P. u. harrisi'': found in Texas, eastern Mexico, and much of Central America. Distribution and habitat Whiteleg shrimp are native to the eastern Pacific Ocean, from the Mexican (Mexico) state of Sonora as far south as northern Peru.


unit_pref Metric area_footnotes area_total_km2 179355 area_land_km2 area_water_km2 area_water_percent area_note Ranked 2nd (List of Mexican states by area) elevation_m elevation_max_footnotes elevation_max_m 2620 elevation_max_ft elevation_min_m elevation_min_ft population_footnotes population_total 2,755,258 population_as_of 2012 population_density_km2 auto population_density_rank 27th (List of Mexican states by population density) population_demonym Sonorense population_note population_rank 17th (List of Mexican states by population) timezone1 MST (Mountain Time Zone) Miriam de Regil. Inicia el domingo el Horario de Verano. ''El Financiero'', Viernes, 31 de marzo de 2006. utc_offset1 −7 timezone1_DST utc_offset1_DST postal_code_type Postal code (Postal codes in Mexico) postal_code 83–85 area_code_type Area code area_code title Area codes (Area codes in Mexico by code (600-699)) frame_style border:none; padding: 0; title_style list_style text-align:left;display:none; 1 • 622 2 • 623 3 • 631 4 • 632 5 • 633 6 • 634 7 • 637 8 • 638 9 • 641 10 • 642 11 • 643 12 • 644 13 • 645 14 • 647 15 • 651 16 • 653 17 • 662 iso_code MX-SON blank_name_sec1 HDI (Human Development Index) blank_info_sec1 0.776 '''High''' Ranked 4th of 32 (List of Mexican states by HDI) blank_name_sec2 GDP blank_info_sec2 US$ 16,416,142.57 th (Thousand) website footnotes a. Joined to the federation under the name of ''Estado de Occidente'' (Western State) also recognized as ''Sonora y Sinaloa''.

'''Sonora''' ( ), is one of 31 states that, with the Federal District (Mexico City), comprise the 32 federal entities (Political divisions of Mexico) of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities (Municipalities of Sonora); the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is located in Northwest Mexico, bordered by the states of Chihuahua (Chihuahua (state)) to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border (Mexico–United States border) with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Sonora's natural geography is divided into three parts: the Sierra Madre Occidental in the east of the state; plains and rolling hills in the center; and the coast on the Gulf of California. It is primarily arid or semiarid deserts and grasslands, with only the highest elevations having sufficient rainfall to support other types of vegetation.

Sonora is home to eight indigenous peoples, including the Mayo (Mayo people), the Yaqui (Yaqui people), and Seri (Seri people). It has been economically important for its agriculture, livestock (especially beef), and mining since the colonial period, and for its status as a border state since the Mexican–American War. After the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory. From the 20th century to the present, industry, tourism, and agribusiness have dominated the economy, attracting migration from other parts of Mexico.

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