What is Somalia known for?

conducting special

was killed while conducting special reconnaissance in advance of the entry of U.S. military forces. His mission was completely voluntary, as it required entry into a very hostile area without any support. Freedman was awarded the Intelligence Star on January 5, 1993 for his "extraordinary heroism". The Book of Honor: Cover Lives and Classified Deaths at the CIA. Ted Gup, 2000, Doubleday. pp. 2, 286. ISBN 9780385492935. Worldwide mission thumb Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (File:Khalid Shaikh Mohammed after capture.jpg) after his capture The CIA has always had a Special Activities Division, which secretly carries out special operations mission. However, since September 11, 2001 the US government has relied much more on SAD SOG because fighting terrorists does not usually involve fighting other armies. Rather, it involves secretly moving in and out of countries like Pakistan, Iran and Somalia where the American military is not legally allowed to operate. C.I.A. Takes On Bigger and Riskier Role on Front Lines, New York Times, MARK MAZZETTI, December 31, 2009 If there are missions in these countries that are denied (Denied area) to U.S. military special operations forces, SAD SOG units are the primary national special missions units to execute those operations. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 by Steve Coll, 2004. SAD SOG paramilitary officers executed the clandestine evacuation of U.S. citizens and diplomatic personnel in Somalia, Iraq (during the Persian Gulf War (Gulf War)) and Liberia during periods of hostility, as well as the insertion of Paramilitary Operations Officers prior to the entry of U.S. military forces in every conflict since World War II. Daugherty (2004), Page XIX. SAD officers have operated covertly since 1947 in places such as North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Lebanon, Iran, Syria, Libya, Iraq, El Salvador, Guatemala, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras, Chile, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Somalia, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Pakistan. China Examples Difficulties of identifying ethnic violence often arise when outsiders try to understand conflicts. A telling example is from Somalia. The conflicts within Somalia are often referred to as ethnic violence, even though Somalia is one of the most ethnically homogeneous countries in Africa. Brown, Michael E., and John Rex. The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Migration. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 1997. 80-100. Print. Included under the term ethnic violence might include: * PKK As of April 2008, there have been 192 awards of the Air Force Cross to 187 individuals. One award, the first made, was for actions in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Two were retroactively awarded for actions in World War II. 180 were awarded for heroism in the Vietnam War, There were actually 181 awards during the Vietnam War, but one, to Airman William H. Pitsenbarger, was later upgraded to the Medal of Honor. and four for heroism during the 1975 Mayagüez Incident immediately following. Two were awarded for the 1991 Gulf War, one for the 1993 Battle of Mogadishu (Battle of Mogadishu (1993)) in Somalia, and two were awarded for heroism during Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan in 2003. One was awarded to combat controller Zachary Rhyner for actions in the Shok Valley, Afghanistan on April 6, 2008. Ramsey, John, "Airman Gets Medal For Valor", ''Fayetteville Observer'', March 11, 2009, p. 1. The author Jeff Sharlet has criticized the fellowship's influence on US foreign policy. He argues that Doug Coe and the "networking" (or formation of prayer cells) between foreign dictators and US politicians, defense contractors, and industry leaders has facilitated military aid for repressive foreign regimes. Sharlet did intensive research at the Billy Graham Center, before the Fellowship Foundation archives were closed to those other than divinity scholars. Sharlet published a book about the history of the groups and their influence on US domestic and foreign policy from the 1920s to the present. Sharlet in particular details the relationship with General Suharto of Indonesia in the 1970s, and with Siad Barre of Somalia in the 1980s. Also, in the archives, there are at least two nearly full boxes of documents describing the relationship with Brazil's long dictatorship of the Generals. Boxes 184-185, "Record of the Fellowship Foundation-Collection 459", Billy Graham Center Archives. http: bgc archives GUIDES 459.htm#702. Cited in Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.420 note. '''Operation Gothic Serpent''' was a military operation conducted by special operations forces (United States Special Operations Forces) of the United States with the primary mission of capturing warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid. The operation took place in Somalia, Africa from August to October 1993 and was supervised by the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). Pirates On 28 October 2007, ''Porter'' attacked and sank (October 28, 2007 incident off Somalia) two pirate (Piracy) skiffs off Somalia after receiving a distress call from the tanker (tanker (ship)) MV ''Golden Nori'' (MV Golden Nori) which was under attack from pirates. Commons:Category:Somalia WikiPedia:Somalia Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia

cultural news

when he smuggled stories out of the country. He went on to become the bureau chief in Madrid and London and also served as the deputy foreign editor, the metropolitan editor and the cultural news editor at the ''Times''. He retired from the ''Times'' in 2005. *Senegal: Les Verts (Rally of the Ecologists of Senegal) *Somalia: Somalia Green Party *South Africa: Green Party of South Africa “The vice president and I have a disagreement about the use of troops,” Bush announced. “He believes in nation building. I would be very careful about using troops as nation builders,” he clarified, expressing particular concerns about the Clinton Administration’s (Clinton Administration) recent involvement in Somalia and Haiti, by telling Gore: '''Ali Mohamed Ghedi''' ( Commons:Category:Somalia WikiPedia:Somalia Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia

based opposition

failed to provide humanitarian

show early

The '''Upcher's Warbler''', ('''''Hippolais languida'''''), is an Old World warbler

major scale

Not just the meat, but also blood is a consumable item as is the case in northern Kenya, where camel blood is a source of iron, vitamin D, salts and minerals. Camel meat is also occasionally found in Australian cuisine, for example, a camel lasagne is available in Alice Springs and Indian restaurants in Sydney serve curried camel. thumb right 150px Ancient cairns in Qa’ableh (File:Qableh3.JPG), Somalia. Cairns (''taalo'') are a common feature at Elaayo, Haylaan, Qa’ableh and Qombo'ul, among other places. Northern Somalia in general is home to a lot of such historical settlements and archaeological sites wherein are found numerous ancient ruins and buildings, many of obscure origins. However, many of these old structures have yet to be properly explored, a process which would help shed further light on local history and facilitate their preservation for posterity. Michael Hodd, ''East African Handbook'', (Trade & Travel Publications: 1994), p.640. Legacy General Krulak famously referred to the "Strategic Corporal" and the Three Block War as two of the key lessons identified from the deployments in Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina). These concepts are still considered vital in understanding the increasing complexity of modern battlefields. thumb 240px Market of Djibouti in 2000 (File:Marché-Djibouti-2000.jpg) Principal exports from the region transiting Djibouti are coffee, salt, hides, dried beans, cereals, other agricultural products, and wax. Djibouti itself has few exports, and the majority of its imports come from France. Most imports are consumed in Djibouti and the remainder goes to Ethiopia and Somalia. Djibouti's unfavourable balance of trade is offset partially by invisible earnings such as transit taxes and harbour dues. In 1999, U.S. exports to Djibouti totalled $26.7 million while U.S. imports from Djibouti were less than $1 million. '''Exports - partners:''' Somalia 66.2%, Ethiopia 21.4%, Yemen 3.4% (2007) Djibouti is greatly affected by events in Somalia and Ethiopia, and therefore relations are important and, at times, very delicate. The fall of the Siad Barre and Mengistu governments in Somalia and Ethiopia, respectively, in 1991, caused Djibouti to face national security threats due to the instability in the neighboring states and a massive influx of refugees estimated at 100,000 from Somalia and Ethiopia. *2000 – U.S. retail giant Montgomery Ward announces it is going out of business after 128 years. *2008 – War in Somalia (War in Somalia (2006–2009)): The militaries of Somalia's Transitional Federal Government (Transitional Federal Parliament) and Ethiopian troops capture Mogadishu (Fall of Mogadishu) unopposed. *2009 – 43 people die in a suicide bombing (2009 Karachi bombing) in Karachi, Pakistan, where Shia Muslims are observing the Day of Ashura. * 1991 – Captain Mark Pyle pilots ''Clipper Goodwill'', a Pan American World Airways Boeing 727-221ADV, to Miami International Airport ending 64 years of Pan Am operations. *1992 – Somali Civil War (History of Somalia#Somali Civil War): President George H. W. Bush orders 28,000 US (United States) troops to Somalia in Northeast Africa (Horn of Africa). *1993 – A truce is concluded between the government of Angola and UNITA rebels. *2007 – Winter storms cause the Chehalis River (Chehalis River (Washington)) to flood many cities in Lewis County (Lewis County, Washington), Washington (Washington (state)), also closing a 20-mile portion of Interstate 5 (Interstate 5 in Washington) for several days. At least eight deaths and billions of dollars in damages are blamed on the floods. *2009 – A suicide bombing (2009 Hotel Shamo bombing) in Mogadishu, Somalia, claims the lives of 25 people, including three ministers of the Transitional Federal Government. By 1973, construction of the Naval Communications Station (NAVCOMMSTA) was completed. Edis (2004) (#Edis), p. 88. In the early 1970s, setbacks to US military capabilities in the region including the fall of Saigon, victory of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, the closure of the Peshawar Air Station listening post in Pakistan and Kagnew Station in Ethiopia, the Mayaguez incident, and the build-up of Soviet Naval presence in Aden and a Soviet Air Base at Berbera, Somalia, caused the US to request, and the UK to approve, permission to build a fleet anchorage and enlarged airfield on Diego Garcia, Edis (2004) (#Edis), p. 90. and the SEABEES doubled the number of workers constructing these facilities. *Republic of Alsace-Lorraine – Formed after the collapse of the German Empire at the end of World War I, 11 days later it was occupied by and incorporated in France. *British Somaliland – became part of Somalia, but has since asserted its independence as the Somaliland republic. *Regency of Carnaro (Italian Regency of Carnaro) in 1919 and Free State of Fiume 1920–1924, two short-lived states in the port city of Fiume Rijeka (Rijeka) proclaimed by Gabriele D'Annunzio. Following World War I, the city was disputed between Italy and Yugoslavia, and eventually captured by Italy in 1921. The city passed to Yugoslavia after World War II and is now in Croatia. thumb left Egyptian soldiers from Queen Hatshepsut's Year 9 expedition to the Land of Punt, as depicted on her temple at Deir el-Bahri (Image:Relief of Hatshepsut's expedition to the Land of Punt by Σταύρος.jpg). Eritrean history is home to some of the oldest civilizations on the continent. Together with northern Somalia, Djibouti, and the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Eritrea is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as ''Punt (Land of Punt)'' (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning god's land), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BC. Simson Najovits, ''Egypt, trunk of the tree, Volume 2'', (Algora Publishing: 2004), p.258. The ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt (Pharaoh) during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen (Queen regnant) Hatshepsut. Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond state control and regulation. However, in East Africa, over 95% of cross-border trade is through unofficial channels and the unofficial trade of live cattle, camels, sheep and goats from Ethiopia sold to Somalia, Kenya and Djibouti generates an estimated total value of between US$250 and US$300 million annually (100 times more than the official figure). Pavanello, Sara 2010. Working across borders - Harnessing the potential of cross-border activities to improve livelihood security in the Horn of Africa drylands. London: Overseas Development Institute This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border

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amounts of money, but increasingly used to pay utility bills as well. In 2009, Zain launched their own mobile money transfer business, known as ZAP, in Kenya and other African countries. In Somalia, the many telecom companies provide mobile banking, the most prominent being Hormuud Telecom and its ZAAD (Hormuud_Telecom#ZAAD_service) service. Open tournament The open division was contested by 148 teams representing 143 nations and territories; Italy, as hosts, fielded three teams, whilst the International Blind Chess Association, the International Physically Disabled Chess Association, International Silent Chess Committee each provided one squad; neither Somalia nor Sierra Leone, each of which had registered a team, participated. right thumb 200px Italy's Marina Brunello (12), with ''Ruki'' and Turin Mayor Sergio Chiamparino (File:Brunello-Chiamparino TO 2006.jpg) The women's division was contested by 106 teams representing 102 nations and territories; Italy, as hosts, fielded two teams, whilst the International Blind Chess Association, the International Physically Disabled Chess Association, International Silent Chess Committee each provided one squad; neither Somalia nor Sudan, each of which had registered a team, participated, whilst Afghanistan, Uganda, and Rwanda each withdrew after one round. In August 1992, VMFA-314 transferred to Carrier Air Wing 11 and in 1993 deployed to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf on board the USS Abraham Lincoln. During the deployment the squadron participated in Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the UN (United Nations) “no-fly-zone” in southern Iraq, and in Operation Continue Hope, providing close air support to the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit (13th MEU) and 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit (22nd MEU) off the coast of Somalia. The squadron returned from cruise in December 1993 and was reassigned to Marine Aircraft Group 11 (MAG-11). Ethiopian montane forests Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan - Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania - Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan - '''Roman Catholicism in Somalia''' refers to the presence of the Catholic faith in the Northeast African country of Somalia. The Roman Catholic Church in Somalia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. * Commons:Category:Somalia WikiPedia:Somalia Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia

current activities

- 10umx61z - Galkayo: A peaceful island in Somalia Current activities On 26 February 2009, the Norwegian government decided to deploy ''Fridtjof Nansen'' to the Gulf of Aden, thereby participating in the ongoing Operation Atalanta, the European Union's counter-piracy campaign in Somalia. ''Fridtjof Nansen'' joined the campaign in August 2009. Norwegian Defence Force official website: "Norsk

band line

sensor, relaying analog video in real time via a C-band (C band) line-of-sight (LOS) data link. Since 1991, Pioneer has flown reconnaissance missions during the Persian Gulf (Gulf War), Somalia (UNOSOM II (United Nations Operation in Somalia II)), Bosnia (NATO intervention in Bosnia), Kosovo (1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia) and Iraq (Iraq War) conflicts. In 2005, the Navy (United States Navy) operated two Pioneer systems (one for training) and the United States Marine Corps

opening annual

Somalia_Guide_to_Puntland_Election_2009.shtml title Somalia: Guide to Puntland Election 2009 publisher date 25 December 2008 accessdate 12 June 2011

designs bold

depictions representing living creatures such as the golden birds on the Mogadishan canopies (Canopy (building)), the ancient rock paintings in northern Somalia, and the plant decoration (Decorative arts)s on religious tombs in southern Somalia, but these are considered rare. Instead, intricate patterns and geometric designs, bold colors and monumental architecture were the norm. Commons:Category:Somalia WikiPedia:Somalia Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia


'''Somalia''' (

Somalia has a population of around 10 million. Around 85% of residents are ethnic Somalis (Somali people), who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities make up the remainder and are largely concentrated in the southern regions. .

In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre, John Kenrick (1855) ''Phoenicia'', B. Fellowes, p. 199. Jeanne Rose, John Hulburd (1992) ''The Aromatherapy Book: Applications and Inhalations'', North Atlantic Books, p. 94, ISBN 1556430736. and is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt. . Italy acquired full control of the northeastern and southern parts of the area after successfully waging the so-called Campaign of the Sultanates (History of Somalia#20th century) against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. Italian occupation lasted until 1941, yielding to British military administration. Northern Somalia would remain a protectorate, while southern Somalia became a United Nations Trusteeship (Trust Territory of Somalia) in 1949. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government. ''The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East'', Greystone Press: 1967, p. 338. Mohamed Siad Barre seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic. In 1991, Barre's government collapsed as the Somali Civil War broke out.

In the absence of a central government, Somalia's residents reverted to local forms of conflict resolution. A few autonomous regions (States and regions of Somalia), including the Somaliland, Puntland and Galmudug administrations, emerged in the north in the ensuing process of decentralization. The early 2000s saw the creation of fledgling interim federal administrations. The Transitional National Government (TNG) was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004, which reestablished national institutions such as the military (Military of Somalia).

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