Somali Republic

What is Somali Republic known for?


study year'

volumes. Skin to Sumac'', Volume 25, (Grolier: 1995), p.214. arrested members of the former government, banned political parties, . dissolved the parliament and the Supreme


title time

Rebels began to surrender to the Ethiopian government at the end of 1969; Waqo Gutu, who had been the foremost of the insurgents, was surrounded with his command of barely 200 men in Arana (Arana, Ethiopia) by the Ethiopian army in February 1970 and surrendered. Pacification was complete by the next year. The details of this paragraph are based on Paul B. Henze ''Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia'' (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 263f. - align center July 1 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Somali Republic''' (Somalia) is created from a merger of the former colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Mogadishu is the capital. -


large quot

designed to frustrate their efforts. Among these was the practice of mislabeling the Somali rebels' ethnically-based claims as ''shifta'' ("bandit") activity, cordoning off of the NFD as a "scheduled" area, confiscating or slaughtering Somali livestock, sponsoring ethnic cleansing campaigns against the region's inhabitants, and setting up large "protected villages" or concentration camps. Rhoda E. Howard, ''Human Rights


news online

Red Sea bridge work BBC News date February 22, 2008 publisher BBC News Online postscript In 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia's independence in 1960, a referendum was held


winning

by the country's first post-independence national elections (Somali parliamentary election, 1964). Again the SYL triumphed, winning 69 out of 123 parliamentary seats. The party's true margin of victory was even greater, as the fifty-four seats won by the opposition were divided among a number of small parties. After the 1964 National Assembly election in March, a crisis occurred that left Somalia without a government until the beginning of September. President Osman (Aden Abdullah Osman Daar), who

as an individual contestant. Voting was by party list, which could make a candidate a one-person party. (This practice explained not only the proliferation of small parties but also the transient nature of party support.) Many candidates affiliated with a major party only long enough to use its symbol in the election campaign and, if elected, abandoned it for the winning side as soon as the National Assembly met. Thus, by the end of May 1969 the SYL parliamentary cohort had swelled from 73 to 109

. In addition, the eleven SNC members had formed a coalition with the SYL, which held 120 of the 123 seats in the National Assembly. A few of these 120 left the SYL after the composition of Egal's cabinet became clear and after the announcement of his program, both of which were bound to displease some who had joined only to be on the winning side. Offered a huge list of candidates, the almost 900,000 voters in 1969 took delight in defeating incumbents. Of the incumbent deputies, 77 out of 123 were


traditional ties

. At independence, the northern region had two functioning political parties: the SNL, representing the Isaaq clan-family that constituted a numerical majority there; and the USP, supported largely by the Dir (Dir (clan)) and the Daarood. In a unified Somalia, however, the Isaaq were a small minority, whereas the northern Daarood joined members of their clan-family from the south in the SYL. The Dir, having few kinsmen in the south, were pulled on the one hand by traditional ties to the Hawiye and on the other hand by common regional sympathies to the Isaaq. The southern opposition party, the Greater Somalia League (GSL), pro-Arab and militantly pan-Somalist (Pan-Somalism), attracted the support of the SNL and the USP against the SYL, which had adopted a moderate stand before independence. Northern misgivings about being too tightly harnessed to the south were demonstrated by the voting pattern in the June 1961 referendum on the constitution (Somali constitutional referendum, 1961), which was in effect Somalia's first national election. Although the draft was overwhelmingly approved in the south, it was supported by less than 50 percent of the northern electorate. Dissatisfaction at the distribution of power among the clan families and between the two regions boiled over in December 1961, when a group of British-trained junior army officers in the north rebelled in reaction to the posting of higher ranking southern officers (who had been trained by the Italians for police duties) to command their units. The ringleaders urged a separation of north and south. Northern non-commissioned officers arrested the rebels, but discontent in the north persisted. In early 1962, GSL leader Haaji Mahammad Husseen, seeking in part to exploit northern dissatisfaction, attempted to form an amalgamated party, known as the Somali Democratic Union (SDU). It enrolled northern elements, some of which were displeased with the northern SNL representatives in the coalition government. Hussein's attempt failed. In May 1962, however, Egal and another northern SNL minister resigned from the cabinet and took many SNL followers with them into a new party, the Somali National Congress (SNC), which won widespread northern support. The new party also gained support in the south when it was joined by an SYL faction composed predominantly of Hawiye. This move gave the country three truly national political parties and further served to blur north-south differences. Pan-Somalism The most important political issue in post-independence Somali politics was the unification of all areas traditionally inhabited by ethnic Somalis (Somali people) into one country – a concept identified as Pan-Somalism, or Greater Somalia (''Soomaaliweyn''). Politicians assumed that this issue of Somali nationalism dominated popular opinion and that any government would fall if it did not demonstrate a desire to reappropriate occupied Somali territory. thumb right 300px Approximate extent of Greater Somalia (File:Somali map.jpg). Preoccupation with Greater Somalia shaped the character of the country's newly formed institutions and led to the build-up of the Somali military (Somali Armed Forces) in preparation for campaigns to retrieve Somali land. By law, the exact size of the National Assembly was not established in order to facilitate the inclusion of representatives of the contested areas after unification. The national flag (Flag of Somalia) also featured a five-pointed star, whose points represented areas traditionally inhabited by ethnic Somalis: the former Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland, the Ogaden, French Somaliland, and the Northern Frontier District (North Eastern Province (Kenya)). Somalia Flag Moreover, the preamble to the constitution (Constitution of Somalia) approved in 1961 included the statement, "The Somali Republic promotes by legal and peaceful means, the union of the territories." The constitution also provided that all ethnic Somalis, no matter where they resided, were citizens of the republic. The Somalis did not claim sovereignty over adjacent territories, but rather demanded that Somalis living in them be granted the right to self-determination. Somali leaders asserted that they would be satisfied only when their fellow Somalis outside the republic had the opportunity to decide for themselves what their status would be. In 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies (Allies of World War II) and to the dismay of the Somalis, Federal Research Division, ''Somalia: A Country Study'', (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2004), p. 38 the British "returned" the Haud (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably 'protected' by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Ogaden to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II (Menelek II of Ethiopia) in exchange for his help against raids by Somali clans. Laitin, p. 73 Britain included the proviso that the Somali inhabitants would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area. Zolberg, Aristide R., et al., ''Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World'', (Oxford University Press: 1992), p. 106 The Somali government refused in particular to acknowledge the validity of the Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1954 recognizing Ethiopia's claim to the Haud or, in general, the relevance of treaties defining Somali-Ethiopian borders. Somalia's position was based on three points: first, that the treaties disregarded agreements made with Somali actors that had put them under British protection; second, that the Somalis were not consulted on the terms of the treaties and in fact had not been informed of their existence; and third, that such treaties violated the self-determination principle. This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands that it had turned over. Hostilities grew steadily, eventually involving small-scale actions between the Somali National Army (Somali Armed Forces) and Imperial Ethiopian Armed Forces (Ethiopian National Defense Force) along the border. In February 1964, armed conflict erupted on the Somali-Ethiopian frontier, and Ethiopian aircraft (Imperial Ethiopian Air Force) raided targets in Somalia. The confrontation ended in April through the mediation of Sudan (Republic of Sudan (1956–1969)), acting under the auspices of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Under the terms of the cease-fire, a joint commission was formed to examine the causes of frontier incidents, and a demilitarized zone ten to fifteen kilometers wide was established on either side of the border. At least temporarily, further military confrontations were prevented. A referendum (French Somaliland overseas territory referendum, 1958) was held in neighboring Djibouti (then known as French Somaliland) in 1958, on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960, to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar (Afar people) ethnic group and resident Europeans. There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls. Kevin Shillington, ''Encyclopedia of African history'', (CRC Press: 2005), p. 360. The majority of those who had voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later under mysterious circumstances. Barrington, Lowell, ''After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States'', (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p. 115 United States Joint Publications Research Service, ''Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa'', Issues 464-492, (1966), p.24. At the 1961 London talks on the future of the Kenya Colony, Somali representatives from the Northern Frontier District (NFD) demanded that Britain arrange for the region's separation before Kenya was granted independence. The British government appointed a commission to ascertain popular opinion in the NFD on the question. The informal plebiscite demonstrated the overwhelming desire of the region's population, which mainly consisted of Somalis and Oromos (Oromo people), to join the newly formed Somali Republic (Somalia). David D. Laitin, ''Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience'', (University Of Chicago Press: 1977), p.75 A 1962 editorial in ''The Observer'', Britain's oldest Sunday newspaper, concurrently noted that "by every criterion, the Kenya Somalis have a right to choose their own future ... they differ from other Kenyans not just tribally but in almost every way ... they are Hamitic, have different customs, a different religion (Islam), and they inhabit a desert which contributes little or nothing to the Kenya economy ... nobody can accuse them of trying to make off with the national wealth". Rebels began to surrender to the Ethiopian government at the end of 1969; Waqo Gutu, who had been the foremost of the insurgents, was surrounded with his command of barely 200 men in Arana (Arana, Ethiopia) by the Ethiopian army in February 1970 and surrendered. Pacification was complete by the next year. The details of this paragraph are based on Paul B. Henze ''Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia'' (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 263f. - align center July 1 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Somali Republic''' (Somalia) is created from a merger of the former colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Mogadishu is the capital. -


important political

-Somalism The most important political issue in post-independence Somali politics was the unification of all areas traditionally inhabited by ethnic Somalis (Somali people) into one country – a concept identified as Pan-Somalism, or Greater Somalia (''Soomaaliweyn''). Politicians assumed that this issue of Somali nationalism dominated popular opinion and that any government would fall if it did not demonstrate a desire to reappropriate occupied Somali territory. thumb right 300px Approximate extent of Greater Somalia (File:Somali map.jpg). Preoccupation with Greater Somalia shaped the character of the country's newly formed institutions and led to the build-up of the Somali military (Somali Armed Forces) in preparation for campaigns to retrieve Somali land. By law, the exact size of the National Assembly was not established in order to facilitate the inclusion of representatives of the contested areas after unification. The national flag (Flag of Somalia) also featured a five-pointed star, whose points represented areas traditionally inhabited by ethnic Somalis: the former Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland, the Ogaden, French Somaliland, and the Northern Frontier District (North Eastern Province (Kenya)). Somalia Flag Moreover, the preamble to the constitution (Constitution of Somalia) approved in 1961 included the statement, "The Somali Republic promotes by legal and peaceful means, the union of the territories." The constitution also provided that all ethnic Somalis, no matter where they resided, were citizens of the republic. The Somalis did not claim sovereignty over adjacent territories, but rather demanded that Somalis living in them be granted the right to self-determination. Somali leaders asserted that they would be satisfied only when their fellow Somalis outside the republic had the opportunity to decide for themselves what their status would be. In 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies (Allies of World War II) and to the dismay of the Somalis, Federal Research Division, ''Somalia: A Country Study'', (Kessinger Publishing, LLC: 2004), p. 38 the British "returned" the Haud (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably 'protected' by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Ogaden to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II (Menelek II of Ethiopia) in exchange for his help against raids by Somali clans. Laitin, p. 73 Britain included the proviso that the Somali inhabitants would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area. Zolberg, Aristide R., et al., ''Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World'', (Oxford University Press: 1992), p. 106 The Somali government refused in particular to acknowledge the validity of the Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1954 recognizing Ethiopia's claim to the Haud or, in general, the relevance of treaties defining Somali-Ethiopian borders. Somalia's position was based on three points: first, that the treaties disregarded agreements made with Somali actors that had put them under British protection; second, that the Somalis were not consulted on the terms of the treaties and in fact had not been informed of their existence; and third, that such treaties violated the self-determination principle. This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands that it had turned over. Hostilities grew steadily, eventually involving small-scale actions between the Somali National Army (Somali Armed Forces) and Imperial Ethiopian Armed Forces (Ethiopian National Defense Force) along the border. In February 1964, armed conflict erupted on the Somali-Ethiopian frontier, and Ethiopian aircraft (Imperial Ethiopian Air Force) raided targets in Somalia. The confrontation ended in April through the mediation of Sudan (Republic of Sudan (1956–1969)), acting under the auspices of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Under the terms of the cease-fire, a joint commission was formed to examine the causes of frontier incidents, and a demilitarized zone ten to fifteen kilometers wide was established on either side of the border. At least temporarily, further military confrontations were prevented. A referendum (French Somaliland overseas territory referendum, 1958) was held in neighboring Djibouti (then known as French Somaliland) in 1958, on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960, to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar (Afar people) ethnic group and resident Europeans. There was also widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls. Kevin Shillington, ''Encyclopedia of African history'', (CRC Press: 2005), p. 360. The majority of those who had voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later under mysterious circumstances. Barrington, Lowell, ''After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States'', (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p. 115 United States Joint Publications Research Service, ''Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa'', Issues 464-492, (1966), p.24. At the 1961 London talks on the future of the Kenya Colony, Somali representatives from the Northern Frontier District (NFD) demanded that Britain arrange for the region's separation before Kenya was granted independence. The British government appointed a commission to ascertain popular opinion in the NFD on the question. The informal plebiscite demonstrated the overwhelming desire of the region's population, which mainly consisted of Somalis and Oromos (Oromo people), to join the newly formed Somali Republic (Somalia). David D. Laitin, ''Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience'', (University Of Chicago Press: 1977), p.75 A 1962 editorial in ''The Observer'', Britain's oldest Sunday newspaper, concurrently noted that "by every criterion, the Kenya Somalis have a right to choose their own future ... they differ from other Kenyans not just tribally but in almost every way ... they are Hamitic, have different customs, a different religion (Islam), and they inhabit a desert which contributes little or nothing to the Kenya economy ... nobody can accuse them of trying to make off with the national wealth". Rebels began to surrender to the Ethiopian government at the end of 1969; Waqo Gutu, who had been the foremost of the insurgents, was surrounded with his command of barely 200 men in Arana (Arana, Ethiopia) by the Ethiopian army in February 1970 and surrendered. Pacification was complete by the next year. The details of this paragraph are based on Paul B. Henze ''Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia'' (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 263f. - align center July 1 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Somali Republic''' (Somalia) is created from a merger of the former colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Mogadishu is the capital. -


somalia

Nationalist Republic event_start Independence (Independence Day (Somalia)) from Great Britain (United Kingdom) and Italy date_start July 1 year_start 1960 event_end Coup d'état date_end October 21 year_end 1969 event1 date_event1 event2 date_event2 event3 date_event3 event4

date_event4 event_pre date_pre event_post date_post p1 Trust Territory of Somalia flag_p1 Flag of Somalia.svg p2 State of Somaliland flag_p2 Flag of Somalia.svg s1 Somali Democratic Republic flag_s1 Flag of Somalia.svg image_flag Flag of Somalia.svg flag_alt


service translations

strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later under mysterious circumstances. Barrington, Lowell, ''After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States'', (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p. 115 United States Joint Publications Research Service

, ''Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa'', Issues 464-492, (1966), p.24. At the 1961 London talks on the future of the Kenya Colony, Somali representatives from the Northern Frontier District (NFD) demanded that Britain arrange for the region's separation before Kenya was granted independence. The British government appointed a commission to ascertain popular opinion in the NFD on the question. The informal plebiscite demonstrated the overwhelming desire of the region's


research service

strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later under mysterious circumstances. Barrington, Lowell, ''After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States'', (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p. 115 United States Joint Publications Research Service, ''Translations on Sub-Saharan Africa'', Issues 464-492, (1966), p.24. At the 1961 London talks on the future of the Kenya Colony, Somali representatives from the Northern Frontier District (NFD) demanded that Britain arrange for the region's separation before Kenya was granted independence. The British government appointed a commission to ascertain popular opinion in the NFD on the question. The informal plebiscite demonstrated the overwhelming desire of the region's population, which mainly consisted of Somalis and Oromos (Oromo people), to join the newly formed Somali Republic (Somalia). David D. Laitin, ''Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience'', (University Of Chicago Press: 1977), p.75 A 1962 editorial in ''The Observer'', Britain's oldest Sunday newspaper, concurrently noted that "by every criterion, the Kenya Somalis have a right to choose their own future ... they differ from other Kenyans not just tribally but in almost every way ... they are Hamitic, have different customs, a different religion (Islam), and they inhabit a desert which contributes little or nothing to the Kenya economy ... nobody can accuse them of trying to make off with the national wealth". Rebels began to surrender to the Ethiopian government at the end of 1969; Waqo Gutu, who had been the foremost of the insurgents, was surrounded with his command of barely 200 men in Arana (Arana, Ethiopia) by the Ethiopian army in February 1970 and surrendered. Pacification was complete by the next year. The details of this paragraph are based on Paul B. Henze ''Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia'' (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 263f. - align center July 1 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Somali Republic''' (Somalia) is created from a merger of the former colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Mogadishu is the capital. -

Somali Republic

The '''Somali Republic''' ( ) was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the union of the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland). A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa and other members of the trusteeship and protectorate governments, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Somali National Assembly (Parliament of Somalia), Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President (List of Presidents of Somalia) of the Somali Republic, and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia). On 20 July 1961 and through a popular referendum (Somali constitutional referendum, 1961), the people of Somalia ratified a new constitution (Constitution of Somalia), which was first drafted in 1960. ''The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East'', Greystone Press: 1967, p. 338 The administration lasted until 1969, when the Supreme Revolutionary Council (Supreme Revolutionary Council (Somalia)) (SRC) seized power in a bloodless putsch and renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic.

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