Sijilmasa

What is Sijilmasa known for?


unorthodox

in 905. 'Ubayed Allah and his son made their way to Sijilmassa, fleeing persecution by the Abbasids, who found their Isma'ili Shi'ite beliefs not only unorthodox, but also threatening to the status quo of their caliphate. According to legend, ‘Ubayed Allah and his son were fulfilling a prophecy that the ''madhi'' would come from Mesopotamia to Sijilmassa. They hid among the population of Sijilmassa for four years under the countenance of the Midrar rulers, specifically one Prince Yasa


prominent people

be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even


extremely violent

the Almohad took the city in the mid-12th century, they also took advantage of the wealth of trade going through Sijilmassa. However, the strict philosophy imposed by the Almoravid at the beginning of their reign of Sijilmassa was overshadowed by the extremely violent practices of the Almohad. This culminated in the massacre of many of the Jews living in Sijilmassa . This is an observation made by Hirschberg in ''A History of the Jews in North Africa,'' pp. 109, 116-118 Amid the fall of the Almohad dynasty to the Zenata Berber confederation under the Marinid, Sijilmassa once again played host to the latest Berber dynasty. The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta stayed in Sijilmasa on his journey to visit the Mali Empire in 1352-1353. He wrote: "I reached the city of Sijilmasa, a very beautiful city. It has abundant dates of good quality. The city of al-Basra is like it in the abundance of dates, but those of Sijilmasa are superior." The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.


strict

years of Maghrawa rule, the elders of Sijilmassa appealed to the Sanhaja Berber confederation, which was just beginning its transformation into the Almoravid movement. According to al-Bakri, in 1055, Abdallah ibn Yasin, the spiritual leader of the Almoravid movement, responded by bringing his new army to Sijilmassa and killed the leader of the Maghrawa, Mas'ud ibn Wanudin al-Maghrawi. The Almoravid imposed an extremely strict interpretation of Islam, smashing music instruments

the Almohad took the city in the mid-12th century, they also took advantage of the wealth of trade going through Sijilmassa. However, the strict philosophy imposed by the Almoravid at the beginning of their reign of Sijilmassa was overshadowed by the extremely violent practices of the Almohad. This culminated in the massacre of many of the Jews living in Sijilmassa . This is an observation made by Hirschberg in ''A History of the Jews in North Africa,'' pp. 109, 116-118 Amid


quot prominent

be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even


original local

;For both points, see Louis Ginzberg, ''Geonica''. The present Sephardic liturgy should therefore be regarded as the product of gradual convergence between the original local rite and the North African branch of the Babylonian-Arabic family, as prevailing in Geonic times in Egypt and Morocco. Following the Reconquista, the specifically Spanish liturgy was commented on by David Abudirham (c. 1340), who was concerned to ensure conformity with the rulings of halachah (halakha). Despite this convergence, there were distinctions between the liturgies of different parts of the Iberian peninsula: for example the Lisbon and Catalonian rites were somewhat different from the Castilian rite, which formed the basis of the later Sephardic tradition. The Catalonian rite was intermediate in character between the Castilian rite and that of Provence (Hachmei Provence): Haham Gaster (Moses Gaster) classified the rites of Oran and Tunis in this group. Preface to the ''Book of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' Congregation, London'', above. After the revolt, Kharijites established a number of theocratic tribal kingdoms, most of which had short and troubled histories. Others, however, like Sijilmasa and Tilimsan (Tlemcen), which straddled the principal trade routes, proved more viable and prospered. In 750 the Abbasids, who succeeded the Umayyads as Muslim rulers, moved the caliphate to Baghdad and reestablished caliphal authority in Ifriqiya, appointing Ibrahim ibn al Aghlab as governor in Al Qayrawan. Although nominally serving at the caliph's pleasure, Al Aghlab and his successors, the Aghlabids, ruled independently until 909, presiding over a court that became a center for learning and culture. The Fatimids turned westward in 911, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla beyond the Atlas Mountains, whence in the 11th century they moved southwest to Oued M'zab. Maintaining their cohesion and beliefs over the centuries, Ibadi religious leaders have dominated public life in the region to this day. Tlemcen prospered as a commercial center and was called the "pearl of the Maghrib." Situated at the head of the Imperial Road through the strategic Taza Gap to Marrakech, the city controlled the caravan route to Sijilmasa, gateway for the gold and slave trade with the western Sudan. Aragon came to control commerce between Tlemcen's port, Oran, and Europe beginning about 1250. An outbreak of privateering out of Aragon, however, severely disrupted this trade after about 1420. In the mid 11th century, Oujda acquired prominence through its strategic position on the road east from Sijilmasa. Throughout the history of the dynasties of the Muslim West, Oujda played an important strategic role among the Merinids, settled in Fes (Fes, Morocco), in this case as a rear base in their conflict with the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen. From at least the 13th to the 19th century, Tabelbala was a stop on the caravan routes linking southern Morocco (notably Sijilmasa) to the Sahel, in particular Timbuktu. On the collapse of Almohad rule in the 1230s Tlemcen became the capital of one of three successor states, the (Ziyyanid (Zayyanid)) kingdom of Tlemcen (1236 - 1554) and was ruled for centuries by successive Ziyyanid sultans. Delfina S. Ruano (2006), ''Hafsids'', in Josef W Meri (ed.), ''Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia''. Routledge., p. 309. Its flag was a white crescent pointing upwards on a blue field. During the Middle Ages, Tlemcen not only served as a trading city connecting the "coastal" route across the Maghreb with the trans-Saharan caravan routes, I. Hrbek (1997), ''The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34-43. S.M. Cissoko (1997), ''The Songhay from the twelfth to the sixteenth century'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 77-86. but also housed a European trading center (funduk) which connected African and European merchants. Talbi (1997: 29). In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points through which African gold (arriving from south of the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European hands. Id. Consequently, Tlemcen was partially integrated into the European financial system. So, for example, Genoese bills of exchange (Bill of Exchange) circulated there, at least among merchants not subject to (or not deterred by) religious prohibitions. Fernand Braudel (1979), ''Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: Vol. III: The Perspective of the World''. Transl. Sian Reynolds. Univ. Calif. Press & HarperCollins (1992), p. 66. The importance of these materials for reconstructing the social and economic history for the period between 950 and 1250 cannot be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even covering trade with India. Cities mentioned range from Samarkand in Central Asia to Seville and Sijilmasa, Morocco to the west; from Aden north to Constantinople; Europe not only is represented by the Mediterranean port cities of Narbonne, Marseilles, Genoa and Venice, but even Kiev and Rouen are occasionally mentioned. Dov Goitein, Shelomo. ''A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza'' '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.


big quot

Beckingham 1994 p 946 Vol. 4 Ibn Battuta also mentions Sijilmasa when describing the Chinese town of Quanzhou: "In this city, as in all cities in China, men have orchards and fields and their houses in the middle, as they are in Siljimasa in our country. This is why their towns are so big." The next mention of Sijilmasa in the extant sources is that of Leo Africanus, who, travelling to Morocco in the early 16th century, goes to the Tafilalt


Taghaza

and after 25 days, arrived at the dry salt-lake bed of Taghaza with its salt mines. All of the local buildings were made from slabs of salt by slaves of the Masufa tribe, who cut the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a commercial centre and awash with Malian (Mali Empire) gold, though Ibn Battuta did not form a favourable impression of the place, recording that it was plagued by flies and the water was brackish. File:Aït Benhaddou1 (js).jpg thumb The Kasbah of Aït

.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 77-86. but also housed a European trading center (funduk) which connected African and European merchants. Talbi (1997: 29). In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points through which African gold (arriving from south of the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European hands. Id. Consequently, Tlemcen was partially integrated into the European financial system. So

as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza'' '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located


salt

Empire year 2005 publisher Cambridge University Press isbn 978-0-521-84313-3 page 15 The Ghana Empire grew wealthy by taxing the trans-Saharan trade that linked Tiaret and Sijilmasa to Aoudaghost. Ghana controlled access to the goldfields of Bambouk, southeast of Koumbi Saleh. A percentage of salt and gold going through its territory was taken. The empire was not involved in production. Iliffe, John(2007). p. 51–53. ref>

and after 25 days, arrived at the dry salt-lake bed of Taghaza with its salt mines. All of the local buildings were made from slabs of salt by slaves of the Masufa tribe, who cut the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a commercial centre and awash with Malian (Mali Empire) gold, though Ibn Battuta did not form a favourable impression of the place, recording that it was plagued by flies and the water was brackish. File:Aït Benhaddou1 (js).jpg thumb The Kasbah of Aït

as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza'' '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located


title ancient

title al-Muqaddimah others Franz Rosenthal publisher Princeton University Press place Princeton, NJ . * The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.

Sijilmasa

'''Sijilmasa''' (also '''Sijilmassa''', '''Sidjilmasa''', '''Sidjilmassa''' and '''Sigilmassa''') was a medieval Moroccan city and trade entrepôt at the northern edge of the Sahara Desert in Morocco. The ruins of the town lie for five miles along the River Ziz (Ziz River) in the Tafilalt oasis near the town of Rissani. The town's history was marked by several successive invasions by Berber (Berber people) dynasties. Up until the 14th century, as the northern terminus for the western trans-Sahara trade route (trans-Saharan trade), it was one of the most important trade centres in the Maghreb during the Middle Ages.

Search by keywords:


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017