Shusha

What is Shusha known for?


quot opera'

heritage. The town was also referred to as "the Music Conservatory of the Caucasus" because of its many talented musicians and singers. And the fact that Hajibeyov grew up in Shusha explains how at 22, in 1908, with very little formal musical education, he was capable of writing a full-length opera. thumb left 150px Huseyngulu Sarabski (File:First "Majnun" of "Leyli and Majnun" opera - G.Sarabsky, Baku. 1908.jpg) as the first Majnun in the opera ''Leyli


professional music

Azeri ). He chose it as a stage name, when he became involved in professional music. While still a young khananda, he was invited to Baku in 1920 to act out the role of Karam in Uzeyir Hajibeyov's opera ''Asli and Karam''. There he was first introduced to a European-style opera and decided to excel in this genre. He later studied music and vocal arts in the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire (now known as the Baku Academy of Music), where he was admitted in 1921, as well


traditional school

. Karabakh carpets comprise 33 different compositions in total. Some of them were partly borrowed from the Tabriz and Iranian carpet schools, some are completely original. '''Mir-Mohsun Navvab''' (Azeri (Azerbaijani language): ''Mir-Möhsün Nəvvab'') (1833, Shusha – 1918, Shusha) occupies a prominent place in the history of Azerbaijani culture (Culture of Azerbaijan) as the last representative of old traditional school of science, arts

and literature. Navvab was versatile person of his time. He is known as a poet, artist, music historian, astronomer, carpenter, chemist and mathematician. '''Mir-Mohsun Navvab''' (Azeri (Azerbaijani language): ''Mir-Möhsün Nəvvab'') (1833, Shusha – 1918, Shusha) occupies a prominent place in the history of Azerbaijani culture (Culture of Azerbaijan) as the last representative of old traditional school of science, arts and literature. Navvab was versatile person


public international

Mutafyan Claude (1994) Karabagh in the twentieth century. In Chorbajyan Levon


quot opera

heritage. The town was also referred to as "the Music Conservatory of the Caucasus" because of its many talented musicians and singers. And the fact that Hajibeyov grew up in Shusha explains how at 22, in 1908, with very little formal musical education, he was capable of writing a full-length opera. thumb left 150px Huseyngulu Sarabski (File:First "Majnun" of "Leyli and Majnun" opera - G.Sarabsky, Baku. 1908.jpg) as the first Majnun in the opera ''Leyli


prominent place

. Karabakh carpets comprise 33 different compositions in total. Some of them were partly borrowed from the Tabriz and Iranian carpet schools, some are completely original. was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.


life online

cradle' for the young boy. The town of Shusha is extremely popular with the musical traditions of Azerbaijani people. Shusha is home to one of the leading schools of mugham, traditional Azerbaijani genre of vocal and instrumental arts. Shusha is particularly renowned for this art. ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', "Azerbaijan": Cultural life, Online Academic Edition, 2007. Shusha is also


musical life

'', by Thomas Hartwell Horne, 1841, J. Whetham & Son, v.2, p. 51 The city was also one of the leading centres of Azeri culture (Culture of Azerbaijan). Mattew O'Brien. ''Uzeir Hajibeyov and His Role in the Development of Musical Life in Azerbaijan''. – Routledge, 2004. – С. 211. – ISBN 0-415-30219-6, 9780415302197 But later writers have preferred to emphasise the importance of Shusha, one of the leading centres of Azeri culture, as providing a 'creative


international show

and were awarded prizes in an international show in Paris in 1867. Shusha carpets also received awards in 1872 in Moscow Polytechnic Exhibition. thumb The rug trade in late 19th century Ganja, Azerbaijan Ganja (Image:Carpet market Ganja XIXcentury.jpg) (Elisabethpol) Azerbaijani carpets are traditionally divided into four types, so-called "carpet schools", all of which have distinct characteristics. These carpet schools are: 1) Guba


mirza

Azerbaijani and some Armenian 19th century sources, including Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi, Mirza Adigozal bey, Abbasgulu Bakikhanov, Mirza Yusuf Nersesov and Raffi (Raffi (novelist)), attest to the foundation of the town Shusha in 1750-1752 (according to other sources, 1756–1757) by Panah-Ali khan Javanshir (r. 1748-1763), the founder and the first ruler of the independent Karabakh Khanate (1748–1822), which comprised both Lowland and Highland Karabakh (Nagorno-Karabakh). ref

;Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary 1890–1907" and Great Soviet Encyclopedia. According to Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi (1773–1853), the author of the Persian-language text ''History of Karabakh'', Bournoutian George A. A History of Qarabagh: An Annotated Translation of Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi's Tarikh-E Qarabagh. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda

Publishers, 1994, p. 72. The original text by Mirza Jamal Javanshir calls the village "Shoshi." one of the most significant chronicles on the history of Karabakh in 18th-19th centuries, the Karabakh nobility assembled to discuss the danger of invasion from Iran and told Panah Ali Khan, "We must build among the impassable mountains such an inviolable and inaccessible fort, so that no strong enemy could take it." Melik Shahnazar of Varanda, who was the first

Shusha

'''Shusha''' ( ), is a city in the disputed (Nagorno-Karabakh#International status) region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus. It has been under the control of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic since its capture (Capture of Shusha) in 1992 during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. However, it is a ''de jure'' part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, with the status of an administrative division (Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan) of the surrounding Shusha Rayon (Shusha (rayon)). Situated at an altitude of 1,400–1,800 metres (4,600–5,900 ft) in the picturesque Karabakh mountains, Shusha was a popular mountain recreation resort in the Soviet era (Soviet Union).

According to some sources the town of Shusha was founded in 1752 by Panah Ali Khan. ''The Encyclopaedia of Islam'', Volume 4, Parts 69–78, Brill, 1954, p. 573.

The city was also a major center of Armenian cultural and economic life until the closing years of World War I. Along with Tbilisi; it was one of the two main Armenian cities of the Transcaucasus and the center of a self-governing Armenian principality from medieval times through the 1750s. ''Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia'', By Gary K. Bertsch, Scott A. Jones, Cassady B. Craft, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 0-415-92274-7, p. 297 It also had religious and strategic importance to the Armenians, housing the Ghazanchetsots Cathedral, the church of Kanach Zham, two other churches, a monastic convent, and serving (along with Lachin district to the west) as a land link to Armenia.

Throughout modern history the city mainly fostered a mixed Armenian–Azerbaijani population. Following the Shusha massacre in 1920 by Azerbaijani forces and their Turkish supporters, the Armenian half of the population of the city was mostly killed or expelled, and the city reduced to a town with a dominant Azerbaijani population. After the capture of Shusha in 1992 by Armenian forces, its population diminished dramatically again and is now almost exclusively Armenian.

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