Shusha

What is Shusha known for?


military activities

commander Avan Yuzbashi's campaign against Ottoman forces in the 1720s and 1730s, during the Turkish invasion of the Southern Caucasus. Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626-1796: A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, Armenian Military Activities in Karabakh and Ghapan, pages 402-413 Kehva Chelebi, an Armenian patriot who maintained correspondence between the meliks of Karabakh (Nagorno Karabakh) and the Russian authorities


online history

Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: History of Azerbaijan Hewsen, Robert H. (Robert H. Hewsen), ''Armenia: A Historical Atlas''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 155. The mid-18th century foundation is supported by Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary ref name "


Mirza

Azerbaijani and some Armenian 19th century sources, including Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi, Mirza Adigozal bey, Abbasgulu Bakikhanov, Mirza Yusuf Nersesov and Raffi (Raffi (novelist)), attest to the foundation of the town Shusha in 1750-1752 (according to other sources, 1756–1757) by Panah-Ali khan Javanshir (r. 1748-1763), the founder and the first ruler of the independent Karabakh Khanate (1748–1822), which comprised both Lowland and Highland Karabakh (Nagorno-Karabakh). ref

;Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary 1890–1907" and Great Soviet Encyclopedia. According to Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi (1773–1853), the author of the Persian-language text ''History of Karabakh'', Bournoutian George A. A History of Qarabagh: An Annotated Translation of Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi's Tarikh-E Qarabagh. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda

Publishers, 1994, p. 72. The original text by Mirza Jamal Javanshir calls the village "Shoshi." one of the most significant chronicles on the history of Karabakh in 18th-19th centuries, the Karabakh nobility assembled to discuss the danger of invasion from Iran and told Panah Ali Khan, "We must build among the impassable mountains such an inviolable and inaccessible fort, so that no strong enemy could take it." Melik Shahnazar of Varanda, who was the first


documentary record

;ref name "Bournoutian, George A 2001, page 133" Bournoutian, George A. ''Armenians and Russia, 1626–1796: A Documentary Record''. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, page 133, (Kekhva Chelebi's Report to the Collegium of Russian Foreign Affairs (17 December 1725) Цагарели А. А. Грамота и гругие исторические документы XVIII столетия, относяшиеся к Грузии, Том 1. СПб 1891, ц. 434–435. This book is available online from Google

commander Avan Yuzbashi's campaign against Ottoman forces in the 1720s and 1730s, during the Turkish invasion of the Southern Caucasus. Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626-1796: A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, Armenian Military Activities in Karabakh and Ghapan, pages 402-413 Kehva Chelebi, an Armenian patriot who maintained correspondence between the meliks of Karabakh (Nagorno Karabakh) and the Russian authorities

Alexander Suvorov in his letter to Prince Grigory Potemkin. А. В. Суворов и русско-армянские отношения в 1770-1780-х годах. Ереван. Айастан. 1981 Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626-1796: A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, page 134, 269. Suvorov writes that the Armenian prince Melik Shahnazar of Varanda surrendered his fortress Shushikala to "certain Panah", whom he calls "chief of an unimportant


studies program

was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.


publishing articles

studies in the 1870s, Vazirov obtained the position of a forest warden in Dilijan (present-day Armenia) but was soon laid off due to the mistrust of the authorities towards the Petrovsko-Razumovskaya Academy alumni many of whom were known for their revolutionary views. He then settled in Baku and passed a law course which enabled him to serve as a lawyer at the city court. He also started publishing articles and essays for the newly-founded Azeri (Azeri language) newspaper '' Akinchi


quot opera'

heritage. The town was also referred to as "the Music Conservatory of the Caucasus" because of its many talented musicians and singers. And the fact that Hajibeyov grew up in Shusha explains how at 22, in 1908, with very little formal musical education, he was capable of writing a full-length opera. thumb left 150px Huseyngulu Sarabski (File:First "Majnun" of "Leyli and Majnun" opera - G.Sarabsky, Baku. 1908.jpg) as the first Majnun in the opera ''Leyli


term defense

Shusha with his 80,000-strong army. Ibrahim Khalil khan mobilized the population for a long-term defense. The number of militia in Shusha reached 15,000. Women fought together with men. The Armenian population of Karabakh also actively participated in this struggle against the invaders and fought side by side with the Muslim population, jointly organizing ambushes in the mountains and forests. The siege lasted for 33 days. Not being able to capture Shusha, Aga Muhammad khan ceased the siege


water main

death, Natavan was closely engaged in philanthropy, promoting the social and cultural development of Karabakh. Among her famous deeds was a water main that was first laid down in Shusha in 1883, thus solving the water problem of the townsfolk. The local Russian "Kavkaz" newspaper wrote at the time: ''"...Khurshud Banu-Begum left an eternal mark in the memories of the Shushavians and her glory will pass on from generation to generation"''. was repulsed but the war was to continue for a year and a half. The book describes the love of Ali for Nino, with excursions to mountain villages in Daghestan (Republic of Dagestan), Shusha in Azerbaijan, Tbilisi, Georgia and Persia. Upon graduating from high school, Ali determines to marry Nino. At first she hesitates, until Ali promises that he will not make her wear the veil, or be part of a harem. Ali's father, despite his Muslim traditional view of women, supports the marriage; Nino's father tries to postpone the marriage.


professional music

Azeri ). He chose it as a stage name, when he became involved in professional music. While still a young khananda, he was invited to Baku in 1920 to act out the role of Karam in Uzeyir Hajibeyov's opera ''Asli and Karam''. There he was first introduced to a European-style opera and decided to excel in this genre. He later studied music and vocal arts in the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire (now known as the Baku Academy of Music), where he was admitted in 1921, as well

Shusha

'''Shusha''' ( ), is a city in the disputed (Nagorno-Karabakh#International status) region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus. It has been under the control of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic since its capture (Capture of Shusha) in 1992 during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. However, it is a ''de jure'' part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, with the status of an administrative division (Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan) of the surrounding Shusha Rayon (Shusha (rayon)). Situated at an altitude of 1,400–1,800 metres (4,600–5,900 ft) in the picturesque Karabakh mountains, Shusha was a popular mountain recreation resort in the Soviet era (Soviet Union).

According to some sources the town of Shusha was founded in 1752 by Panah Ali Khan. ''The Encyclopaedia of Islam'', Volume 4, Parts 69–78, Brill, 1954, p. 573.

The city was also a major center of Armenian cultural and economic life until the closing years of World War I. Along with Tbilisi; it was one of the two main Armenian cities of the Transcaucasus and the center of a self-governing Armenian principality from medieval times through the 1750s. ''Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia'', By Gary K. Bertsch, Scott A. Jones, Cassady B. Craft, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 0-415-92274-7, p. 297 It also had religious and strategic importance to the Armenians, housing the Ghazanchetsots Cathedral, the church of Kanach Zham, two other churches, a monastic convent, and serving (along with Lachin district to the west) as a land link to Armenia.

Throughout modern history the city mainly fostered a mixed Armenian–Azerbaijani population. Following the Shusha massacre in 1920 by Azerbaijani forces and their Turkish supporters, the Armenian half of the population of the city was mostly killed or expelled, and the city reduced to a town with a dominant Azerbaijani population. After the capture of Shusha in 1992 by Armenian forces, its population diminished dramatically again and is now almost exclusively Armenian.

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