Shaizar

What is Shaizar known for?


participating

around playing dice instead of helping John to press the siege of Shaizar. These Crusader Princes were suspicious of each other and of John, and neither wanted the other to gain from participating in the campaign, while Raymond also wanted to hold on to Antioch, which he had agreed to hand over to John if the campaign was successful in capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs, and Hama. While the emperor was distracted by his attempts to secure a German (Holy Roman Empire) alliance

participating in the campaign, while Raymond also wanted to hold on to Antioch, which he had agreed to hand over to John if the campaign was successful in capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs, and Hama. While the emperor was distracted by his attempts to secure a German (Holy Roman Empire) alliance against the Normans of Sicily, Joscelin and Raymond conspired to delay the promised handover of Antioch's citadel to the emperor. In 1156 Baldwin was forced to sign a treaty with Nur ad


commitment

). With a record of four campaigns in the Levant and Africa (including participation in the Second Crusade, the failed 1157–1158 siege of the Syrian city Shaizar, and the 1164 invasion of Egypt (Crusader invasions of Egypt)), he had a rare and distinguished record of commitment to crusading. In 1156 Thierry had his eldest son married to Elizabeth of Vermandois (Elizabeth de Vermandois (d. 1183)), daughter and heiress of Raoul I of Vermandois (Raoul I, Count of Vermandois). In 1156 he


488

, ''Usama ibn Munqidh: Warrior-Poet in the Age of Crusades'' (Oxford: Oneworld, 2005), p. 4. (also '''Usamah''', '''Ousama''', etc.; ) (July 4, 1095 – November 17, 1188 According to Ibn Khallikan he was born on 27 Jumada al-Thani, 488 AH (Hijri year) and died 23 Ramadan (Ramadan (calendar month)) 584 AH. ''Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary'', trans. William MacGuckin, Baron de Slane, vol. 1 (Paris: 1842), p. 179


basil

earlier name under the Roman Empire and was known as Sezer under the Byzantine Empire. Shaizar fell to the Arabs in 638 and frequently passed from Arab to Byzantine control. It was sacked in 969 by Byzantine emperor Nicephorus II, and was captured by Basil II in 999, after which it became the southern border of the Byzantine Empire and was administered by the Bishop of Shaizar. It was lost to the Banu Munqidh in 1081 when 'Ali ibn Munqidh bought it from the bishop

. The Byzantines besieged it numerous times after this but failed to recover it. The Crusader (Crusades)s, on their arrival in this area, rendered the city's name in Latin as Caesarea. This name had not been used in any earlier period, and was derived from the Crusaders mistakenly identifying this city as being Caesarea Mazaca, a place renowned in Christian history as the home of Saint Basil of Caesarea. It is no longer inhabited today, but the ruins are known as Saijar in modern

. Description of the city Referring to the crusader siege of Shaizar in 1157, William of Tyre writes: : "The city of Shayzar lies upon the same Orontes river which flows by Antioch. It is called by some Caesarea, and by them is believed to be the famous metropolis of Cappadocia (Kayseri) over which the distinguished teacher St. Basil (Basil of Caesarea) once presided; but those who hold this view are in grave error. For that Caesarea is a fifteen days journey or more from Antioch


266

defenses, the river protects it on one side and the city on the other, so that it is entirely inaccessible." William of Tyre, ''A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea'', trans. E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey, Columbia University Press, 1943, bk. 18, ch. 18, pp. 266-267. Fulcher of Chartres, an eyewitness to the siege in 1111, did not know the classical Roman or Greek name for the site, and noted that the Turks called it "Sisara", "


970

Emperor Nikephoros II, began taking advantage of the confusion and instability in the late Abbasid (Abbasid Caliphate) era, seizing parts of the Islamic territory. In 970, Latakia fell, but in 980, the Fatimids captured the town and its Byzantine governor, Karmaruk, was later beheaded in Cairo. Finally, late in the century, it fell to the Turks (Seljuk Turks) under the suzerainty of Banu Munqidh of Shaizar, who ceded it to the Seljuk (Great Seljuq Empire) sultan Malik Shah


important part

) (July 4, 1095 – November 17, 1188 According to Ibn Khallikan he was born on 27 Jumada al-Thani, 488 AH (Hijri year) and died 23 Ramadan (Ramadan (calendar month)) 584 AH. ''Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary'', trans. William MacGuckin, Baron de Slane, vol. 1 (Paris: 1842), p. 179. The Gregorian calendar dates are from Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', p. 4. ) was a medieval Muslim (Islamic Golden Age) poet, author, faris (furusiyya) (professional warrior), and diplomat from the Banu Munqidh dynasty of Shaizar in northern Syria. His life coincided with the rise of several medieval Muslim dynasties, as well as the arrival of the First Crusade and the establishment of the crusader states. The question of the status of Antioch and the adjacent Cilician cities troubled the Empire for many years afterwards. Although the Treaty of Devol never came into effect, it provided the legal basis for Byzantine negotiations with the crusaders for the next thirty years, and for imperial claims to Antioch during the reigns of John II (John II Komnenos) and Manuel I (Manuel I Komnenos). J.W. Birkenmeier, ''The Development of the Komnenian Army'', 46 * R.-J. Lilie, ''The Crusades and Byzantium'', 34 Therefore, John II attempted to impose his authority, traveling to Antioch himself in 1137 with his army and besieging the city. J. Norwich, ''Byzantium:The Decline and Fall'', 77 The citizens of Antioch tried to negotiate, but John demanded the unconditional surrender of the city. J. Norwich, ''Byzantium:The Decline and Fall'', 78 After asking the permission of the King of Jerusalem, Fulk (King Fulk), which he received, Raymond (Raymond of Antioch), the Prince of Antioch, agreed to surrender the city to John. The agreement, by which Raymond swore homage to John, was explicitly based on the Treaty of Devol, but went beyond it: Raymond, who was recognized as an imperial vassal for Antioch, promised the Emperor free entry to Antioch, and undertook to hand over the city in return for investiture with Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs and Hama as soon as these were conquered from the Muslims. Then, Raymond would rule the new conquests and Antioch would revert to direct imperial rule. A. Jotischky, ''Crusading and the Crusader States'', 77 * P. Magdalino, ''The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos'', 41 The campaign finally failed, however, partly because Raymond and Joscelin II, Count of Edessa, who had been obliged to join John as his vassals, did not pull their weight. When, on their return to Antioch, John insisted on taking possession of the city, the two princes organized a riot. The inhabitants of Antioch were hostile to the prospect of passing under Byzantine rule, which seemed to them the inevitable consequence (J. Richard, ''The Crusades, c.1071 - c.1291'', 151). John found himself besieged in the city, and was forced to leave in 1138, recalled to Constantinople. J. Richard, ''The Crusades, c.1071 - c.1291'', 151 He diplomatically accepted Raymond's and Joscelin's insistence that they had nothing to do with the rebellion. J.W. Birkenmeier, ''The Development of the Komnenian Army'', 48 * P. Magdalino, ''The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos'', 41 * A. Stone, John II Comnenus (A.D. 1118-1143) John repeated his operation in 1142, but he unexpectedly died, and the Byzantine army retired. thumb Antioch under Byzantine protection (during 1159–1180) (File:Principality of Antioch under byzantine protection.png) Radwan attacked Yaghi-Siyan, and when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist him, Radwan besieged Damascus as well. However, Radwan soon quarrelled with Janah ad-Dawla, who captured Homs from him, and with his atabeg out of the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was much more willing to assist him. This new alliance was sealed with a marriage between Radwan and Yaghi-Siyan's daughter. The two were about to attack Shaizar when they heard of the arrival of the First Crusade; all the various alliances were disbanded and everyone returned to their own cities, though if any of the alliances had remained intact, or they had all worked together, they would likely have been able to prevent the success of the crusade. Radwan attacked Yaghi-Siyan, and when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist him, Radwan besieged Damascus as well. However, Radwan soon quarreled with Janah ad-Dawla, who captured Homs from him, and with his atabeg out of the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was much more willing to assist him. This new alliance was sealed with a marriage between Radwan and Yaghi-Siyan's daughter. The two were about to attack Shaizar when they heard of the arrival of the First Crusade; all the various alliances were disbanded and everyone returned to their own cities, though if any of the alliances had remained intact, or they had all worked together, they would likely have been able to prevent the success of the crusade. After fighting between Antioch and Shaizar in 1108, the Frankish and Muslim overlords exchanged gifts, according to Usamah ibn Munqidh. Tancred received the gift of a horse from the ruling family of Shaizar. The Christian leader admired the handsome youth who delivered the animal, a Kurd named Hasanun. Tancred promised him that, if he ever captured the young man, he would free him. Unfortunately, the regent of Antioch had a cruel streak. When the lad fell into his hands a year later, Tancred broke his promise, imprisoning and torturing him, and putting out his right eye. Smail, p. 45 Biography Ioveta was the only one of Baldwin's daughters born after he became king in 1118. When Baldwin was taken captive by the Ortoqids near Edessa (County of Edessa) in 1123, Ioveta was one of the hostages given for his release. She was held at Shaizar until being ransomed to Baldwin in 1125 for eighty thousand dinars. Her ransom was gathered from the spoils taken after Baldwin's victory at the Battle of Azaz that year. *Rahbeh Castle near Mayadin, Deir ez-Zor *Shaizar Castle in Mahardeh, Hama *Shmemis Castle south-east of Hama *Larissa, Turkey, an ancient city in Turkey, in the immediate vicinity of Menemen district of İzmir * ''Larissa'', Hellenistic name of Shaizar, Syria (at the time settled by colonists from the Greek city) *Larissa, Texas, a community in eastern Texas, in northwestern Cherokee County (Cherokee County, Texas). While probably only a minor presence during the crusade itself, he participated in the Battle of Ramlah (Battle of Ramla (1105)) in 1105, and in 1109 he assisted in the siege of Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon). There he was one of the envoys sent by Baldwin I of Jerusalem to negotiate between William-Jordan and Bertrand of Toulouse, both sons of Raymond IV of Toulouse who disputed the claim to Tripoli. On December 19, 1111 he was granted the city of Sidon, after it was captured by Baldwin I with the help of Sigurd I of Norway. He was already lord of Caesarea (Caesarea Palaestina), which had been captured in 1101 and given to him at an unknown date. Soon after this he married Emelota or Emma, the niece of Patriarch (Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem) Arnulf of Chocques, and was also granted Jericho and its revenue, which was formerly church property. He also took part in the sieges of Shaizar, which was not captured, and Tyre (Lebanon), which was. At the siege of Tyre he supervised the construction of the siege engines. In 1120 he was present at the Council of Nablus, convened by Baldwin II (Baldwin II of Jerusalem), where the laws of the kingdom were first written down. When Baldwin II was captured in 1123 by the Ortoqids, Eustace was elected constable of Jerusalem (Officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem) and regent of the kingdom. As regent Eustace defeated an Egyptian invasion at the Battle of Yibneh on May 29, 1123. Eustace died soon after on June 15, 1123, and was replaced as Constable and Regent by William I of Bures. He was buried in Jerusalem at the Abbey of St. Maria Latina. Background After the capture of Antioch (Siege of Antioch) (June 1098) and the destruction of Ma'arrat al-Numan (January 13, 1099), the Syrian emirs were terrified of the advancing crusaders and quickly handed over their cities to the Franks. On January 14, Sultan ibn Munqidh, emir of Shaizar, dispatched an embassy to Raymond IV of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the crusade, to offer provisions and food for men and horses, as well as guides to Jerusalem. In February, the emir of Homs, Janah ad-Dawla, who had fought bravely at the siege of Antioch, offered horses to Raymond. The ''qadi'' of Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon), Jalal al-Mulk, from the Banu Ammar, sent rich gifts and invited the Franks to send an embassy to his city. The ambassadors marvelled at the splendors of the city, and an alliance was concluded. The crusades moved on to Arqa, which they besieged from February 14 to May 13, before continuing south to Jerusalem; they did not attack Tripoli or any other possessions of the Banu Ammar.


depicting

, his banner was raised atop the citadel and Raymond was compelled to do homage. Raymond agreed to the king that if he was capable of capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, and Homs, he would exchange Antioch for them. Annales Herbipolenses, s.a. 1147: A Hostile View of the Crusade left thumb Coin of John II Komnemos, depicting the Virgin Mary crowning John. (Image:JeanIIComneneVirginCrowningJohn.jpg) The emperor then directed his

against the Normans of Sicily, Joscelin and Raymond conspired to delay the promised handover of Antioch's citadel to the emperor. left thumb Coin of John II Komnemos, depicting the Virgin Mary crowning John. (Image:JeanIIComneneVirginCrowningJohn.jpg) The emperor then directed his attention to the Levant, where he sought to re-inforce Byzantium's suzerainty over the Crusader States. In 1137 he conquered Tarsus (Tarsus (city)), Adana, and Mopsuestia from


Circumcision

overlord. Neither John or Zengi ever really enforced their authority there and Shaizar remained independent. The emirate lasted until the enormous earthquake of 1157 (1157 Hama earthquake), during which the citadel collapsed, killing almost the entire family, who had assembled there to celebrate a circumcision. The only survivors out of the whole family were the wife of emir, and the emir's nephew Usamah (Usamah ibn Munqidh), who was on a diplomatic mission to Damascus


1147

, his banner was raised atop the citadel and Raymond was compelled to do homage. Raymond agreed to the king that if he was capable of capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, and Homs, he would exchange Antioch for them. Annales Herbipolenses, s.a. 1147: A Hostile View of the Crusade left thumb Coin of John II Komnemos, depicting the Virgin Mary crowning John. (Image:JeanIIComneneVirginCrowningJohn.jpg) The emperor then directed his

Shaizar

'''Shaizar''' ( During the Crusades, the town was an fortress in Syria, ruled by the Banu Munqidh tribe. It played an important part in the Christian (Christianity) and Muslim (Islam) politics of the crusades.

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