Second Polish Republic

What is Second Polish Republic known for?


home biography

bourgeois origin" and only due to his father's connections was accepted to study medicine at Lwów University (University of Lviv) in 1940.home biography abouthimself Stanislaw Lem about himself During World War II and the Nazi occupation (History of Poland (1939–1945)) (1941–1944), Lem survived with false papers, earning a living as a car mechanic and welder, and becoming active


large training

. When the province of Posen-West Prussia was disbanded in 1938, Dramburg became part of Regierungsbezirk Schneidemühl (Schneidemühl (region)). During World War II, the SS (Schutzstaffel) established a large training school for motorcyclists and mechanics in Dramburg. On March 4, 1945 Soviet (Soviet Union) and Polish troops captured the city, whose center was largely destroyed during the fighting (Eastern Front (World War II)). Biography Zygmunt Bauman was born to non-practising Polish-Jewish parents in Poznań, Poland (Second Polish Republic), in 1925. When Poland was invaded (German invasion of Poland (1939)) by the Nazis in 1939 his family escaped eastwards into the Soviet Union. Bauman went on to serve in the Soviet-controlled Polish First Army (First Polish Army (1944-1945)), working as a political education instructor. He took part in the battles of Kolberg (Battle of Kolberg (1945)) (now Kołobrzeg) and Berlin (Battle of Berlin). In May 1945 he was awarded the Military Cross of Valour (Cross of Valour (Poland)). After being promoted to Oberst (colonel) in December 1931, Halder served as the Chief of Staff, Wehrkreis Kdo VI, in Münster (Westphalia) through early 1934. During the 1930s the German military staff thought that Poland (Second Polish Republic) might attack the detached German province of East Prussia. As such, they reviewed plans as to how to defend East Prussia. - style "padding:0 5px;" Kingdom of Poland (Piasts) (Piast Poland) Kingdom of Poland (Andegawen) (Andegawen Poland) Kingdom of Poland (Jagiellon) (Jagiellon Poland) Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Duchy of Warsaw Kingdom of Poland (Congress) (Congress Poland) Kingdom of Poland (Mitteleuropa) Second Polish Republic Polish Government in Exile (Polish Secret State) (Polish Government in Exile) People's Republic of Poland Third Polish Republic : I will abstain from the discussion about history of... series, because I could argue for both ways. But I will elaborate on what I mean by state and why do I think it needs to be a separate article. Compare article on Poland, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (after my latest modifications) and for some outside perespective Ottoman Empire with Second Polish Republic, Piast Poland and The Jagiellon Era. Setting aside how developed those articles are, you can surely see that the latter articles are just about history. They are not about states (continued or otherwise). The current history of... articles for the most part describe only history. What, who, when, why, how. But they pay little attention to economics, geography, politics, culture as a SEPARATE entities. Therefore I want to create the state series, which would have its own standarised sections about economics, history, etc., which could be then, in turn, linked to their own subseries (like the current history one). Please note that I dont necessarly agrue that each state article would need its own subarticle - for the time being, they could in many cases share one main article. Eventually, though, I think that there is no reason why the entry on PLC or IIRP should be less informative (or diffrently structured) then the entry on modern day IIIRP. Or France. Or Ottoman Empire. Or Axumite Kingdom. --Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus (User:Piotrus) 17:48, 20 Nov 2004 (UTC) In 1807, Napoleon recreated the duchy of Siewierz (''Sievers''), and granted it to Jean Lannes, after Prussia was forced to cede all her acquisitions from the 2nd and 3rd partitions of Poland. After the failure of Napoleon, Siewierz was included in the Congress Poland, under Imperial Russian rule. The city declined continuously, due to the lacking of industry and communication. In 1870, it lost its city status. In 1918, Siewierz became part of the Second Polish Republic, from 1939 to 1945 of Nazi Germany. In 1962 it regained its city status. Background Prior to September 1939 and the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland), Lviv (Lwów in Polish (Polish language)), then in the Second Polish Republic, had 318,000 inhabitants of different ethnic groups and religions, 60% of whom were Poles, 30% Jews (Polish Jews) and about 10% Ukrainians and Germans. ''Mały Rocznik Statystyczny 1939'' (Polish statistical yearbook of 1939), GUS (Central Statistical Office (Poland)), Warsaw, 1939 The city was one of the most important cultural centers of prewar Poland (Second Polish Republic), housing five tertiary educational facilities including Lwów University (Lviv University#Jan Kazimierz University 1919-1939) and Lwów Polytechnic (Lviv Polytechnic#Second Polish Republic). It was the home for many Polish and Jewish intellectuals, political and cultural activists, scientists and members of Poland's interwar elite. Background Prior to September 1939 and the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland), Lviv (Lwów in Polish (Polish language)), then in the Second Polish Republic, had 318,000 inhabitants of different ethnic groups and religions, 60% of whom were Poles, 30% Jews (Polish Jews) and about 10% Ukrainians and Germans. ''Mały Rocznik Statystyczny 1939'' (Polish statistical yearbook of 1939), GUS (Central Statistical Office (Poland)), Warsaw, 1939 The city was one of the most important cultural centers of prewar Poland (Second Polish Republic), housing five tertiary educational facilities including Lwów University (Lviv University#Jan Kazimierz University 1919-1939) and Lwów Polytechnic (Lviv Polytechnic#Second Polish Republic). It was the home for many Polish and Jewish intellectuals, political and cultural activists, scientists and members of Poland's interwar elite. After the Polish-Bolshevik War (Polish-Soviet War) of 1920, the site was made part of Poland (Second Polish Republic), in the Tarnopol Voivodship, near the Polish border with the Soviet Union and Romania. The 14th battalion of the Border Defence Corps (Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza) were stationed there. In the interbellum, the village was known for its wineries and peach orchards. It became a holidays center for the inhabitants of the nearby cities of Ternopil, and Lviv. Roman Giertych's father, Maciej Giertych, also a member of LPR, is a member of the European Parliament. His grandfather was a member of parliament of the Second Polish Republic prior to World War II from the National Democracy (Narodowa Demokracja) Party. Some sources claim that the LPR owes much of its success to Radio Maryja, a Catholic radio station with a nationalist, ultra-conservative agenda. Early years Jerzy Karol Buzek was born to a Lutheran (Lutheranism) family on 3 July 1940 in what is now Smilovice (Smilovice (Frýdek-Místek District)) in the Czech Republic. The Smilovice (German: Smilowitz, Polish: Śmiłowice) village lies in the region historically known as Austrian Silesia, more precisely the Zaolzie region. This territory was until 1918 part of Austria-Hungary (Austrian part (Cisleithania)), then from November 1918 part of Poland, then from 1920 part of Czechoslovakia. After the Munich Agreement in 1938 Czechoslovakia agreed to transfer the Zaolzie region to Poland, which, after the 1939 German invasion of Poland, was annexed by Germany. After World War II, it became again a part of Czechoslovakia and, since 1993, part of the Czech Republic. Buzek hails from the Polish minority in Zaolzie. At the time of his birth, it was officially named Smilowitz and was occupied by Germany as part of Landkreis Teschen. He was born into the prominent Buzek family, which participated in Polish politics in the Second Polish Republic during the interbellum. The family was part of the Polish community in Zaolzie (Polish minority in Zaolzie). DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010


field lack

aged 7 to 14. At the beginning, however, newly created Polish state faced several problems in this field - lack of qualified teachers, lack of buildings and funds. After World War Two, compulsory education remained as one of priorities of the state. In 1978, only 1,2% of Polish population was illiterate. Free State of Prussia The Prussian constitution was liberalized after Prussia became a republic (Free State of Prussia) in 1918, and the Junkers lost many of their estates through


amp+resistance

of the war, fighting the Germans, taking part in mining trains and in ambushes around the Narocz Forest of Belarus. "The official attitude of the Soviet partisan movement was that there was no place for Jewish units" acting independently, said Arad. Yitzhak Arad interview for Martyrdom & Resistance, September October 2010. Tishri Cheshvan, 5771 birth_date


beautiful wooden

and was located in the Lwow Voivodeship. In 1928 the Ukrainian private gymnasium opened in the center of the city and is currently operational. In late 1920s town's population was some 40 000 and its oil refinery Polmin was one of the biggest in Europe, employing 800 people. Numerous visitors came there to see beautiful wooden Greek Catholic churches, among them the Church of St. Yur, which was regarded the most beautiful such construction in the Second Polish Republic, with frescoes from


prolific writing

a promising start, he became despondent and felt for some years "Lost in America" (title of a Singer novel, in Yiddish from 1974 onward, in English 1981). In 1938, he met Alma Wassermann (born Haimann) b.1907-d.1996 , a German-Jewish refugee from Munich whom he married in 1940. After the marriage he returned to prolific writing and to contributing to the ''Forward,'' using, besides "Bashevis," the pen names "Varshavsky" and "D. Segal." See: Both bibliographies (given on this page). They lived for many years in the Belnord on Manhattan's Upper West Side. Belnord," Carter B. Horsley. In 1981, Singer delivered a commencement address at the University at Albany, and was presented with an honorary doctorate. University at Albany's 137th Annual Commencement, May 24, 1981 *1918 – World War I: the Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne with a German (Germany) attack. *1920 – The Polish (Second Polish Republic) Parliament establishes Silesian Voivodeship (Silesian Voivodeship (1920–1939)) before the Polish-German plebiscite (Upper Silesia plebiscite). *1927 – Massacre of July 15, 1927 (July Revolt of 1927): 89 protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna. The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading centre of Slavonic (Slavic peoples) Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre. The city has a population of approximately 760,000 whereas about 8 million people live within a 100 km radius of its main square (Main Market Square, Kraków). With the emergence of the Second Polish Republic, Kraków restored its role as a major academic and cultural centre with the establishment of new universities such as the AGH University of Science and Technology and the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, including a number of new and essential vocational schools. It became an important cultural centre for the Polish Jews (History of the Jews in Poland) with a Zionist (Zionism) youth movement relatively strong among the city's Jewish population. Kraków was also an influential centre of Jewish spiritual life, with all its manifestations of religious observance from Orthodox (Orthodox Judaism), to Chasidic (Hasidic Judaism) and Reform (Reform Judaism) flourishing side by side. left thumb The funeral procession of head of state Marshal of Poland Marshal (File:Pilsudskis funeral in Cracow2.jpg) Józef Piłsudski at the Wawel, 1935. Administrative history of Kashubia The westernmost (Slovincian) parts of Kashubia, located in the medieval Lands of Schlawe and Stolp and Lauenburg and Bütow Land, were integrated into the Duchy of Pomerania in 1317 and 1455, respectively, and remained with its successors (Brandenburgian Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1653-1815)) and Prussian Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1815–1945))) until 1945 (Potsdam Agreement), when the area became Polish (Oder-Neisse line). The bulk of Kashubia since the 12th century was within the medieval Pomerelian duchies, since 1308 (Teutonic takeover of Danzig) in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, since 1466 (Second Peace of Thorn) within Royal Prussia, an autonomous territory of the Polish Crown, since 1772 (Partitions of Poland) within West Prussia, a Prussian province, since 1920 (Treaty of Versailes) within the Polish Corridor of the Second Polish Republic, since 1939 (Invasion of Poland (1939)) within the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia of Nazi Germany, and since 1945 (Potsdam Agreement) within the People's Republic of Poland, and after within the Third Polish Republic. right thumb Dark green: original signatories Green: subsequent adherents Light blue: territories of parties Dark blue: League of Nations mandate (File:Kellogg Briand Pact countries.png)s administered by parties After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)) by the representatives from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)), France, Germany, British India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland (Second Polish Republic), South Africa (Union of South Africa), the United Kingdom DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010


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Hrushevsky's political radicalism and historical populism, although, ironically, he claimed that Hrushevsky's "school" of history was being continued at Harvard. Also during the Cold War, Pritsak became prominent in the movement towards Ukrainian-Jewish reconciliation (History of the Jews in Ukraine). After the partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) it was recognized in the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. Since 1815 in the Congress Poland Polish (Congress) Kingdom


production made

production

made 65% of Poland's GNP. After 123 years of partitions, regions of the country were very unevenly developed. Lands of former German Empire were most advanced – in Greater Poland and Pomerelia, crops were on Western European level. The situation was much worse in former Congress Poland, Kresy, and former Galicia (Galicia (Eastern Europe)), where agriculture was most backward and primitive, with a large number of small farms, unable to succeed on both domestic and international market. Furthermore, another problem was overpopulation of the countryside, which resulted in chronic unemployment. Living conditions were so bad that in several regions, such as counties inhabited by the Hutsuls, there was permanent starvation. Farmers rebelled against the government (see: 1937 peasant strike in Poland), and the situation began to change in the late 1930s, due to construction of several factories for the Central Industrial Region (Central Industrial Region (Poland)), which gave employment to thousands of countryside residents. German trade In the 1920s there was a trade war with Germany, involving tariffs and restrictions. After 1933 the trade war ended and new agreements regulated and promoted trade. Germany was Poland's largest trading partner, followed by Britain. In October 1938 Germany granted a credit of Rm 60,000,000 (120,000,000 zloty, or £4,800,000). Germany would deliver factory equipment and machinery in return for Polish timber and agricultural produce. This new trade was to be in addition to the existing German-Polish trade agreements. ''Keesing's Contemporary Archives'' Volume 3, (October 1938) p 3283 Education and culture DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010


industry light

DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010


resistance quot

families (154,704 persons) out of a planned 40,000 had been settled. The Commission's activities had a countereffect in Poles using "defensive nationalism" and unifying "Polish nationalism, Catholicism and cultural resistance" and triggered Polish countermeasures, climaxing after World War I, when the Second Polish Republic was established, in the expropriation of Commission-owned lands

Second Polish Republic

image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.

The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.

Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.

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