Second Polish Republic

What is Second Polish Republic known for?


fighting biography

. When the province of Posen-West Prussia was disbanded in 1938, Dramburg became part of Regierungsbezirk Schneidemühl (Schneidemühl (region)). During World War II, the SS (Schutzstaffel) established a large training school for motorcyclists and mechanics in Dramburg. On March 4, 1945 Soviet (Soviet Union) and Polish troops captured the city, whose center was largely destroyed during the fighting (Eastern Front (World War II)). Biography Zygmunt Bauman was born to non


major creative

begun to support himself through portrait painting and continued to do so on his return to Zakopane in Poland (Second Polish Republic). He soon entered into a major creative phase, setting out his principles in ''New Forms in Painting'' and ''Introduction to the Theory of Pure Form in the Theatre''. He associated with a group of "formist" artists in the early 1920s and wrote most of his plays during this period. Of about forty plays written by Witkiewicz between 1918 and 1925, twenty


major publishing

Republic newly independent Poland , where he was very active in promoting the veneration of the Immaculate (Immaculate Conception) Virgin Mary (Blessed Virgin Mary), founding and supervising the monastery of Niepokalanów near Warsaw, a seminary, a radio station, and several other organizations and publications. Maximilian Kolbe founded the monthly periodical Rycerz Niepokalanej in 1922, and in 1927 founded a Conventual Franciscan monastery at Niepokalanow, which became a major

publishing centre. Kolbe left Poland for Japan in 1930, spending six years there. The monastery at Niepokalanow began in his absence to publish the daily newspaper, ''Mały Dziennik'', which became Poland's top-seller. Kolbe was accused of anti-semitism based on the content of these newspapers, which included claims of a Zionist plot for world domination. http: news.google.com newspapers?id PHwiAAAAIBAJ&sjid QK0FAAAAIBAJ&pg 1173,5486624


program created

in the mid-1930s a massive program of industrialization, known as the Central Industrial Region (Central Industrial Region (Poland)). The program created several major armament factories, including PZL Mielec, PZL Rzeszów, Huta Stalowa Wola, and factories in other Subcarpathian towns such as Dębica, Nowa Dęba, Sanok, Tarnobrzeg and Nowa Sarzyna. See also *Second Polish Republic's Lwów Voivodeship Soviet Union With the collapse of Austria-Hungary


events made

, and parts of eastern Upper Silesia. The council of the Free City of Danzig voted to become a part of Germany again, although Poles and Jews were deprived of their voting rights and all non-Nazi (National Socialist German Workers Party) political parties were banned. Parts of Poland that had not been part of the German Empire were also incorporated into the Third Reich. Legacy The vast majority of sources reacting to the events made ample mention of Nazi backing for Călinescu's


annual main

in Germany, 4,904 votes for Poland. Rocznik statystyki Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej(pdf, 623 KB). Główny Urząd Statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej GUS, Annual (Main Statistical Office of the Republic of Poland) (1920 1922, part II) Based on that result Stuhm was included in the Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder within East Prussia. '''Zaolzie''' is the Polish


including historical

a number of new and essential vocational schools. It became an important cultural centre for the Polish Jews (History of the Jews in Poland) with a Zionist (Zionism) youth movement relatively strong among the city's Jewish population. Kraków was also an influential centre of Jewish spiritual life, with all its manifestations of religious observance from Orthodox (Orthodox Judaism), to Hasidic Judaism Chasidic


books significant

'' ("A Short History of the Crusades"), ''Cărţi reprezentative din viaţa omenirii'' ("Books Significant for Mankind's Existence"), ''România pitorească'' ("Picturesque Romania") and a volume of addresses to the Romanian American community. In 1925, when he was elected a member of the Kraków Academy of Learning (Polish Academy of Learning) in Poland (Second Polish Republic), Iorga gave conferences in various European countries


historical writing

-wbc-9ToCg&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 9&ved 0CG4Q6AEwCA#v onepage&q poznan%20%22western%20institute%22&f false title The Oxford History of Historical Writing; 1945 to the Present first1 Axel last1 Schneider first2 Daniel last2 Woolf publisher Oxford University Press year 2011 isbn 978-0-19-922599-6 page 245 language active in the Second Polish Republic. During the Occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany he was a member of the Polish underground. Wojciechowski was the co-initiator of the Polish "Western thought" (''myśl zachodnia''), and headed the Western Institute in Poznań. Biography Schally was born in Wilno, Second Polish Republic (now Vilnius, Lithuania), as the son of Gen. Brigadier Kazimierz Schally who was Chief of the Cabinet of President Ignacy Mościcki of Poland and Maria Łącka, Polish noble woman from an old and known family. '''Sergiusz Piasecki''' ( DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010


time created

with Piłsudski, Daszyński's government dissolved itself and a new government was created under Jędrzej Moraczewski. In 1918, Italy was the first country in Europe to recognise Poland's sovereignty. Andrzej Garlicki, ''Józef Piłsudski, 1867–1935'' (1995) Centers of government that were at that time created in Galicia (Galicia (Eastern Europe)) (formerly Austrian-ruled southern Poland) included National Council of the Principality of Cieszyn (created in November 1918

Second Polish Republic

image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.

The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.

Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.

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