Second Polish Republic

What is Second Polish Republic known for?


major red

result Decisive Red army strategic victory. Start of the major Red army counter-offensive combatant1 The '''1920 Kiev Offensive''' (or '''Kiev Operation'''), sometimes considered to have started the Soviet-Polish War, ref


hit home

Union was interested in conquering territories in Eastern Europe, France was determined to protect the fledgling nations there. This led to a rosy German–Soviet relationship in the 1920s. However, Adolf Hitler's foreign policy centered on a massive seizure of Eastern European and Russian lands for Germany's own ends, and when Hitler pulled out of the World Disarmament Conference in Geneva in 1933, the threat hit home. Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov reversed Soviet policy


multiple political

, Upper Silesia was divided between the German Weimar Republic, the Second Polish Republic, and the state of Czechoslovakia, while the Prussian Lower Silesia remained in Germany and was re-organized into the Lower Silesia Province (Lower Silesia Province (Prussia)) of the Free State of Prussian (Free State of Prussia (1918–1933)) consisting of the ''Breslau'' and ''Liegnitz'' regions. The Division's Support The Division enjoyed support from multiple political and religious


portrait painting

begun to support himself through portrait painting and continued to do so on his return to Zakopane in Poland (Second Polish Republic). He soon entered into a major creative phase, setting out his principles in ''New Forms in Painting'' and ''Introduction to the Theory of Pure Form in the Theatre''. He associated with a group of "formist" artists in the early 1920s and wrote most of his plays during this period. Of about forty plays written by Witkiewicz between 1918 and 1925, twenty


world

''Sejm'' house1 Senate (Senate of the Republic of Poland) type_house1 Upper chamber house2 Sejm type_house2 Lower chamber era Interwar period event_start End of World War I date_start 11 November year_start 1918 event_end date_end 1 September year_end 1939 event_post Invasion by Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) date_post 17 September 1939 stat_year1 1921 stat_area1 387000 stat_pop1

in 1930 ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I

and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west. The Second Republic's land area was 388,634&


commercial films

to the Potsdam Agreement. It is currently divided between the Warmian-Masurian (Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship) and Pomeranian Voivodeships. Born in Paris to Polish parents, he moved with his family back to Poland (Second Polish Republic) in 1937, shortly before the outbreak of World War II. He survived the Holocaust (Nazi Holocaust) and was educated in Poland (People's Republic of Poland) and became a director of both art house and commercial films.<


arts including

. The city has a population of approximately 760,000 whereas about 8&nbsp;million people live within a 100&nbsp;km radius of its main square (Main Market Square, Kraków). With the emergence of the Second Polish Republic, Kraków restored its role as a major academic and cultural centre with the establishment of new universities such as the AGH University of Science and Technology and the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, including


team great

, playing in games against Hungary (Hungary national football team) (3-0) and Great Britain (Great Britain national football team) (5-4). His name, however, will always be remembered in Poland as the one who scored the first goal for Poland in the 1938 FIFA World Cup. This happened on June 5, 1938, in Strasbourg, France, during the legendary match Poland - Brazil (Brazil national football team). Poland lost 5-6 and Scherfke netted on the penalty kick in the 23rd minute. '''Marie


cultural resistance

families (154,704 persons) out of a planned 40,000 had been settled. The Commission's activities had a countereffect in Poles using "defensive nationalism" and unifying "Polish nationalism, Catholicism and cultural resistance" and triggered Polish countermeasures, climaxing after World War I, when the Second Polish Republic was established, in the expropriation of Commission-owned lands


green original

right thumb Dark green: original signatories Green: subsequent adherents Light blue: territories of parties Dark blue: League of Nations mandates administered by parties After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)) by the representatives from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)), France, Germany, British India

Second Polish Republic

image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.

The Second Republic's land area was 388,634&nbsp;km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720&nbsp;km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.

Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.

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