Second Polish Republic

What is Second Polish Republic known for?


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of the war, fighting the Germans, taking part in mining trains and in ambushes around the Narocz Forest of Belarus. "The official attitude of the Soviet partisan movement was that there was no place for Jewish units" acting independently, said Arad. Yitzhak Arad interview for Martyrdom & Resistance, September October 2010. Tishri Cheshvan, 5771 birth_date


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װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט ), or '''Yiddish Scientific Institute''', yivo is a source for orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to the Yiddish language. Although the organization was renamed the '''Institute for Jewish Research''' subsequent to its relocation to New York City, it is still primarily known by its original acronym. (The word ''yidisher'' means both Yiddish and Jewish.) With the success of the Greater Poland Uprising in 1918 (Wielkopolska Uprising (1918–1919)), Poland had re-established its statehood (Sovereign state) for the first time since the 1795 partition (Partitions of Poland#Third Partition) and seen the end of a 123 years of rule by three imperial neighbors: Russia (Imperial Russia), Germany (German Empire), and Austria-Hungary. The country, reborn as a Second Polish Republic, proceeded to carve out its borders from the territories of its former partitioners. The Western Powers, in delineating the new European borders after the Treaty of Versailles, had done so in a way unfavorable to Poland. Germany had decided to retain many of her eastern gains to recompense herself for expected losses in the west. Poland's western borders cut her off from the coal-basin and industrial regions of Silesia, leading to the Silesian Uprisings of 1919-1921. The eastern Curzon line left millions of Poles, living east of the Bug River, stranded inside Russia's borders. DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010


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, and parts of eastern Upper Silesia. The council of the Free City of Danzig voted to become a part of Germany again, although Poles and Jews were deprived of their voting rights and all non-Nazi (National Socialist German Workers Party) political parties were banned. Parts of Poland that had not been part of the German Empire were also incorporated into the Third Reich. Legacy The vast majority of sources reacting to the events made ample mention of Nazi backing for Călinescu's


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; In 1932, Minister of Religion and Education Janusz Jędrzejewicz carried out a reform which introduced the following levels of education: * ''common school'' (''szkoła powszechna''), with three levels – 4 grades + 2 grades + 1 grade, * ''middle school'' (''szkoła średnia''), with two levels – 4 grades of comprehensive middle school and 2 grades of specified high school (classical, humanistic, natural and mathematical). A graduate of middle school received a ''small matura'', while a graduate


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discourse between Polish and Ukrainian researchers has often been based on historical stereotypes stemming from ethnic conflicts during the First World War and the interwar period, making it difficult to draw an objective account of bilateral Polish-Ukrainian relations during World War II. Danylo Shumuk - Life Sentence (Intro XVIII-XIX) File:Poland1937linguistic.jpg thumb right 200px Linguistic map of Poland, based


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election, 1919 , Polish legislative election, 1922) and other negative publicity which the politicians received (such as accusations of corruption or 1919 Polish coup attempt), made them increasingly unpopular. Major politicians at this time included peasant activist Wincenty Witos (Prime Minister three times) and right-wing Roman Dmowski. Ethnic minorities were represented in the Sejm; e.g. in 1928 – 1930 there was the Ukrainian-Belarusian Club, with 26 Ukrainian and 4


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including a large number of Russian Jews who immigrated to Poland following a wave of Ukrainian pogroms (Kiev Pogroms (1919)) which continued until 1921. Arno Joseph Mayer, The Furies: Violence and Terror in the French and Russian Revolutions. Published by Princeton University Press, pg. 516 The Jews were entitled by a peace treaty in Riga to choose the country they preferred and several hundred thousand joined the already large Jewish minority of the Polish Second Republic. History of the Jews in Russia (History of the Jews in Russia#Under Lenin .281917-1924.29) The '''military history of the Soviet Union''' began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power. The new government formed the Red Army to fight various enemies in the Russian Civil War. The years 1918-1921 saw Red Army's defeats in the Polish-Soviet war and Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania independence wars. In the late 1930s, the Red Army invaded Finland (Winter War); fought the brief Battle of Halhin Gol (together with its ally Mongolia) with Japan and its client state Manchukuo; and, was deployed when the Soviet Union, in agreement with Nazi Germany (Molotov-Ribbentrop pact), took part in the partition of Poland (Second Polish Republic), annexed the Baltic States, Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina (from Romania). In World War II, it was the major military force in the defeat of Nazi Germany. After the war, it occupied (military occupation) East Germany, and many nations in central and eastern Europe, which became satellite states in the Soviet bloc (Eastern bloc). During the civil war, the Bolsheviks fought counterrevolutionary groups that became known as the White armies (White movement) as well as armies sponsored by Russia's former allies such as the Britain (United Kingdom) and France, which saw a need to overthrow the Bolshevik government. The Red Army enjoyed a series of initial victories over their opponents, and in a surge of optimism Lenin ordered the Soviet Western Army (Western Army (Russia)) to advance West in the vacuum created by the German forces (Russian westward offensive of 1918-1919) retreating from the ''Ober-Ost'' areas. This operation swept the newly formed Ukrainian People's Republic and Belarusian People's Republic and eventually lead to the Soviet invasion of Second Polish Republic, a newly independent state of the former Russian Empire (Imperial Russia). By invading Poland and initiating the Polish-Soviet War the Bolsheviks expressed their belief that they would eventually triumph over opposing capitalist (capitalism) forces both at home and abroad. thumb The grave of Michał Drzymała in Miasteczko Krajeńskie (Image:Miasteczko Krajenskie grave of Michal Drzymala.jpg) '''Michał Drzymała''' (13 September 1857 in Zdroj (Zdrój, Greater Poland Voivodeship) near Grätz (Grodzisk Wielkopolski) (''Grodzisk Wielkopolski''), Kingdom of Prussia - 25 April 1937 in Grabówno near Miasteczko Krajeńskie, Poland (Second Polish Republic)) was a Polish (Poles) peasant, living in the Greater Poland region (or the Grand Duchy of Posen) under the Prussian rule. He is a Polish folk hero because after he was denied permission to build a house on his own land (only because he was Polish) by the Prussian authorities in the village of Kaisertreu (Drzymałowo), so he bought a circus wagon and turned it into his home. At the time, Prussian law considered any dwelling a house if it remained stationary for more than 24 hours. Drzymała use the mobility of the wagon to exploit the law and to avoid the negative consequences by moving the wagon each day and thus preventing the Prussians the ability to penalize him. His dwelling became known as Drzymała's wagon (''Wóz Drzymały''), and gained notoriety when this case was described by the Polish and European newspapers, making fun of the Prussian state, and energizing the Poles living under the Prussian authority against it. Weimar Republic Within Weimar Germany (Weimar Republic), the Prussian Province of Silesia was divided into the provinces of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia (Province of Lower Silesia) in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I. Silesian Uprisings of Poles against Germans occurred in Upper Silesia from 1919 and 1920. Uproar over the Upper Silesia plebiscite of 1921 led to a third uprising, which culminated in the Battle of Annaberg. According to the ''German-Polish Accord on East Silesia'', Cf. Deutsch-polnisches Abkommen über Ostschlesien (Genfer Abkommen) signed in Geneva on May 15, 1922 the eastern Upper Silesian lands were transferred from Germany to the Second Polish Republic on June 20 and became part of the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship. The territory remaining in Prussian Upper Silesia was administered within Regierungsbezirk Oppeln (Oppeln (region)) and - according to Polish (Poles) sources - had 530,000 Poles within it. ref name "Nowa Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN">


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Weinberg: ''The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany Starting World War II'' 1937-1939, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, 1980 pages 558-562 However, Poland refused Germany's terms, fearing that an alliance with Hitler would render Poland a German puppet state. At the time, many Japanese politicians, including Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, were shocked by the Anglo-German naval agreement, but the leaders


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census of the independent republic of Ukraine. Its data is given as on January 1. The 2003-2009 stats were taken from the official web-site of ''www.ukrstat.gov.ua'' and represent the data as of February of each year for the real population. Warsaw was occupied by Germany from the 4 August 1915 until 1918. It then became the capital of the newly independent Poland (Second Polish Republic) in 1918. In the course of the Polish-Bolshevik War (Polish–Soviet War) of 1920, the huge Battle


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families (154,704 persons) out of a planned 40,000 had been settled. The Commission's activities had a countereffect in Poles using "defensive nationalism" and unifying "Polish nationalism, Catholicism and cultural resistance" and triggered Polish countermeasures, climaxing after World War I, when the Second Polish Republic was established, in the expropriation of Commission-owned lands

Second Polish Republic

image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.

The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.

Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.

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