Hrushevsky's political radicalism and historical populism, although, ironically, he claimed that Hrushevsky's "school" of history was being continued at Harvard. Also during the Cold War, Pritsak became prominent in the movement towards Ukrainian-Jewish reconciliation (History of the Jews in Ukraine). After the partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) it was recognized in the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. Since 1815 in the Congress Poland Polish (Congress) Kingdom
-one survive, and only ''Jan Maciej Karol Hellcat'' met with any public success during the author's lifetime. The original Polish manuscript of ''The Crazy Locomotive'' was also lost; the play, back-translated (Translation#Back-translation) from two French versions, was not published until 1962. thumb Self-portrait, 1924 (File:Witkacy Autoportret 1924.jpg) Schulz developed his extraordinary imagination in a swarm of identities and nationalities; a Jew who thought and wrote in Polish
bourgeois origin" and only due to his father's connections was accepted to study medicine at Lwów University (University of Lviv) in 1940.home biography abouthimself Stanislaw Lem about himself During World War II and the Nazi occupation (History of Poland (1939–1945)) (1941–1944), Lem survived with false papers, earning a living as a car mechanic and welder, and becoming active
, playing in games against Hungary (Hungary national football team) (3-0) and Great Britain (Great Britain national football team) (5-4). His name, however, will always be remembered in Poland as the one who scored the first goal for Poland in the 1938 FIFA World Cup. This happened on June 5, 1938, in Strasbourg, France, during the legendary match Poland - Brazil (Brazil national football team). Poland lost 5-6 and Scherfke netted on the penalty kick in the 23rd minute. '''Marie
. In 1921, in reborn Poland (Second Polish Republic) he founded the ''Zwrotnica'' monthly (a "Railroad switch"), "Tadeusz Peiper." at ''Britannica''. Retrieved October 11, 2011. devoted mostly to avant-garde movements in contemporary poetry. Although short-lived, the magazine (issued until 1923 and then briefly reactivated between 1926 and 1927
with Piłsudski, Daszyński's government dissolved itself and a new government was created under Jędrzej Moraczewski. In 1918, Italy was the first country in Europe to recognise Poland's sovereignty. Andrzej Garlicki, ''Józef Piłsudski, 1867–1935'' (1995) Centers of government that were at that time created in Galicia (Galicia (Eastern Europe)) (formerly Austrian-ruled southern Poland) included National Council of the Principality of Cieszyn (created in November 1918
and was located in the Lwow Voivodeship. In 1928 the Ukrainian private gymnasium opened in the center of the city and is currently operational. In late 1920s town's population was some 40 000 and its oil refinery Polmin was one of the biggest in Europe, employing 800 people. Numerous visitors came there to see beautiful wooden Greek Catholic churches, among them the Church of St. Yur, which was regarded the most beautiful such construction in the Second Polish Republic, with frescoes from
proc 12-20-45.htm 20 Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Volume 4; Thursday, 20 December 1945 . The Avalon Project. Retrieved on 4 August 2007. and (primarily Gerald Reitlinger, ''The SS, Alibi of a Nation, 1922-1945'', Da Capo Press, 1989, ISBN 0306803518,attacks&dq %22Operation+Himmler%22&source gbs_search_s&sig ukHlrMhZVG6fUEXCCAVu6tee5_MGoogle Print, p.122 ) by Heinrich
the Kristallnacht in 1938. The town was taken by Soviet forces on January 31, 1945. Herbert Czaja was born in Teschen (Cieszyn) in Austria-Hungary to a German-speaking, Catholic family (the name Czaja has Polish origin). He became a Polish citizen at age four when part of Cieszyn Silesia became Polish, as part of the restored Polish Republic (Second Polish Republic). Czaja studied German studies, History, and Philosophy in Vienna and Kraków. During the 1930
DATE OF BIRTH August 13, 1929 PLACE OF BIRTH Równe (Rivne), Poland (Second Polish Republic) (now Rivne, Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH April 10, 2010
image1 RzeczpospolitaII.png caption1 Second Polish Republic between 1921 and 1939 (light beige) image2 Poland1939 physical.jpg caption2 Physical map of the Second Polish Republic (1939) image3 Armoured Car Korfanty 1920.jpg caption3 The Polish armoured car (Armored car (military)) ''Korfanty'' during the Silesian Uprisings (1920) image1 Jozef Pilsudski1.jpg caption1 Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State (''Naczelnik Państwa'') (Naczelnik Państwa) between November 1918 and December 1922 image2 Rydz Smigly Bulawa1.jpg caption2 Edward Rydz-Śmigły receiving a Marshal's buława (bulawa) from then-President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki, Warsaw, 10 November 1936 image3 Warsaw 1939 Krakowskie Przedmiescie photo.jpg caption3 Warsaw in 1939 image4 Polska II RP gestosc zaludnienia.jpg caption4 Poland's population density in 1930 The '''Second Polish Republic''', '''Second Commonwealth of Poland''' or "'''interwar (Interwar period) Poland'''" refers to the country of Poland between the First (World War I) and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the '''Republic of Poland''' or the '''Commonwealth of Poland''' ( ), the Polish state was created in 1918 (Polish Independence Day), in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany (Weimar Republic), the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland also shared a border with the then-Hungarian province of Carpathian Ruthenia. Despite internal and external pressures, it continued to exist until 1939, when Poland was invaded (Invasion of Poland) by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union (Soviet invasion of Poland) and the Slovak Republic (Slovak Republic (1939–45)), marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. The Second Republic was significantly different in territory to the current Polish state (Poland), controlling substantially more territory in the east and less in the west.
The Second Republic's land area was 388,634 km 2 , making it, in October 1938, the sixth largest country in Europe. After the annexation of Zaolzie, this grew to 389,720 km 2 . According to the 1921 census (Polish census of 1921), the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million. Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ukrainians; 10% Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% percent Czechs, Lithuanians and Russians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country borders, many in the Soviet Union (Poles in the former Soviet Union). The Republic endured and expanded despite a variety of difficulties: the aftermath of World War I, including conflicts with Ukraine (Polish–Ukrainian War), with Czechoslovakia (Polish–Czechoslovak War), with Lithuania (Polish–Lithuanian War) and with Soviet Russia and Ukraine (Polish–Soviet War); the Greater Poland (Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19)) and Silesian uprisings (Silesian Uprisings); and increasing hostility from Nazi Germany.
Despite lacking an overseas empire (Maritime and Colonial League), Poland maintained a slow but steady level of economic development. The cultural hubs of interwar Poland became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. By 1939, the Republic had become "one of Europe's major powers". Nevertheless, the Polish economist Witold Gadomski has calculated that the Republic was a much poorer nation than contemporary Poland. According to his estimates, Poland's gross national product in 1929 was between 50 and 60 billion US dollars, which compares starkly with an estimate in 2007 of 422 billion dollars. In 2007, Poland's share in international trade was 1.1%, while in 1937, it was 0.8%.