San Martín Tilcajete

What is San Martín Tilcajete known for?


international attention

and sometimes overnight jailing used to enforce community norms. Most of the town’s residents make a living through a mixture of agriculture and the making of a craft called alebrijes. Many of the houses are decorated with these wooden creatures. These have brought national and international attention. However, it is still a very small town, which, despite the tourism it now receives, has no restaurants, ) are brightly colored Mexican folk art (Mexican handcrafts and folk art) sculptures of fantastical creatures. The first alebrijes, along with use of the term, originated with Pedro Linares. After dreaming the creatures while sick in the 1930s, he began to create what he saw in cardboard and paper mache. His work caught the attention of a gallery owner in Cuernavaca and later, the artists Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Linares was originally from México City (DF), he was born June 29, 1906 in México City and never moved out of México City, he died January 25, 1992. Then in the 1980s, British Filmmaker, Judith Bronowski, arranged an itinerant demonstration workshop in U.S.A. participating Pedro Linares, Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)) and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia) and on family visits, demonstrated his designs there. The Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, and Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). This adaptation was pioneered by Arrazola native Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)). This version of the craft has since spread to a number of other towns, most notably San Martín Tilcajete and La Unión Tejalapan, become a major source of income for the area, especially for Tilcajete. The success of the craft, however, has led to the depletion of the native copal trees. Attempts to remedy this, with reforestation efforts and management of wild copal trees has only had limited success. The three towns most closely associated with alebrije production in Oaxaca have produced a number of notable artisans such as Manuel Jiménez, Jacobo Angeles, Martin Sandiego, Julia Fuentes and Miguel Sandiego. Pedro Linares was originally from México City (Distrito Federal). In the 1980s, British Filmmaker, Judith Bronowski, arranged an itinerant demonstration workshop in U.S.A. participating Pedro Linares, Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)) and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). The Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, and Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). This adaptation was pioneered by Arrazola native Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)). This version of the craft has since spread to a number of other towns, most notably San Martín Tilcajete and La Unión Tejalapan, become a major source of income for the area, especially for Tilcajete. The success of the craft, however, has led to the depletion of the native copal trees. Attempts to remedy this, with reforestation efforts and management of wild copal trees has only had limited success. The three towns most closely associated with alebrije production in Oaxaca have produced a number of notable artisans such as Manuel Jiménez, Jacobo Angeles, Martin Sandiego, Julia Fuentes and Miguel Sandiego.


music dance

; thumb 150px Carnival mask on display at the Museum Estatal de Artes Populares (File:MascaraMuerteMEAPO.JPG) In April is held the Feria de Alebrije or Festival of Alebrije, which is organized by Tilcajete to promote its product. The annual event began in 2008 and last nine days. In addition to alebrije sales and demonstrations, other events such as music, dance and theatre are held. There is also offerings of local and regional cuisine.


original designs

"smtalebrije" Delfino Gutierrez is known for his original designs, specializing in free-form elephants, frogs, turtles, armadillos and other animals. His works have been sold in stores in Chicago, California, New York and Israel. thumb left Rabbit figure by Jacobo Angeles at the Museum Estatal de Arte Popular in San Bartolo Coyotepec (File:ConejoTostliMEAPO.JPG). The most successful artisan from the town is Jacobo Angeles, whose work has been displayed in The Smithsonian, Chicago’s National Museum of Mexican Art and museums, art colleges and galleries in various parts of the world. Like other carvers, Angeles began carving at a young age, taught by his family and elders from Tilcajete and other villages. Angeles’ work is distinguished by the fact that he uses only naturally derived paints and materials for his figures. Paints are derived from fruits, vegetables, plants, tree barks, clay and insects. The figures also more closely reflect Zapotec culture and tradition, painting designs derived from sources such as the friezes of the Mitla archeological site and ancient pictographic symbols for phenomena such as waves, mountains and fertility. Angeles also travels extensively to promote Oaxacan folk art, teaching in various educational venues and speaking at art exhibitions. Prices of the pieces vary according to size, originality and the quality of the work. The tradition here is to use branches of a tree locally called “copal,” which is often obtained from the local hills by the craftsmen. A machete is used for the rough form, then smaller knives until the desired fineness is reached. The only time a modern tool, a chainsaw, is used, is to obtain the wood and to level a base for a large figures. The capricious shapes that copal wood can take often determines what is made. Male and female copal trees have different characteristics, which influence what is made. A detailed outline is drawn on the bark, defining the image with greater clarity and detail. The sculpting in earnest then begins. The wood is soft and damp when first cut, making it easier for craftsmen to shape, then is dried in the sun before being sanded. The carving alone takes up to a month. The figure is then left to dry for up to ten months, depending on its overall size and thickness. Modern paints are most often used as they provide better color and durability, as it resists fading. The traditional paint was aniline, which can fade with time and repeated cleanings. Because of the high production of wood crafts, copal wood is becoming scarce due to overexploitation. Copal trees are small and do not yield much wood, and almost every branch is used for alebrije production. Residents of Tilcajete must walk farther into the woods to locate it, or they must bring it in from other villages, although carvers prefer local wood. The demand for copal wood has led to illegal and clandestine harvests in protected forests. The problem is grave enough that the federal government states that most of the figures are made with illegally obtained wood. ) are brightly colored Mexican folk art (Mexican handcrafts and folk art) sculptures of fantastical creatures. The first alebrijes, along with use of the term, originated with Pedro Linares. After dreaming the creatures while sick in the 1930s, he began to create what he saw in cardboard and paper mache. His work caught the attention of a gallery owner in Cuernavaca and later, the artists Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Linares was originally from México City (DF), he was born June 29, 1906 in México City and never moved out of México City, he died January 25, 1992. Then in the 1980s, British Filmmaker, Judith Bronowski, arranged an itinerant demonstration workshop in U.S.A. participating Pedro Linares, Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)) and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia) and on family visits, demonstrated his designs there. The Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, and Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). This adaptation was pioneered by Arrazola native Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)). This version of the craft has since spread to a number of other towns, most notably San Martín Tilcajete and La Unión Tejalapan, become a major source of income for the area, especially for Tilcajete. The success of the craft, however, has led to the depletion of the native copal trees. Attempts to remedy this, with reforestation efforts and management of wild copal trees has only had limited success. The three towns most closely associated with alebrije production in Oaxaca have produced a number of notable artisans such as Manuel Jiménez, Jacobo Angeles, Martin Sandiego, Julia Fuentes and Miguel Sandiego. Pedro Linares was originally from México City (Distrito Federal). In the 1980s, British Filmmaker, Judith Bronowski, arranged an itinerant demonstration workshop in U.S.A. participating Pedro Linares, Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)) and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). The Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, and Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). This adaptation was pioneered by Arrazola native Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)). This version of the craft has since spread to a number of other towns, most notably San Martín Tilcajete and La Unión Tejalapan, become a major source of income for the area, especially for Tilcajete. The success of the craft, however, has led to the depletion of the native copal trees. Attempts to remedy this, with reforestation efforts and management of wild copal trees has only had limited success. The three towns most closely associated with alebrije production in Oaxaca have produced a number of notable artisans such as Manuel Jiménez, Jacobo Angeles, Martin Sandiego, Julia Fuentes and Miguel Sandiego.


animal

and one more recent. The Zapotecs of Oaxaca have carved representations of animal from wood and other materials for centuries. Certain animals were important as totems and some were carved to use as hunting decoys.(jacabo) The carving of animals from the wood of the copal tree, native to the area, but as of at least 50 or so years ago, they were principally carved as toys for children. At the beginning of the 20th century, the focus of woodcarving was more

and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia) and on family visits, demonstrated his designs there. The Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving

animal and other types of figures from wood, and Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). This adaptation was pioneered by Arrazola native Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)). This version of the craft has since spread to a number of other towns, most notably San Martín Tilcajete and La Unión Tejalapan, become a major source of income for the area, especially for Tilcajete. The success of the craft, however, has led


tradition+painting

, vegetables, plants, tree barks, clay and insects. The figures also more closely reflect Zapotec culture and tradition, painting designs derived from sources such as the friezes of the Mitla archeological site and ancient pictographic symbols for phenomena such as waves, mountains and fertility. Angeles also travels extensively to promote Oaxacan folk art, teaching in various educational venues and speaking at art exhibitions. Prices of the pieces


sculptures

Tilcajete San Martín Tilcajete Ocotlán (Ocotlán District, Oaxaca) - - 245 San Martín Tilcajete San Martín Tilcajete Ocotlán (Ocotlán District, Oaxaca) - '''Alebrijes''' ( ) are brightly colored Mexican folk art (Mexican handcrafts and folk art) sculptures of fantastical creatures. The first alebrijes, along with use of the term, originated with Pedro Linares. After dreaming the creatures while sick in the 1930s, he began to create what

and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia) and on family visits, demonstrated his designs there. The Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving

an itinerant demonstration workshop in U.S.A. participating Pedro Linares, Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)) and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called Bursera glabrifolia copal


art teaching

, vegetables, plants, tree barks, clay and insects. The figures also more closely reflect Zapotec culture and tradition, painting designs derived from sources such as the friezes of the Mitla archeological site and ancient pictographic symbols for phenomena such as waves, mountains and fertility. Angeles also travels extensively to promote Oaxacan folk art, teaching in various educational venues and speaking at art exhibitions. Prices of the pieces


news location

url http: www.mercurynews.com mexico-more ci_5757092?nclick_check 1 newspaper Mercury News location San José, CA date April 26, 2007 accessdate April 12, 2010 An early name for the area was Zapotitlán, referring to the large number of black sapote trees that were in the area; however, these trees are rare today. The current name is derived from the Nahuatl "Tilcaxitl" which means either “black earth depression or bowl” or “mountain of cochineal ink

fantastic creatures as well as the name “alebrije.” He was a Mixe from Central Valleys area of Oaxaca, but he created and established the creation of alebrijes using cardboard and wood in Mexico City. This original tradition


high production

in the sun before being sanded. The carving alone takes up to a month. The figure is then left to dry for up to ten months, depending on its overall size and thickness. Modern paints are most often used as they provide better color and durability, as it resists fading. The traditional paint was aniline, which can fade with time and repeated cleanings. Because of the high production


year+wild

. Most potable water for the population comes from two deep wells. The climate is temperate with little variation in temperature throughout the year. Wild vegetation is scarce but there are still trees such as junipers, Montezuma cypress, jacarandas and others. Arid zone plants such as mesquite and maguey (Agave americana) can also be found. Equally there is little wildlife, which mostly consists of small mammals such as rabbits along with some species of birds. The municipality contains deposits of gold, silver, iron, coal, lead, copper, zinc, antinomy, titanium, asbestos and various minerals. Most of the population is engaged in farming either full or part-time. Principle crops include corn, beans, chickpeas, castor oil plant and peanuts. Traditionally, Tilcajete was reliant on subsistence agriculture to meet local needs and with surpluses sold at regional markets. Agriculture has become less viable, which is one of the reasons why families have turned to crafts and sending members to other places to work. Agriculture is still widely practiced as it provides many of the basic staples and has cultural importance. However, agriculture can be risky here is that it is rainfall dependent. Also, the soil is mostly of decayed volcanic rock matter which forms a thin layer on the surface. Livestock includes cattle, pigs, horses, goats and sheep. A portion of the population in involved in construction, mostly masonry. However, it is the production of alebrijes which bring national and international attention. These economic activities employ over 84% of those who live here. The craft trade has spurred tourism on a small scale. Those who do not work in the municipality generally go to Mexico City and the United States to send back remittances. Most migrant workers are male but unmarried women also go, mostly to Mexico City to work as maids, returning to the town for marriage. Cerro Tilcajete is an archeological site located ) are brightly colored Mexican folk art (Mexican handcrafts and folk art) sculptures of fantastical creatures. The first alebrijes, along with use of the term, originated with Pedro Linares. After dreaming the creatures while sick in the 1930s, he began to create what he saw in cardboard and paper mache. His work caught the attention of a gallery owner in Cuernavaca and later, the artists Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo. Linares was originally from México City (DF), he was born June 29, 1906 in México City and never moved out of México City, he died January 25, 1992. Then in the 1980s, British Filmmaker, Judith Bronowski, arranged an itinerant demonstration workshop in U.S.A. participating Pedro Linares, Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)) and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia) and on family visits, demonstrated his designs there. The Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, and Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). This adaptation was pioneered by Arrazola native Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)). This version of the craft has since spread to a number of other towns, most notably San Martín Tilcajete and La Unión Tejalapan, become a major source of income for the area, especially for Tilcajete. The success of the craft, however, has led to the depletion of the native copal trees. Attempts to remedy this, with reforestation efforts and management of wild copal trees has only had limited success. The three towns most closely associated with alebrije production in Oaxaca have produced a number of notable artisans such as Manuel Jiménez, Jacobo Angeles, Martin Sandiego, Julia Fuentes and Miguel Sandiego. Pedro Linares was originally from México City (Distrito Federal). In the 1980s, British Filmmaker, Judith Bronowski, arranged an itinerant demonstration workshop in U.S.A. participating Pedro Linares, Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)) and a textil artisan Maria Sabina from Oaxaca. Although the Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, it was at this time, when Bronowski's workshop took place when artisans from Oaxaca knew the alebrijes paper mache sculptures. Then Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). The Oaxaca valley area already had a history of carving animal and other types of figures from wood, and Linares’ designs were adapted to the carving of a local wood called copal (Bursera glabrifolia). This adaptation was pioneered by Arrazola native Manuel Jiménez (Manuel Jiménez (artist)). This version of the craft has since spread to a number of other towns, most notably San Martín Tilcajete and La Unión Tejalapan, become a major source of income for the area, especially for Tilcajete. The success of the craft, however, has led to the depletion of the native copal trees. Attempts to remedy this, with reforestation efforts and management of wild copal trees has only had limited success. The three towns most closely associated with alebrije production in Oaxaca have produced a number of notable artisans such as Manuel Jiménez, Jacobo Angeles, Martin Sandiego, Julia Fuentes and Miguel Sandiego.

San Martín Tilcajete

'''San Martín Tilcajete''' is a town and municipality (municipalities of Mexico) located about It is part of the Ocotlán District (Ocotlán District, Oaxaca) in the south of the Valles Centrales Region (Valles Centrales de Oaxaca)

The municipality is small and rural with all but seven of its 1,631 residents living in the town (

An early name for the area was Zapotitlán, referring to the large number of black sapote trees that were in the area; however, these trees are rare today. The current name is derived from the Nahuatl "Tilcaxitl" which means either “black earth depression or bowl” or “mountain of cochineal ink.” The first would refer to a dark fresh water spring, which today is located between Calle de Cajete and Avenida Progreso. The latter meaning would refer to the fact that in antiquity, residents here were known for making ink and dye from the cochineal insect. Another possible origin for the name comes from “tilmas” which is a traditional type of apron worn by workmen to protect clothes underneath and to carry things. Today tilmas are most often seen as part of the costume worn for the Danza de la Pluma. The prefix of San Martin was added in honor of the bishop of Tours, France (Martin of Tours).

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