Samarra

What is Samarra known for?


early white

of ceramics from the Tang Dynasty can be seen on lustrewares, produced by Mesopotamian potters, and on some early white wares excavated at Samarra (in modern-day Iraq). Ceramics from this period were excavated at Nishapur (in modern-day Iran) and Samarkand (in modern-day Uzbekistan). Son of Muhammad at-Taqī (Muhammad al-Taqi) and the Tenth Twelver Shī‘ah (Shia Islam) Imām (Imamah (Shi'a doctrine)) Buried in Sāmarrā' (Samarra), Iraq Al


868

so large that land taxes were collected in his name.” 'Thawrat al-Zanj . The rebellion eventually failed and ʻAlī relocated to Basrah in 868 CE. Also in 868 C.E., a leader of the Zanj Rebellion claimed to be the incarnated form of the former Alid rebel Yahya ibn Umar. Their ultimate goal however was control over the whole Basrah area and they finally accomplished their objective with a tight blockade that prevented

: news.bbc.co.uk 1 hi world south_asia 4739800.stm (BBC) Ahmad Ibn Ṭūlūn was a member of the mostly Central Asian Turkish guard formed initially in Baghdad, then later settled in Samarra, upon its establishment as the seat of the caliphate by al-Mu'tasim. In 254 868, The first date indicates the year according to the Hijri calendar (Islamic calendar), while the second one denotes the corresponding Gregorian year Ibn Tulun was sent to Egypt

in Europe and the Islamic World: The Tradition of 1000 Years in Maiolica, Faience and Delftware'', London, Faber and Faber, 1973 ISBN 0-571-09349-3 From Mesopotamia, tin glazes spread to the Islamic Egypt (868–905 AD) during the 10th century, and then to the Islamic Spain (711-1492 AD), leading to the maximum development of Islamic lusterware Manson, R. B., and M. S. Tite, "The beginnings of tin-opacification of pottery glazes", ''Journal


original story

;, signifying death, is a literary reference to an ancient Babylonian myth: Death is both the narrator and a central character, transcribed by W. Somerset Maugham. The story was titled "The Appointment in Samarra", and subsequently formed the germ of the novel ''Appointment in Samarra'' by John O'Hara. The original story was re-told in verse by F. L. Lucas in his poem 'The Destined Hour' in ''From Many Times and Lands'' (1953). Lucas, F. L., ‘The Destined Hour


poems including

came to specialise in dramatic monologues and narrative poems based on historical episodes “that seem lastingly alive”. “I try to find episodes in history that seem lastingly alive: and try to make them live on paper” (Lucas, ''Journal'' 1939 , p.229) His First World War poems, including ‘''Morituri'' - August 1915, on the road from Morlancourt’ (1935) and the exquisite ‘ ”The Night is Chilly but not Dark” ‘ (1935), offer a retrospect of his experiences at the front


early+culture

in hegemony. Wolkstein, Dianna and Kramer, Samuel Noah "Innana: Queen of Heaven and Earth". It appears that this early culture was an amalgam of three distinct cultural influences: peasant farmers, living in wattle and daub or clay brick houses and practicing irrigation agriculture, hunter-fishermen living in woven reed houses and living on floating islands in the marshes (Proto-Sumerians), and Proto-Akkadian nomadic pastoralists, living in black tents. Leick, Gwendolyn (2001), "Mespotamia: the Invention of the City" (Allen Lane) Population right 350px thumb The first farmers from Samarra (File:Sumer1.jpg) migrated to Sumer, and built shrines and settlements at Eridu. In spite of the importance of this region, genetic studies on the Sumerians are limited and generally restricted to analysis of classical markers due to Iraq's modern political instability. It has been found that Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 (Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)) originated in Northern Mesopotamia (Assyria). Sumerians and haplogroup J - DNA Forums N. Al-Zahery et al, "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations," Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2003) It is speculated by some archaeologists that Sumerian speakers were farmers who moved down from the north, after perfecting irrigation agriculture there note there is no consensus among scholars on the origins of the Sumerians . The Ubaid pottery of southern Mesopotamia has been connected via Choga Mami Transitional ware to the pottery of the Samarra period culture (c. 5700 – 4900 BC C-14 (Radiocarbon dating)) in the north, who were the first to practice a primitive form of irrigation agriculture along the middle Tigris River and its tributaries. The connection is most clearly seen at Tell Awayli (''Oueilli'', ''Oueili'') near Larsa, excavated by the French in the 1980s, where 8 levels yielded pre-Ubaid pottery resembling Samarran ware. Farming peoples spread down into southern Mesopotamia because they had developed a temple-centered social organization for mobilizing labor and technology for water control, enabling them to survive and prosper in a difficult environment. wikipedia:Samarra


development characters

the events one after the other, without emphasis on character development. Characters and events are introduced forcefully at times. One such example is the introduction of Vathek's brother and successor Motavakel, based on Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim (Arabic (Arabic language) المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم') (March 821 – December 861), who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861. Up to the point when he is introduced in the novel as the leader


amp term

~!2&ri 1&aspect subtab157&menu search&ipp 20&spp 20&staffonly &term herzfeld&index .AW&uindex &oper &term samarra&index .SW&uindex &aspect subtab157&menu search&ri 1#focus Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 7: Records of Samarra Expeditions, 1906-1945 Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Washington, DC *


science news

"Destroyer of Hamath," Sargon II razed the city, "Hamath Wrecked to Terrify Small Opponents of Assyria" ''The Science News-Letter''. 39:13 (March 29, 1941:205-206.) recolonized it with 6,300 Assyrians and removed its king to be flayed alive in Assyria. He also carried off to Nimrud the ivory-adorned furnishings of its kings The ivories were found there by Layard. One of the ivory panels found


largest construction%'

Sunni Muslim family in Baghdad, Iraq, the second youngest of 13 children. His father, Jasim, was born and raised in Samarra. He later founded one of Iraq's largest construction companies. From a young age, Alsammarae was intimately familiar with Iraqi politics due to his family's presence in this sphere. Many of his close relatives served as ambassadors, cabinet advisors, and members of parliament. Growing up in the 1960s, Alsammarae received his primary and secondary education in Baghdad


power+important

(present-day Iraq). * The Later Jìn Dynasty (Later Jin Dynasty (Five Dynasties)) in China Sovereign Kaiyun ascends to power Important canals of Sumer included *the ''Zubi'' canal (''Izubi'', Akkadian ''Izubitum''), a short-cut of the Tigris river between the locations of modern Samarra and Baghdad. Settlements along this canal included Hibaritum and Push. *the ''Irnina'' canal, joined the Zubi canal above Push. Settlements along this canal included Hiritum, Hursitum, Sarru-Laba, Namzium thumb 260px Map of Sumer (File:Cities of Sumer (en).svg) The '''history of Sumer''', taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid (Ubaid period) and Uruk (Uruk period) periods, spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transition period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century BC. The first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was Eridu. The Sumerians claimed that their civilization had been brought, fully formed, to the city of Eridu by their god Enki or by his advisor (or Abgallu from ''ab'' water, ''gal'' big, ''lu'' man), Adapa U-an (Adapa) (the Oannes of Berossus). The first people at Eridu brought with them the Samarran culture from northern Mesopotamia and are identified with the Ubaid period, but it is not known whether or not these were Sumerians (associated later with the Uruk period). Some Sumerian texts may also suggest Dilmun as a possible place of origin, although they may simply be referring to an idealized paradise. wikipedia:Samarra

Samarra

latd 34 latm 11 lats 54 latNS N longd 43 longm 52 longs 27 longEW E

'''Sāmarrā''' ( north of Baghdad. In 2003 the city had an estimated population of 348,700. Samarra is in the Sunni Triangle.

The city was once the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate and the only remaining Islamic capital that retains its original plan, architecture and artistic relics. UNESCO, Samarra Archaeological City, http: whc.unesco.org en list 276 In 2007, UNESCO named Samarra one of its World Heritage Sites.

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