Samarkand

What is Samarkand known for?


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name "EI" Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand


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-- The earliest use of water-powered mills (Watermill) in paper production, specifically the use of pulp mills for preparing the pulp for papermaking, dates back to Samarkand in the 8th century. Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand


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in Tajikistan (1992–1997) that sprang up in the nation shortly after its independence. However resurgences in the Tajik economy have transformed Dushanbe into a rapidly growing commercial, cultural and industrial center. Many multi-story apartment and office buildings were constructed and the city was beautified during this period. Monuments and statues commemorating the city's Persian (Persian Empire) past were erected. Islamic history In the mid-seventh century, the Sassanian Persian empire fell to an Arab-lead Islamic conquest. Under the Samanid dynasty (819–999), whose founder Saman Khuda of an Zoroastrian Sassanian Persian (Sassanid Empire) had converted to Islam, the city came to be known as '''Binkath'''. However, the Arabs retained the old name of ''Chach'' for the surrounding region, pronouncing it ''al-Shash'' instead. The modern Turkic name of ''Tashkent'' (City of Stone) comes from Kara-Khanid rule in the 10th century. (Tash in Turkic languages means stone. Kand, qand, kent, kad, kath, kud—all meaning a city—are derived from the Persian (Persian language) Sogdian (Sogdian language) کنده kanda, meaning a town or a city. They are found in city names like Samarkand, Yarkand (Yarkant County), Penjikent, Khujand etc.). After the 16th century, the name was steadily changed slightly from Chachkand Chashkand to Tashkand, which, as "stone city", was more meaningful to the new inhabitants than the old name Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand


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, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan for almost half an century from 1411 to 1449 and occupied the Herat province (Herat Province) in Afghanistan for an short time in 1448. Early life He was the grandson of the conqueror, Timur (Tamerlane) (1336–1405), and oldest son of Shah Rukh (Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty)), both of whom came from the Turkicized Encyclopædia Britannica, "Timur", Online Academic Edition


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also became an inspiration to Mughal architects. During the 14th and 15th century, Timur and his successors adorned Samarkand and other Central-Asian cities with spectacular and stately edifices. The Sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi (Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi), situated in southern Kazakhstan was never finished, but has got the largest existing brick dome in Central Asia (List of largest domes in the world#Famous large domes), measuring 18.2 m in diameter. The dome exterior


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capital was relocated from Samarkand to Tashkent. In 1936, the Uzbek SSR was enlarged with the addition of the Karakalpak ASSR taken from the Kazakh SSR in the last stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. Further bits and pieces of territory were transferred several times between the Kazakh SSR and the Uzbek SSR after World War II. Water-powered mills An exhaustive survey of milling in Al-Andalus did not uncover a single water-powered paper mill, nor


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Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand


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Vostoka '' in Tashkent. He achieved prominence as a talented reporter and was invited to move to Moscow to work for the ''Izvestia''. From there, he covered the massive Soviet construction and heavy industry-building campaigns and became a prominent propagandist, such as the White Sea – Baltic Canal, Uralmash, etc. He also wrote movie scripts and radio plays, and El-Registan is perhaps better known for his script of the Soviet film ''Djulbars'' (1935). Domination The Samanids were a Persian state that reigned for 180 years, encompassing a territory which included Khorasan (Greater Khorasan) (including Kabul), Tabaḳāt-i-nāsiri: a general history of the Muhammadan dynastics of Asia, pg.31, By Minhāj Sirāj Jūzjānī Ray (Ray, Iran), Transoxiania, Tabaristan, Kerman, Gorgan, and west of these provinces up to Isfahan. At the peak of their power, the Samanids controlled territory extending as far south as the Sulaiman Mountains in Pakistan, Ghazni and Kandahar. The historical,social and economic setting By M. S. Asimov, pg.79 The Samanids were descendants of Bahram Chobin, Iran and America: Re-Kind l ing a Love Lost By Badi Badiozamani, Ghazal Badiozamani, pg. 123 History of Bukhara by Narshakhi, Chapter XXIV, Pg 79 and thus descended from the House of Mihrān (House of Mihran), one of the Seven Great Houses of Iran. In governing their territory, the Samanids modeled their state organization after the Abbasids, mirroring the caliph's court and organization. The Monumental Inscriptions from Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana By Sheila S. Blair, pg. 27 They were rewarded for supporting the Abbasids in Transoxania and Khorasan (greater Khorasan), and with their established capitals located in Bukhara, Balkh, Samarkand, and Herat, they carved their kingdom after defeating the Saffarids. History The Samanid Empire was the first native Persian dynasty to arise after the Muslim Arab conquest. The four grandsons of the dynasty's founder, Saman Khuda, had been rewarded with provinces for their faithful service to the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun: Nuh obtained Samarkand; Ahmad, Fergana; Yahya, Shash; and Elyas, Herat. Ahmad's son Nasr became governor of Transoxania in 875, but it was his brother and successor, Ismail Samani who overthrew the Saffarids and the Zaydites of Tabaristan, thus establishing a semiautonomous rule over Transoxania and Khorasan, with Bukhara as his capital. In 893, Ismail invaded and defeated the Karluk Turks, taking Talas (Taraz) and converting the Nestorian church (Church of the East) there into a mosque. Renee Grousset, ''The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia'', Transl. Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 142. ''Samanids'', C.E.Bosworth, '''The Encyclopedia of Islam''', Vol. VIII, Ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P.Heinrichs and G.Lecomte, (E.J.Brill, 1995), 1026. Ismail's son, Ahmad (Ahmad the Samanid), sent two military excursions(911 & 912-913) into Sistan to re-establish Samanid control over the Caspian provinces. ''Samanids'', C.E.Bosworth, 1027. The Karotegin consisted of a highland district bounded on the north by Samarkand and Kokand, on the east by Ferghana, on the south by Darvaz and on the west by Hissar (Hisor) and other Bokharian provinces. Traditionally rough woolen cloth and mohair were woven by the natives, who also made excellent firearms and other weapons. Gold was mined in various places and there were salt-pits in the mountains. The chief town, Garm (Garm, Tajikistan), situated on a hill on the right bank of the Vakhsh River, was a place of some 2,000 inhabitants, Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand


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, but the terminus was later shifted north to the harbour at Krasnovodsk. The Railway reached Samarkand via Bukhara in 1888, where it halted for ten years until extended to Tashkent and Andijan in 1898. The permanent bridge over the Oxus (Amu-Darya) was not completed until 1901, and until then trains ran over a rickety wooden construction that was often damaged by floods. As early as 1905, there was a train ferry across the Caspian Sea from Krasnovodsk to Baku in Azerbaijan. The Tashkent Railway connecting the Transcaspian Military Railway with the network of other Russian and European railways was completed in 1906. - colspan 4 align "middle" Sultan Sa'id Khan (Sultan Said Khan) after defeating Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat (Mirza Abu Bakr) established the '''Altishaher''' or union of 6 cities, a much reduced western half of Moghulistan. By this time the western half was referred to as '''Western Kashgaria''' and eastern half was referred to either as '''Uyghurstan''' or '''Eastern Kashgaria'''. During the reign of Abdur-Rashid Khan (Abdurashid Khan) a certain Naqshbandi Sufi teacher '''Ahmad Kasan''' (1462–1542), known as ''Makhdum-i-Azam'' (the Great Master) came to Kashgar from Samarkand. His descendants, known as ''Makhdum Zadas'' and bearing title "Khoja (Khoja (Turkestan))", would play an important role in the history of the region from 16th-19th centuries. Makhdum's eldest son '''Muhammad Amin's''' (d.1598), son '''Muhammad Yūsuf''' settled in Kashgar and his son '''Khoja''' '''Hidayatullah''' better known as Afaq Khoja became the founder of the ''Afaqiya'' Sufi order (tariqa), and his followers became known as the ''Aq Taghlik (Khoja (Turkestan))s'', those of the "White Mountains", because of their close approximation to Tangri Tagh (Tian Shan) (Tian Shan). Makhdum's second son, '''Muhammad Ishaq Wali''' (d.1599), founder of ''Ishaqiya'' Sufi order, with his followers established themselves in Yarkand and became known as the ''Qara Taghlik (Khoja (Turkestan))s'', those of the "Black Mountains", because of their close approximation to the Pamir (Pamir Mountains), Karakoram and Kunlun (Kunlun Mountains). The Kashgaria region gradually devolved into small city states with the Khojas as rivals post 1570 C.E. Commons:Category:Samarkand Wikipedia:Samarkand


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amounted to 156, 81, 55 and 48 thousand, respectively. The city prospered due to the fact that Tashkent had a substantial trade with Russia, but it suffered from Kokand's high taxes. Tashkent lost its sovereignty in 1814. At that was the time of numerous popular uprisings against the Kokand government. The best-known of these revolts took place in 1847 and 1863 (under the leadership of a weaver called Yusuf). The first siege of Tashkent by the Russians in 1864 was unsuccessful. -- In June

Samarkand

'''Samarkand''' ( The city is most noted for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West, and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque (a modern replica) remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood. Энциклопедия туризма Кирилла и Мефодия. 2008.

In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as ''Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures''.

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