; The 16th century poet, Muhammed Fuzuli produced his timeless philosophical and lyrical ''Qazals'' in Arabic (Arabic language), Persian (Persian language), and Azeri (Azeri language). Benefiting immensely from the fine literary traditions of his environment, and building upon the legacy of his predecessors, Fizuli was destined to become the leading literary figure of his society. His major works include ''The Divan of Ghazals'' and ''The Qasidas''. In the same century, Azerbaijani literature further flourished with the development of Ashik ( Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
-9377424 Safavid-dynasty Britannica Concise. "Safavid Dynasty", Online Edition 2007 According to Sharafnama written by Sharaf-al-Din Bitlisi, the earliest known leader of the tribe, Bawa Ardalan, was a descendant of "Ahmad b. Marwan", who ruled in Diyarbakır. He settled down among the Gorans in Kurdistan and toward the end of the Mongol period took over the "Şare Zor" (Sharazur) region, where he established himself as an absolute ruler. He
and Kurdistan from the late 13th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran. Roger M. Savory (ref. Abdülbaki Gölpinarli), Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kizil-Bash", Online Edition 2005 The expression "Red Heads" is derived from their distinctive twelve gored crimson headwear (''tāj'' or ''tark'' in Persian (Persian language); sometimes specifically titled "Haydar's Crown
helped prevent seasonal flooding of the Zayandeh River. Legacy The sect would continue to attract followers until the sixteenth century when the Safavids took control of Persia. Britannica Concise. "Safavid Dynasty", Online Edition 2007. George Lenczowski, "Iran under the Pahlavis", Hoover Institution Press, 1978, p. 79: "Ismail Safavi, descendant of the pious
to the Kaganate the control of all its cities and fortresses, and establishing free trade. Movses Kagankatvatsi. ''History of Agvans'' (Russian trans. and ed. by Patkanov). St. Petersburg, 1861, pp. 121 Control of Darial Pass switched to the Arab Rashidun Caliphate in 644. Akram A.I. ''The Muslim Conquest of Persia'', Ch:16 ISBN 978-0-19-597713-4 From 890 to 929 it belonged to the Sajid Dynasty (Sajids) of Azerbaijan. Afterwards
the Silk road through Persia. This very distinct style of architecture was inherited to them from the Seljuq dynasty, who for centuries had used it in their mosque building throughout Central-Asia, but it was perfected during the Safavids when they invented the ''haft- rangi'', or seven- colour style of tile burning, a process that enabled them to apply more colours to each tile, creating richer patterns, sweeter to the eye. Blake, Stephen P.; Half the World, The Social
, these domes appeared like glittering turquoise gem (turquoise) and could be seen from miles away by travelers following the Silk road through Persia. This very distinct style of architecture was inherited to them from the Seljuq dynasty, who for centuries had used it in their mosque building, but it was perfected during the Safavids when they invented the ''haft- rangi'', or seven- colour style of tile burning, a process that enabled them to apply more colours to each tile, creating richer
was founded on being direct male descendants of the Ali, Kathryn Babayan, ''Mystics, Monarchs and Messiahs: Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran'', Cambridge, Massachusetts ; London : Harvard University Press, 2002. p. 143: "It is true that during their revolutionary phase (1447-1501), Safavi guides had played on their descent from the family of the Prophet. The hagiography of the founder of the Safavi order, Shaykh Safi al-Din Safvat al-Safa written by Ibn Bazzaz in 1350
of their distinct red headgear. The Qizilbash were warriors, spiritual followers of Haydar, and a source of the Safavid military and political power. After the death of Haydar, the Safaviyya gathered around his son Ali Mirza Safavi, who was also pursued and subsequently killed by Ya'qub. According to official Safavid history, before passing away, Ali had designated his young brother Ismail as the spiritual leader of the Safaviyya. History Founding of the dynasty by Shāh Ismāil I (''r.'' 1501–24) Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
and they refuse nothing which contributes to it, having no anxiety about the future which they leave to providence and fate. But as he also experienced: Ferrier, p. 111. Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
Mingburnu Jalal ad-Din in 1226. Grousset, Rene, ''The Empire of the Steppes'', (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 260 The Mongols were expelled by George V of Georgia, son of Demetrius II of Georgia, who was named "Brilliant" for his role in restoring the country's previous strength and Christian culture. George V was the last great king of the unified Georgian state. After his death, different local rulers fought for their independence from central Georgian rule, until the total disintegration of the Kingdom in the 15th century. Georgia was further weakened by several disastrous invasions (Timur's invasions of Georgia) by Tamerlane (Timur). Invasions continued, giving the Kingdom no time for restoration, with both Black (Kara Koyunlu) and White (Aq Qoyunlu) sheep Turkomans constantly raiding it's southern provinces. As a result, Georgian Kingdom collapsed into anarchy by 1466 and fragmented into three independent Kingdoms and five semi-independent principalities. Neighboring empires exploited the internal division of the weakened country, and beginning in the 16th century, the Persian Empire (Safavid dynasty) and the Ottoman Empire subjugated the eastern and western regions of Georgia, respectively. French (French people) 17th Persia (Safavid dynasty), India (Mughal Empire) - thumb left Durrani Empire (File:The Durrani Empire at its peak - 1761.jpg) (at its peak in 1761), the last Afghan empire that united all the Afghan tribes into one concentrated and unified nation. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the region was ruled by Turkic-Afghan dynasties from Delhi, India. An early Pashtun nationalist was the "warrior-poet" Khushal Khan Khattak, who was imprisoned by the Mughal (Mughal Empire) emperor Aurangzeb for trying to incite the Pashtuns to rebel against the rule of the Mughals. However, despite sharing a common language and believing in a common ancestry, the Pashtuns first achieved unity in the 18th century. Pashtunistan was ruled by the Mughal Empire during the early 18th century when Afghan led by Mirwais Hotak successfully revolted against the Persian Safavids (Safavid dynasty) in the city of Kandahar. This uprising and taken over of the Persian throne by the powerful Hotaki dynasty of Afghanistan united all the tribes of Pashtunistan. By 1738 the Mughal Empire has been defeated by forces of a new Turkmen (Turkmen people) ruler from Greater Khorasan, Nader Shah. Besides Persian and Turkmen forces, Nader was accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani and 4,000 well trained Pashtun troops from Afghanistan. The main change occurred in the beginning of the 16th century, when Ismail I founded the Safavid dynasty and initiated a religious policy to recognize Shi'a Islam as the official religion (Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism) of the Safavid Empire, and the fact that modern Iran remains an officially Shi'ite state is a direct result of Ismail's actions. thumb 200px The Askeran fortress (File:Askeran fort.JPG), built by the Karabakh Khanate ruler Panah Ali Khan in the 18th century In the early 16th century, after the fall of the Ak Koyunlu state, control of the region passed to the Safavid dynasty, which created the Karabakh Beylerbeylik. Despite these conquests, the population of Upper Karabakh remained largely Armenian. Cornell, Svante E. Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
: books.google.com books?id EF_4AQeOltUC&pg PA267&dq farah+safavid&lr &cd 6#v onepage&q farah%20safavid&f false The Cambridge history of Iran . Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-20094-6, 9780521200943 Regarding the tradition of Persian love poetry during the Safavid (Safavid dynasty) era, Persian historian Ehsan Yarshater notes, "As a rule, the beloved is not a woman, but a young man. In the early centuries of Islam, the raids
identified with a figure in the Quran ), Consultation de la base des clichés Daguerre became common in painted manuscripts from Persia, India and Turkey. Extreme rarities are an illustrated Qur'an depicting Muhammad Qur'an, manuscript copied by al-Hājj Hāfiż Ibrāhīm al-Fihmī, Ottoman Empire, 1232 AH 1816 AD. Possession of John W. Robertson, San Francisco, Ca., USA. Illustrations published
The '''Safavid dynasty''' ( The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the so-called gunpowder empires (Gunpowder Empires), one that had neither the power, weath nor longevity of the empires of the Ottoman (its rival) nor the Mughal (its occasional ally). Streusand, Douglas E., ''Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals'' (Boulder, Col : Westview Press, 2011) ("Streusand"), p. 135. But they ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia Helen Chapin Metz. ''Iran, a Country study''. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313. Emory C. Bogle. ''Islam: Origin and Belief''. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77. Andrew J. Newman, ''Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire'', IB Tauris (March 30, 2006). and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam (Imamah (Shi'a Twelver doctrine)) RM Savory, ''Safavids'', ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', 2nd ed. as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history.
The empire presided over by the Safavids was not a revival of the Achaemenids or the Sasanians, and it more resembled the Ilkhanate and Timurid (Timurid dynasty) empires than the Islamic caliphate. Nor was it a direct precursor to the modern Iranian state. According to Donald Struesand, " a lthough the Safavid unification of the eastern and western halves of the Iranian plateau and imposition of Twelver Shii Islam on the region created a recognizable precursor of modern Iran, the Safavid polity itself was neither distinctively Iranian nor national." Streusand, p. 137. Rudolph Matthee concluded that " t hough not a nation-state, Safavid Iran contained the elements that would later spawn one by generating many enduring bureaucratic features and by initiating a polity of overlapping religious and territorial boundaries." Rudolph P. Matthee, ''The Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 1600-1730'' (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 231.
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Armenia, most of Georgia (Georgia (country)), the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Unlike the Ottomans and the Mughals, the Safavids did not gradually extend their territory over successive generations. Rather, in an initial burst of religion-infused enthusiasm ("a blend of ''ghuluww (Ghulat)'', Turko-Mongol conceptions of kingship, and the folk Sufism of the Turkmen" Struesand, p. 135. ), they reached their geographical apogee almost immediately, soon lost large chunks of territory, mostly to the Ottomans, and spent much of their history contesting that loss and protecting against further territorial constriction, until they rather suddenly succumbed to rapid collapse in 1722. Struesand, p. 136.
The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order (sufism), which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan (Iran)) region. It was of mixed ancestry (Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani people), "Peoples of Iran" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. RN Frye. Kurdish (Kurdish people), RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' Persian (Persian people), Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil İnalcık: ''History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century'', Taylor & Francis. 1999, p. 259. and Turkmen (Turkmen people) Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p.321 which included intermarriages with Georgian (Georgians), Aptin Khanbaghi (2006) ''The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early''. London & New York. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-056-0, pp. 130-1 Circassian (Circassians), ''Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire'', L.B. Tauris. 2006, p. 41. Rudolph (Rudi) Matthee ''Encyclopaedia Iranica'', Columbia University, New York 2001, p.493 and Pontic Greeks Pontic Greek Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", ''Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29'' (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond" dignitaries). From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over all of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity (culture of Iran) of the region, ''Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties?'' RM Savory, ''Iran under the Safavids'' (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), p. 3. thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a unified Iranian state. Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations".
Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Persia as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Shi'a Islam (Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism) in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Central Asia, and South Asia.