was personal tragedy for Shah Abbas. When he died on 19 January 1629, he had no son capable of succeeding him. ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', "Abbas I the Great", p. 75. The beginning of the 17th century saw the power of the Qizilbash decline, the original militia that had helped Ismail I capture Tabriz and which had gained many administrative powers over the centuries. Power was fully shifting to the new class of Caucasian deportees, many of the hundred thousands ethnic
and Georgian) came to occupy prominent positions in the harems of the Safavid elite, particularly the Shah's, while the men were given special training, on completion of which they were either enrolled in one of the newly created ''ghulam'' regiments, or employed in the royal household. Blow, D; Shah Abbas: The ruthless king who became an Iranian legend, p. 9. His successor Ismail II brought another 30,000 Circassians and Georgians to Iran of which
"checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Shi'a Islam (Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism) in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Central Asia, and South Asia. Genealogy—The ancestors of the Safavids and its multi-cultural identity Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
: www.iranchamber.com history safavids safavids.php History of the Safavids on Iran Chamber *"Safavid dynasty", ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' by Rudi Matthee * The History Files: Rulers of Persia *BBC History of Religion *Iranian culture and history site * http
book last Price first Massoume authorlink year 2005 title Iran's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook publisher ABC-CLIO isbn 978-1-57607-993-5 url http: books.google.com books?id gzpdq679oJwC&pg PA66 page 66 quote ''The Shah was a native Turkic speaker and wrote poetry in the Azerbaijani language.'' religion Twelver Shia Islam a currency Tuman, Abbasi, Shahi
they were Turkish-speaking and Turkified. " and some of the Shahs composed poems in their native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand ''Shahnama'' of Shah Tahmasp (Tahmasp I), John L. Esposito, ''The Oxford History of Islam'', Oxford University Press US, 1999. pp 364: "To support their legitimacy, the Safavid dynasty of Iran (1501-1732) devoted a cultural policy
on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions." while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well. Colin P. Mitchell, "Ṭahmāsp I" in ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. "Shah Ṭahmāsp's own brother, Sām Mirzā, wrote the Taḏkera-yetoḥfa-ye sāmi, in which he mentioned 700 poets during the reigns of the first two Safavid
of their distinct red headgear. The Qizilbash were warriors, spiritual followers of Haydar, and a source of the Safavid military and political power. After the death of Haydar, the Safaviyya gathered around his son Ali Mirza Safavi, who was also pursued and subsequently killed by Ya'qub. According to official Safavid history, before passing away, Ali had designated his young brother Ismail as the spiritual leader of the Safaviyya. History Founding of the dynasty by Shāh Ismāil I (''r.'' 1501–24) Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
'', Phoenix Press, 2000, p. 234 Medicine thumb A Latin language Latin (Image:Canons of medicine.JPG) copy
religious leaders and granted them land and money in return for loyalty. Later, during the Safavid and especially Qajar (Qajar dynasty) period, the Shia Ulema's power increased and they were able to exercise a role, independent of or compatible with the government. Iran became a feudal theocracy: the Shah was held to be the divinely ordained head of state and religion. In the following centuries, this religious stance cemented both Iran's internal cohesion and national feelings and provoked attacks by its Sunni neighbors. Military and the role of Qizilbash Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
and they refuse nothing which contributes to it, having no anxiety about the future which they leave to providence and fate. But as he also experienced: Ferrier, p. 111. Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
is the epitome of 16th-century Iranian architecture. (Persian architecture) . Culture within the Safavid family The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin. There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani language) pen-name of Khatai. Sam Mirza, the son of Shah Esmail as well as some later authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived. A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan. Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was also a painter, while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Azerbaijani verses. E. Yarshater, Language of Azerbaijan, vii., Persian language of Azerbaijan", ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', v, pp. 238–45, Online edition. Sam Mirza, the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian. He also compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry. Emeri "van" Donzel, ''Islamic Desk Reference'', Brill Academic Publishers, 1994, p. 393. Culture within the empire Shah Abbas I recognized the commercial benefit of promoting the arts—artisan products provided much of Iran's foreign trade. In this period, handicrafts such as tile making, pottery and textiles developed and great advances were made in miniature painting, bookbinding, decoration and calligraphy. In the 16th century, carpet weaving evolved from a nomadic and peasant craft to a well-executed industry with specialization of design and manufacturing. Tabriz was the center of this industry. The carpets of Ardabil (Ardabil Carpet) were commissioned to commemorate the Safavid dynasty. The elegantly baroque yet famously 'Polonaise' carpets were made in Iran during the 17th century. thumb left 19th-century painting of the Chahar Bagh School (File:Chahar bagh school drawing.jpg) in Isfahan Using traditional forms and materials, Reza Abbasi (1565–1635) introduced new subjects to Persian painting—semi-nude women, youth, lovers. His painting and calligraphic style influenced Iranian artists for much of the Safavid period, which came to be known as the Isfahan school. Increased contact with distant cultures in the 17th century, especially Europe, provided a boost of inspiration to Iranian artists who adopted modeling, foreshortening, spatial recession, and the medium of oil painting (Shah Abbas II sent Muhammad Zaman to study in Rome). The epic ''Shahnameh'' ("Book of Kings"), a stellar example of manuscript illumination and calligraphy, was made during Shah Tahmasp's reign. (This book was written by Ferdousi in 1000 AD for Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi) Another manuscript is the Khamsa (Khamsa of Nizami (British Library, Or. 12208)) by Nizami (Nizami Ganjavi) executed 1539-43 by Aqa Mirak and his school in Isfahan. Isfahan (Isfahan (city)) bears the most prominent samples of the Safavid architecture, all constructed in the years after Shah Abbas I permanently moved the capital there in 1598: the Imperial Mosque, Masjid-e Shah (Shah Mosque), completed in 1630, the Imam Mosque (Masjid-e Imami) the Lutfallah Mosque (Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque) and the Royal Palace. thumb upright The battle between Shah Ismail and Muhammad Shaybani (File:The Battle between Shah Ismail and Shaybani Khan.jpg), the khan of the Uzbeks. According to William Cleveland and Martin Bunton, William L. Cleveland and Martin P. Bunton, ''A History of the Modern Middle East'' (Westview Press, 2000), 2nd ed., pp. 56-57. the establishment of Isfahan as the Great capital of Persia and the material splendor of the city attracted intellecutal's from all corners of the world, which contributed to the cities rich cultural life. The impressive achievements of its 400,000 residents prompted the inhabitants to coin their famous boast, "Isfahan is half the world". Poetry stagnated under the Safavids; the great medieval ghazal form languished in over-the-top lyricism. Poetry lacked the royal patronage of other arts and was hemmed in by religious prescriptions. The arguably most renowned historian from this time was Iskandar Beg Munshi. His ''History of Shah Abbas the Great'' written a few years after its subject's death, achieved a nuanced depth of history and character. The Isfahan School—Islamic philosophy revived Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
The '''Safavid dynasty''' ( The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the so-called gunpowder empires (Gunpowder Empires), one that had neither the power, weath nor longevity of the empires of the Ottoman (its rival) nor the Mughal (its occasional ally). Streusand, Douglas E., ''Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals'' (Boulder, Col : Westview Press, 2011) ("Streusand"), p. 135. But they ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia Helen Chapin Metz. ''Iran, a Country study''. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313. Emory C. Bogle. ''Islam: Origin and Belief''. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77. Andrew J. Newman, ''Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire'', IB Tauris (March 30, 2006). and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam (Imamah (Shi'a Twelver doctrine)) RM Savory, ''Safavids'', ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', 2nd ed. as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history.
The empire presided over by the Safavids was not a revival of the Achaemenids or the Sasanians, and it more resembled the Ilkhanate and Timurid (Timurid dynasty) empires than the Islamic caliphate. Nor was it a direct precursor to the modern Iranian state. According to Donald Struesand, " a lthough the Safavid unification of the eastern and western halves of the Iranian plateau and imposition of Twelver Shii Islam on the region created a recognizable precursor of modern Iran, the Safavid polity itself was neither distinctively Iranian nor national." Streusand, p. 137. Rudolph Matthee concluded that " t hough not a nation-state, Safavid Iran contained the elements that would later spawn one by generating many enduring bureaucratic features and by initiating a polity of overlapping religious and territorial boundaries." Rudolph P. Matthee, ''The Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 1600-1730'' (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 231.
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Armenia, most of Georgia (Georgia (country)), the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Unlike the Ottomans and the Mughals, the Safavids did not gradually extend their territory over successive generations. Rather, in an initial burst of religion-infused enthusiasm ("a blend of ''ghuluww (Ghulat)'', Turko-Mongol conceptions of kingship, and the folk Sufism of the Turkmen" Struesand, p. 135. ), they reached their geographical apogee almost immediately, soon lost large chunks of territory, mostly to the Ottomans, and spent much of their history contesting that loss and protecting against further territorial constriction, until they rather suddenly succumbed to rapid collapse in 1722. Struesand, p. 136.
The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order (sufism), which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan (Iran)) region. It was of mixed ancestry (Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani people), "Peoples of Iran" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. RN Frye. Kurdish (Kurdish people), RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' Persian (Persian people), Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil İnalcık: ''History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century'', Taylor & Francis. 1999, p. 259. and Turkmen (Turkmen people) Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p.321 which included intermarriages with Georgian (Georgians), Aptin Khanbaghi (2006) ''The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early''. London & New York. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-056-0, pp. 130-1 Circassian (Circassians), ''Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire'', L.B. Tauris. 2006, p. 41. Rudolph (Rudi) Matthee ''Encyclopaedia Iranica'', Columbia University, New York 2001, p.493 and Pontic Greeks Pontic Greek Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", ''Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29'' (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond" dignitaries). From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over all of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity (culture of Iran) of the region, ''Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties?'' RM Savory, ''Iran under the Safavids'' (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), p. 3. thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a unified Iranian state. Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations".
Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Persia as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Shi'a Islam (Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism) in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Central Asia, and South Asia.