ghazal form languished in over-the-top lyricism. Poetry lacked the royal patronage of other arts and was hemmed in by religious prescriptions. The arguably most renowned historian from this time was Iskandar Beg Munshi. His ''History of Shah Abbas the Great'' written a few years after its subject's death, achieved a nuanced depth of history and character. The Isfahan School—Islamic philosophy revived
in Persia. And his power reached its peak in 1598, when he became the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Savory; p. 82. Thus, this new group eventually came to constitute a powerful "third force" within the state, alongside the Persians and the Qizilbash Turks, and it only goes to prove the meritocratic society of the Safavids. It is estimated that during Abbas' reign some 130,000-200,000 Georgians, Eskandar Beg, pp. 900-901, tr. Savory, II, p. 1116<
Mingburnu Jalal ad-Din in 1226. Grousset, Rene, ''The Empire of the Steppes'', (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 260 The Mongols were expelled by George V of Georgia, son of Demetrius II of Georgia, who was named "Brilliant" for his role in restoring the country's previous strength and Christian culture. George V was the last great king of the unified Georgian state. After his death, different local rulers fought for their independence from central
” : Twelfth Night and Shakespeare's Eastern Promise, ''Shakespeare'', Volume 6, Issue 2 June 2010, pp. 209–26. Henceforward, the number of diplomatic missions to and fro greatly increased. Nahavandi, Bomati pp. 128–30. The shah had set great store on an alliance with Spain, the chief opponent of the Ottomans in Europe. Abbas offered trading rights and the chance to preach Christianity in Iran in return for help against the Ottomans. But the stumbling block of Hormuz remained, a vassal kingdom which had fallen into Spanish Habsburgs hands when the King of Spain inherited the throne of Portugal in 1580. The Spanish demanded Abbas break off relations with the English East India Company before they would consider relinquishing the town. Abbas was unable to comply. Eventually Abbas became frustrated with Spain, as he did with the Holy Roman Empire, which wanted him to make his 400,000+ Armenian (Armenians) subjects swear allegiance to the Pope but did not trouble to inform the shah when the Emperor Rudolf signed a peace treaty with the Ottomans. Contacts with the Pope, Poland and Moscow were no more fruitful. Nahavandi, Bomati, pp. 130–7. More came of Abbas' contacts with the English, although England had little interest in fighting against the Ottomans. The Sherley brothers arrived in 1598 and helped reorganise the Iranian army. The English East India Company also began to take an interest in Iran and in 1622 four of its ships helped Abbas retake Hormuz from the Portuguese in the Capture of Ormuz (1622). It was the beginning of the East India Company's long-running interest in Iran. Nahavandi, Bomati, pp. 161–2. Decline of the Safavid state Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
, and townsmen. Some had abandoned their nomadic way of life altogether. was not written earlier than the 15th century. Cemal Kafadar(1995), “in Between Two Worlds: Construction of the Ottoman states”, University of California Press, 1995. Excerpt: "It was not earlier than the fifteenth century. Based on the fact that the author is buttering up both the Akkoyunlu and Ottoman rulers, it has been suggested that the composition belongs to someone living in the undefined border region lands between the two states during the reign of Uzun Hassan (1466–78). G. Lewis on the hand dates the composition “fairly early in the 15th century at least”." İlker Evrım Bınbaş,Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Oguz Khan Narratives" Encyclopædia Iranica Articles, accessed October, 2010. "The Ketāb-e Dede Qorqut, which is a collection of twelve stories reflecting the oral traditions of the Turkmens in the 15th-century eastern Anatolia, is also called Oḡuz-nāma" It is a collection of 12 stories reflecting the oral tradition of Oghuz nomads. Since the author is buttering up both the Akkoyunlu and Ottoman rulers, it has been suggested that the composition belongs to someone living between the Akkoyunlu and Ottoman empires. The 16th century poet, Muhammed Fuzuli produced his timeless philosophical and lyrical ''Qazals'' in Arabic (Arabic language), Persian (Persian language), and Azeri (Azeri language). Benefiting immensely from the fine literary traditions of his environment, and building upon the legacy of his predecessors, Fizuli was destined to become the leading literary figure of his society. His major works include ''The Divan of Ghazals'' and ''The Qasidas''. In the same century, Azerbaijani literature further flourished with the development of Ashik ( Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
Ibrahimi'' ( Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
Sabancı Museum Web Site - Past Exhibitions - Istanbul, Isfahan, Delhi Three Capitals of Islamic Art Masterpieces from the Louvre Collection After 1335 the Ilkhanate split into several warring dynasties, all swept aside by the new invasion of Timur from 1381. He established the Timurid dynasty, bringing a fresh wave of Chinese influence, who were replaced by the Black Sheep Turkmen in 1452, followed by the White Sheep Turkmen from 1468, who were in turn replaced
?ReqStrPDFPath home1 iranica articles v3_articles azerbaijan language_azerbaijan&OptStrLogFile home iranica public_html logs pdfdownload.html Language of Azerbaijan , vii., Persian language of Azerbaijan", ''Encyclopædia Iranica'', v, pp. 238–45, Online edition. Sam Mirza, the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian. He also compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry. Emeri "van" Donzel, ''Islamic Desk Reference'', Brill
: www.metmuseum.org toah hd safa hd_safa.htm Artistic and cultural history of the Safavids from the Metropolitan Museum of Art *History of Safavid art *A Study of the Migration of Shi'i Works from Arab Regions to Iran at the Early Safavid Era. *Why is Safavid history important? (Iran Chamber Society) * http
notion of an Iranian state stretching from Khorasan (Greater Khorasan) as far as Euphrates, and from the Oxus to the southern Territories of the Persian Gulf. Hillenbrand R., ''Islamic Art and Architecture'', London (1999), ISBN 0-500-20305-9, p. 228. According to Professor Roger Savory:
The '''Safavid dynasty''' ( The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the so-called gunpowder empires (Gunpowder Empires), one that had neither the power, weath nor longevity of the empires of the Ottoman (its rival) nor the Mughal (its occasional ally). Streusand, Douglas E., ''Islamic Gunpowder Empires: Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals'' (Boulder, Col : Westview Press, 2011) ("Streusand"), p. 135. But they ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia Helen Chapin Metz. ''Iran, a Country study''. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313. Emory C. Bogle. ''Islam: Origin and Belief''. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77. Andrew J. Newman, ''Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire'', IB Tauris (March 30, 2006). and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam (Imamah (Shi'a Twelver doctrine)) RM Savory, ''Safavids'', ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', 2nd ed. as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history.
The empire presided over by the Safavids was not a revival of the Achaemenids or the Sasanians, and it more resembled the Ilkhanate and Timurid (Timurid dynasty) empires than the Islamic caliphate. Nor was it a direct precursor to the modern Iranian state. According to Donald Struesand, " a lthough the Safavid unification of the eastern and western halves of the Iranian plateau and imposition of Twelver Shii Islam on the region created a recognizable precursor of modern Iran, the Safavid polity itself was neither distinctively Iranian nor national." Streusand, p. 137. Rudolph Matthee concluded that " t hough not a nation-state, Safavid Iran contained the elements that would later spawn one by generating many enduring bureaucratic features and by initiating a polity of overlapping religious and territorial boundaries." Rudolph P. Matthee, ''The Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 1600-1730'' (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 231.
The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain and Armenia, most of Georgia (Georgia (country)), the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Unlike the Ottomans and the Mughals, the Safavids did not gradually extend their territory over successive generations. Rather, in an initial burst of religion-infused enthusiasm ("a blend of ''ghuluww (Ghulat)'', Turko-Mongol conceptions of kingship, and the folk Sufism of the Turkmen" Struesand, p. 135. ), they reached their geographical apogee almost immediately, soon lost large chunks of territory, mostly to the Ottomans, and spent much of their history contesting that loss and protecting against further territorial constriction, until they rather suddenly succumbed to rapid collapse in 1722. Struesand, p. 136.
The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safaviyya Sufi order (sufism), which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan (Iran)) region. It was of mixed ancestry (Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani people), "Peoples of Iran" ''Encyclopædia Iranica''. RN Frye. Kurdish (Kurdish people), RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. ''Encyclopædia Iranica'' Persian (Persian people), Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil İnalcık: ''History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century'', Taylor & Francis. 1999, p. 259. and Turkmen (Turkmen people) Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p.321 which included intermarriages with Georgian (Georgians), Aptin Khanbaghi (2006) ''The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early''. London & New York. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-056-0, pp. 130-1 Circassian (Circassians), ''Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire'', L.B. Tauris. 2006, p. 41. Rudolph (Rudi) Matthee ''Encyclopaedia Iranica'', Columbia University, New York 2001, p.493 and Pontic Greeks Pontic Greek Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", ''Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29'' (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond" dignitaries). From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over all of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity (culture of Iran) of the region, ''Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties?'' RM Savory, ''Iran under the Safavids'' (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), p. 3. thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a unified Iranian state. Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations".
Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Persia as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Shi'a Islam (Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism) in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Central Asia, and South Asia.