du Sud '' of Carcassonne, he had his work featured in the Surrealist press (''Discontinuité'', ''Le Phare de Neuilly'', ''Bifur''), as well as in ''Le Courrier des Poètes'', ''Le Journal des Poètes'', Romain Rolland's ''Europe (Europe (magazine))'', Paul Valéry's ''Commerce'' etc. Daniel, p. 624–625. See also: Răileanu & Carassou, p. 70, 135, 142, 159; Sitman, p. 117 In addition, Fondane's research was hosted by specialized venues
text purporting to describe a plan to achieve global domination by the Jewish people. Following its first public publication in 1903 in the Russian Empire, numerous independent investigations have repeatedly proved the writing to be a hoax; notably, a series of articles printed in ''The Times'' of London in 1921 revealed that much of the material was directly plagiarized (plagiarism) from earlier works of political satire unrelated to Jews. Nevertheless, some people
with Ems Ukaz was forced to leave the Russian Empire and emigrated to Geneva. In emigration he continued his political, scholarly and publishing activities. In 1885–95, he was a professor at the University of Sofia. Drahomanov wrote the first systematic political program for the Ukrainian national movement. He himself defined his political convictions as "ethical socialism," and was deeply impressed by socialist literature as a teenager. History In the early 17th century
life Vasili Ulrikh was born in Riga, Latvia, then a part of the Russian Empire. His father was a Latvian revolutionary of German descent, and his mother was a Russian noblewoman. Because of their open involvement in revolutionary activity, the entire family was sentenced to a five-year period of internal exile in Irkutsk, Siberia. The settlement quickly became one of the main economic centers on the Pacific coast of the Russian Empire. The main Russian Pacific
in 1917, during the October Revolution, when the provinces of the Caucasus seceded and formed their own federal state called the Transcaucasian Federation (Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic). Competing national interests and war with Turkey led to the dissolution of the republic half a year later, in April 1918. The 1830 November Uprising within Congress Poland against the Russian Empire was significantly supported
, as a part of Old Finland, to the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, created in 1809 and in a personal union with Russia. Due to its size, favorable climate, rich fishing waters and proximity to Saint Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire, the Karelian Isthmus became the wealthiest part of Finland once the industrial revolution had gained momentum in the 19th century. The railroads Saint Petersburg–Vyborg–Riihimäki (Saint Petersburg–Riihimäki railroad) (1870
an excellent record at the Soviet Championship (USSR Chess Championship); third in 1920, second in 1923, co-champion at Leningrad in 1934 (tied with Ilya Rabinovich at 12 19), and outright champion at Tbilisi in 1937 with 12.5 19. left thumb Levenfish (left) takes on Botvinnik (right) in their 1937 match (Image:Botwinnik-Levenfish 1937.jpg) '''Andrievs Niedra''' (archaic spelling: ''Andreews Needra''; born 8 February 1871 in Tirza parish, Russian Empire – 25 September 1942
population of the USSR were officially counted as ''lishenets'', disenfranchised people. Significant part of the population of ''schtetls'' (a small town with a large Jewish population in Central and Eastern Europe until the Holocaust), in former Pale of Settlement moved to big cities. During the final decades of the Russian Empire the port city of Baku became a large metropolis due to the discovery of Oil in the Caspian Sea. By the 1930s, it was the capital
an early ability in music, and began private piano lessons with August Freyer Culture.pl Stanisław Moniuszko in 1827. In 1837, once his talent and interest justified it, Moniuszko began to formally study composition (musical composition) in Berlin with Karl Friedrich Rungenhagen, the director of the "Singakademie" Music Society, ref name "pmic">
. Moreover, a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system (Jury trial) and—so far as one order of tribunal was concerned—the election of judges. The establishment of a judicial system on these principles constituted a major change in the conception of the Russian state, which, by placing the administration of justice outside the sphere of the executive power, ceased to be a despotism. This fact made the system especially obnoxious to the bureaucracy, and during
religion Official Russian Orthodox (Russian Orthodox Church) header Minority content government_type Autocracy (Tsarist autocracy) title_leader Emperor (Emperor of Russia) leader1 Peter I (Peter the Great) year_leader1 leader2 Nicholas II (Nicholas II of Russia) year_leader2 title_deputy deputy1 Sergei Witte year_deputy1 deputy2 Nikolai Golitsyn year_deputy2 1917 legislature Emperor (Emperor of Russia) exercises legislative power in conjunction with the house1 State Council (State Council of Imperial Russia) house2 State Duma (State Duma of the Russian Empire) event_pre Accession of Peter I (Peter the Great) date_pre event_start Empire proclaimed date_start event1 Decembrist revolt date_event1 event2 date_event2 event3 1905 Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1905) date_event3 Jan–Dec 1905 event4 date_event4 event_end February Revolution date_end event_post October Revolution date_post stat_year1 1866 stat_area1 22800000 stat_year2 1916 stat_area2 21799825 stat_year3 1916 stat_area3 stat_pop3 181,537,800 currency Ruble (Russian ruble) p1 Tsardom of Russia flag_p1 Flag of Oryol (variant).svg s1 Russian Republic flag_s1 Flag of Russia.svg s2 Ober Ost flag_s2 Flag of the German Empire.svg s3 Karafuto Prefecture flag_s3 Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg s4 Department of Alaska flag_s4 US flag 48 stars.svg s5 Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus flag_s5 Flag of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.svg s6 State of Buryat-Mongolia flag_s6 Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg today header content footnotes b. '''^ (#infob)''' Renamed Petrograd in 1914.
The '''Russian Empire''' (Pre-reform Russian orthography (Reforms of Russian orthography): Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian (Russian language): Российская империя, translit (Romanization of Russian): ''Rossiyskaya Imperiya'') was a state (Sovereign state) that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917 (February Revolution). . Swain says, "The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals." One of the largest empires (List of largest empires) in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British (British Empire) and Mongol (Mongol Empire) empires. It played a major role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe, and expanded to the west and south. It was often in conflict with the Ottoman Empire (which in turn was usually protected by the British).
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. In pictures: Russian Empire in colour photos, BBC News Magazine, March 2012. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census (Russian Empire Census), it had the third largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China (Qing Dynasty) and the British Empire. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, and religion. There were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire was heavily rural, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, until they were freed in 1861. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility called Boyars from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and then was ruled by an emperor called the "Tsar" (Emperor of All Russia). Tsar Ivan III (Ivan III of Russia) (1462–1505) laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and built a huge empire that became a major European power. He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, and led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.
Catherine the Great (1761–1796) presided over a golden age. She expanded the nation rapidly by conquest, colonization and diplomacy. She continued Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II (Alexander II of Russia) (1855–1881) promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe was to protect the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That involvement by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War (World War I) on the side of Serbia and the Allies, and against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. Russia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolution of 1905 and then became a constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 (February Revolution), the result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War.