Asian newspapers, including ''Pravda Vostoka'' in Tashkent. He achieved prominence as a talented reporter and was invited to move to Moscow to work for the ''Izvestia''. From there, he covered the massive Soviet construction and heavy industry-building campaigns and became a prominent propagandist, such as the White Sea – Baltic Canal, Uralmash, etc. He also wrote movie scripts and radio plays, and El-Registan is perhaps better known for his script of the Soviet film
in 1775. By the end of the 18th century, Cossacks were transformed into a special social estate (Sosloviye); they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders (as was in the case in the Caucasus War) and regularly supplied men to conflicts such as the numerous Russo-Turkish Wars. In return, they enjoyed vast social autonomy. This caused them to form a stereotypical portrayal of 19th century Russian Empire abroad and her government domestically. File:Surikov
by the Allies (Allies of World War I) ''(green)'' and Central Powers ''(orange)'', ended the German (German Empire), Austro-Hungarian (Austro-Hungary), Russian (Russian Empire) and Ottoman Empires. The 20th century
in the East, which were controlled by the Bolsheviks at the time of the elections, while the National Democrats' electoral support lay in central and western Poland. The peace negotiations were of a political nature. National Democrats, like Stanisław Grabski, who earlier had resigned his post to protest the Polish–Ukrainian alliance ref name "Snyder" >
Ehrenburg was born in Kiev, Russian Empire to a Jewish family; his father was an engineer. Ehrenburg's family was not religiously affiliated; he came into contact with the religious practices of Judaism only through his maternal grandfather. Ehrenburg never joined any religious denomination, in spite of his later flirtation with Catholicism. He learned no Yiddish, and understood himself as a Russian, and later as a Soviet citizen, while taking strong public positions against
, while Nicholas was visiting Japan during his eastern journey (Eastern journey of Nicholas II). Background Before opening ceremonies in Vladivostok marking the start of construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad, Tsarevich Nicholas made an official visit to Japan. The Russian Pacific Fleet with the Tsarevich first called on Kagoshima (Kagoshima, Kagoshima), then Nagasaki (Nagasaki, Nagasaki), and then Kobe. From Kobe, the Tsarevich journeyed overland to Kyoto, where he was met by a delegation headed by Prince Arisugawa Taruhito. As this was the first visit by such an important foreign prince to Japan since those of Prince Heinrich of Prussia in 1880 and two British princes in HMS ''Bacchante'' (HMS Bacchante (1876)) in 1881, and as the military influence of the Russian Empire was growing rapidly in the far east, the Japanese government placed heavy emphasis on using this visit to foster better Russo-Japanese relations (Empire of Japan – Russian Empire relations). Nicholas showed interest in the Japanese traditional crafts, got a a dragon tattoo on his right arm, Keene, ''Emperor of Japan, Meiji and His World'', pp.446. Nikolai had read Pierre Loti's ''Madame Butterfly'' before arriving in Nagasaki, and in imitation of Loti had a dragon tattooed on his right arm on May 4 in a painful operation that took 7 hours, from 9 PM to 4 AM. and bought an ornamental hairpin (Kanzashi) for a Japanese girl who happened to be near him. right 225px thumb To contribute to the emergence of a society in which development will supplant stagnation, in which growth will take the place of decay, and in which culture will put an end to barbarism is the noblest, and, indeed, the only true function of intellectual endeavor. (File:Wheat close-up.JPG) '''Paul Alexander Baran (w:Paul Alexander Baran)''' (25 August 1909, Mykolaiv (w:Mykolaiv),Russian Empire (w:Russian Empire), today Ukraine (w:Ukraine) – 26 March 1964, Palo Alto (w:Palo Alto, California), USA (w:United States of America)) was an American economist (w:economics) known for his Marxist (w:Marxist) views. In 1951 Baran was promoted to full professor at Stanford University (w:Stanford University) and Baran was the only tenured Marxian economist (w:Marxian economist) in the United States until his death in 1964. right thumb w:Mark Kac Mark Kac (File:Mark Kac.jpg) Where there is independence there must be the normal law. '''Mark Kac (w:Mark Kac)''' (pronounced ''kahts'', Polish (w:Polish Language): ''Marek Kac'', b. 3 August 1914, Krzemieniec (w:Krzemieniec), Russian Empire (w:Russian Empire), now in Ukraine (w:Ukraine); d. 26 October 1984, California (w:California), USA (w:USA)) was a Polish (w:Poles) mathematician. Kac completed his Ph.D. in mathematics at the Polish University of Lwów (w:University of Lwów) in 1937 under the direction of Hugo Steinhaus (w:Hugo Steinhaus).
sdr12gun.htm William Johnson, "The Sultan's Big Guns." ''Dragoman'', vol.1, no.2 In 1758 the Russian Empire introduced a specific type of howitzer (or rather gun-howitzer), with a conical chamber, called a licorne, which remained in service for the next 100 years.
in Afghanistan as early as their 1809 treaty with Shuja Shah Durrani. It was the threat of the expanding Russian Empire beginning to push for an advantage in the Afghanistan region that placed pressure on British India, in what became known as the "Great Game". The Great Game set in motion the confrontation of the British and Russian empires, whose spheres of influence moved steadily closer to one another until they met in Afghanistan. It also involved Britain's repeated attempts to impose
v. 1.0 publisher Koninklijke Brill NV location Leiden, The Netherlands year 1999 The capital of Afghanistan was shifted in 1776 from Kandahar to Kabul and part of the Afghan Empire (Durrani Empire) was ceded to neighboring empires by 1893. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game (The Great Game)" between the British (British Raj) and Russian (Russian Empire) empires.
;ref name RG78 Gardiner, p. 78 (#Reference-Gardiner) During the 19th century, Britain and Russia (Russian Empire) vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining Ottoman (Ottoman Empire), Persian (Qajar dynasty) and Qing Chinese (Qing Dynasty) empires. This rivalry in Eurasia came to be known as the "Great Game (The Great Game)". Hopkirk (#refHopkirk1992), pp. 1–12. As far as Britain
as a city-state where a ruthless oligarchy wears the mask of the "serene republic". ''Kim (Kim (novel))'' (1901) by Rudyard Kipling concerns the Anglo (British Empire)–Russian (Russian Empire) Great Game (The Great Game) of imperial and geopolitical (geopolitics) rivalry and strategic warfare for supremacy in Central Asia, usually in Afghanistan. In Continental Europe, ''The Scarlet Pimpernel'' (1905) by Baroness Orczy chronicled an English
Kara Papaks (Karapapak), from wearing black sheep-skin caps." Lt-Gen. William Monteith, Kars and Erzeroum: With the Campaigns of Prince Paskiewitch, in 1828 and 1829; and an Account of the conquests of Russia beyond the Caucasus, from the time of Peter the Great to the Treaty of Turcoman Chie and Adrianople, London: Longman, 1856, p. 60 Until the devastating earthquake of 1859 (1859 Shamakhi earthquake), Shamakhi was the capital of the Baku Governorate
religion Official Russian Orthodox (Russian Orthodox Church) header Minority content government_type Autocracy (Tsarist autocracy) title_leader Emperor (Emperor of Russia) leader1 Peter I (Peter the Great) year_leader1 leader2 Nicholas II (Nicholas II of Russia) year_leader2 title_deputy deputy1 Sergei Witte year_deputy1 deputy2 Nikolai Golitsyn year_deputy2 1917 legislature Emperor (Emperor of Russia) exercises legislative power in conjunction with the house1 State Council (State Council of Imperial Russia) house2 State Duma (State Duma of the Russian Empire) event_pre Accession of Peter I (Peter the Great) date_pre event_start Empire proclaimed date_start event1 Decembrist revolt date_event1 event2 date_event2 event3 1905 Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1905) date_event3 Jan–Dec 1905 event4 date_event4 event_end February Revolution date_end event_post October Revolution date_post stat_year1 1866 stat_area1 22800000 stat_year2 1916 stat_area2 21799825 stat_year3 1916 stat_area3 stat_pop3 181,537,800 currency Ruble (Russian ruble) p1 Tsardom of Russia flag_p1 Flag of Oryol (variant).svg s1 Russian Republic flag_s1 Flag of Russia.svg s2 Ober Ost flag_s2 Flag of the German Empire.svg s3 Karafuto Prefecture flag_s3 Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg s4 Department of Alaska flag_s4 US flag 48 stars.svg s5 Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus flag_s5 Flag of the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.svg s6 State of Buryat-Mongolia flag_s6 Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg today header content footnotes b. '''^ (#infob)''' Renamed Petrograd in 1914.
The '''Russian Empire''' (Pre-reform Russian orthography (Reforms of Russian orthography): Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian (Russian language): Российская империя, translit (Romanization of Russian): ''Rossiyskaya Imperiya'') was a state (Sovereign state) that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917 (February Revolution). . Swain says, "The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals." One of the largest empires (List of largest empires) in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British (British Empire) and Mongol (Mongol Empire) empires. It played a major role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe, and expanded to the west and south. It was often in conflict with the Ottoman Empire (which in turn was usually protected by the British).
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea on the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. In pictures: Russian Empire in colour photos, BBC News Magazine, March 2012. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census (Russian Empire Census), it had the third largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China (Qing Dynasty) and the British Empire. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, ethnicity, and religion. There were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire was heavily rural, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, until they were freed in 1861. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility called Boyars from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and then was ruled by an emperor called the "Tsar" (Emperor of All Russia). Tsar Ivan III (Ivan III of Russia) (1462–1505) laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and built a huge empire that became a major European power. He moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, and led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.
Catherine the Great (1761–1796) presided over a golden age. She expanded the nation rapidly by conquest, colonization and diplomacy. She continued Peter the Great's policy of modernisation along West European lines. Tsar Alexander II (Alexander II of Russia) (1855–1881) promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe was to protect the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That involvement by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War (World War I) on the side of Serbia and the Allies, and against the German, Austrian and Ottoman empires. Russia was an absolute monarchy until the Revolution of 1905 and then became a constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 (February Revolution), the result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War.