, standalone food shops, kiosks and food markets are famous for selling food of bad quality, including out-of-date or even out-of-date with expire date reprinted with a later date. Although most of them are quite good, when possible, check the quality of the food with visual observation, don't especially trust expire date labels, that are added in a replaceable way. Also you can take note of what others are buying, sometimes you can even ask other buyers which product is better, it's considered normal. That could help you make a good choice. Examples of usually bad quality food sold are most of fish products, including smoked and spicy salted (be especially care), pre-made salads, fresh vegetables and fruits, when you can't handpick them (at markets check them after shop-women picked them for you, you can usually change those you don't like, at shops they usually don't allow to change, and use to add some bad ones into bag), vegetables conservatives sold with discount (and with older production date usually), cheaper dairy products, though less consistent, checking what others buy may help you here. Since 2008, producers of juices can not mark their production as ''juice'' (rus: сок) if it isn't 100% juice. Today, all low quality juices marked as nectar (rus: нектар) are up to 50-70% of water and "fruit drinks" (rus: фруктовый напиток) can contain anything! Russia's '''HIV''' prevalence is steadily rising, mainly for prostitutes, young adults and drug users. Be safe. Respect thumbnail Orthodox Christianity is the religion with most followers in Russia (File:Icon Kazan cathedral.JPG) Russians are reserved and well-mannered people. Gestures Smiling in Russia is traditionally reserved for friends, and smiling at a stranger may make them self-conscious. Smile at a Russian in the street and most likely they will not respond in kind. An automatic Western smile is widely regarded as insincere. While that tradition is slowly changing as Russia smiling is still very rare in customer service. Sales assistants, public servants and the like are expected to look serious and businesslike. Hence the very common misconception about Russians that they are a very grim folk and never smile — they do, once they get to know you, and become very welcoming and kind. When approaching a stranger with a question, attempt to use Russian at first and ask if they speak English, Russians are very proud of their language and people will be noticeably more aloof if you approach them speaking English. Even just using the Russian equivalents of 'please' and 'thank you' will make a noticeable difference to people. Women are traditionally treated with chivalry. Female travellers should not act surprised or indignant when their Russian male friends pay their bills at restaurants, open every door in front of them, offer their hand to help them climb down that little step or help them carry anything heavier than a handbag — this is not intended as condescending. Male travellers should understand that this will be expected of them by Russian women too. The "OK" gesture is okay. Inside voices thumb 350px Fortress Oreshek on Lake Ladoga - no longer necessary for defense against the Swedish navy. (Image:Fortress Oreshek.jpg) Russians have a marvelously and intimately quiet way of speaking with one another in public. It's best to try and follow suit to avoid standing out like a sore thumb and generally making everyone around you really uncomfortable—stand a little closer to your interlocutor and ease up on the volume. Sensitive Issues A lot of respect is required when it comes to talking about World War II and the Soviet Union. That conflict was a major tragedy for Soviets and every family has at least one relative among the 25-30 million people who died—way above all of Western Europe and America combined—and the scars of that conflict are still felt today. Avoid discussing relations with the Georgians. Talking about this subject can lead to hostility and maybe even fierce debates. Tense relations between the two countries have led to many conflicts, most notably the 2008 South Ossetia war. Antipathy towards Georgians is still high. Homosexuality. Political Issues Likewise, '''keep your political opinions to yourself'''. Ask as many questions as you like, but avoid making statements or comments about its past and current political situation. Russia and the Soviet Union had an often violent history and most Russian people are tired of hearing "how bad the Soviet Union was" from western people. They lived it, are proud of both its triumphs and tragedies, and they probably know much more about it than you. Also avoid criticising the conflict in Chechnya. The war in the Chechen republic was horrific for both sides. The separatist forces are regarded as Islamist terrorists after mass terrorist attacks in 2000-2005. Political opinions in Russia are very polarized and political discussion is always very tough. Better to avoid it? Home Etiquette *'''If you're invited into someone's home, bring them a small gift as a form of respect'''. However, most will end up protesting when offered a gift. Reply that it is a little something and offer the gift again and it will generally be accepted, hopefully. It is reasonable to bring a bottle of alcohol if you expect to spend the evening in a less formal way. * '''If you bring flowers, do not give yellow ones''' — in Russia, this color is considered as a sign of cheating in love and separation and especially never used for wedding bouquets. The other superstition is related to the number of flowers. This quantity must always be odd that is 3, 5, 7 and so on. An even number of flowers is always brought to funerals. *''' Do not give a baby gift until after the baby is born to a particular family.''' It is bad luck to do so sooner. Verbal congratulations before a person's birthday is often thought as a bad sign. thumb 350px Church on the Blood, Yekaterinburg (File:Church on Blood.jpg), on the spot where Tsar Nicholas II and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks, ending the Romanov Dynasty * '''When arriving at someone's house, remove your outdoor shoes.''' You may be given slippers to wear. * '''In someone's house''', Dress in formal clothes. Dressing well shows respect for your hosts. However, this rule may not work among young people. Dining Etiquette *'''When having food with hosts, Do not get up until you are invited to leave the table.''' This is not considered polite. *'''The hosts might get quite persistent when offering an alcoholic drink.''' You will often have to be very firm if you want to reject that 2nd (or the 3rd, 4th, 10th...) shot. Claiming problems with medicine or pregnancy is always an imperfect option. Simply and grimly stating that you are an alcoholic can do the job too, but will depress your hosts. * '''You will often be urged to take second helpings ad infinitum.''' If so, take it as a form of respect. Moreover, they really will love you if you keep eating. * '''Do not rest your elbows on the table.''' This is considered rude (for kids). Other etiquette *When traveling by train, you should share your food with others near by, since then you will be viewed as polite. Connect Internet As of 2014, the Russian government is moving to restrict access to public wi-fi on the grounds that the Internet is "a CIA project" and laws requiring identity documents from anyone attempting to access the network are needed to fight "extremism" and "terrorism." This appears to be part of a larger crackdown on Russia's Internet and free expression in general. Phones The country code for Russia (and Kazakhstan as a former member of the former Soviet Union), is '''7'''. Russian phone numbers have an area code with three, four or five digits (according to their province), followed by an individual number with, respectively, 7, 6 or 5 digits, always yielding 10 digits in total. The three digit code 800 is used for toll-free calls. Mobile phones always have three-digit "area" codes and seven-digit numbers. Calls within any one area code may omit the area code (except in Moscow). Inter-area code calls within Russia: '''8''' (wait for tone) '''full Russian number including area code'''. The international access code for dialling ''out from'' Russia is the sequence of '''8''' (wait for secondary tone and then) '''10''' International calls ''to'' Russia, as always, replace the plus sign (+) in the international phone format with the local international access code for the country you're calling from, followed by Russia's country code of 7 followed by the individual Russian phone number including area code. Cope Russia had a three-year experiment with Daylight Saving Time which ended in 2014. At that time, they also switched to spanning eleven time zones. Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
price content Also one of more expensive ones. * *'''Auchan''' (''Ашан'') and '''Atack'' (''Атак'') are the same brand, small local shops are called Atack, while hypermarkets - Auchan. One of the cheapest, notorious for occasional selling out
with Russia was allowed to expire in 1890, despite Russian requests to renew it. After extensive negotiations, the Franco-Russian alliance was drafted August 17, 1892. It became final on January 4, 1894. The alliance was to remain in place as long as the Triple Alliance (Triple Alliance (1882)) existed. thumb right 300px Soviet postage stamp depicting traditional musical instruments of Belarus (File:1989 CPA 6115.jpg) Belarus is an Eastern European country with a rich
with tempera paints on varnished articles made of papier-mâché (small boxes, cigarette and powder cases etc.). Germany Marko Schulze Manfred Kurzer Michael Jakosits
of the European and African mainlands, but also includes a small portion of northeast Greenland (typically reckoned as part of North America) and excludes more of eastern Russia and Oceania (e.g., New Zealand). Prior to the global adoption of Standard Time, numerous Prime Meridians were decreed by various countries where time was defined by local noon (thereby, local meridian). First game ( Vienna
. He also gained fame for his satirical works, published under his own name (''History of the Russian State from Gostomysl to Timashev'', ''The Dream of Councillor Popov'') and under the collaborational pen name of Kozma Prutkov.
Petersburg and appeared on national TV before an estimated 50 million viewers, as well as being feted in the Russian edition of ''Rolling Stone''. He's played with ''The Golem'' solo all over the world since the live debut of the duet score he and keyboardist Walter Horn wrote for the movie in 1989 at the BAM (Brooklyn Academy of Music) Next Wave Festival—including performing at the Venice Biennale, London's Royal Festival Hall, the New York Jewish Film Festival at Lincoln Center, as part of a week long artist-in-residency at the Quebec City Summer Festival, at the ''Alien'' artist H. R. Giger's Retrospective in Prague (home of the Golem) this spring, at Atlanta's Dragon Con, the largest science fiction festival in the world, and at this year's fifth annual Pop Montreal music and film festival. Based on distance calculations to the extreme points of Europe (Franz Josef Land in the Northeast, the border between the Russian Federation (Russia) and the states of Georgia (Georgia (country)) and Azerbaijan at the Caspian Sea in the Southeast, Crete in the South and the Azores in the Southwest) the centre of Europe will surprisingly be found in Southern Norway near Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
Language Russian ''О́рочи'') , '''Orochons''', or '''Orochis''' (self-designation: ''Nani'') are a small people '''Mansi''' (obsolete: '''Voguls''') are an endangered indigenous people living in Khanty–Mansia (Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug), an autonomous okrug within
. As a whole, ITERA has over 150 branches, representative offices, branches, and affiliated companies all over the world. Itera Group. Being a big independent player on the Russian gas market, ITERA closely teams up with the Russian gas giant Gazprom on developing infrastructure to deliver gas condensate from production sites. Itera. Up to date, gas production and distribution remains core corporate business. However, ITERA’s geographic priorities gradually switched to Russia. In the late 90s ITERA started gas business in Sverdlovsk Region (Sverdlovsk Oblast), a big industrial center and one of the broadest local energy markets of Russia, and by now it became the sole gas supplier to the territory. ITERA actively penetrates into Moscow and Perm local markets as well. Itera in 90's Gas and oil is a substantial but not unique part of ITERA's business. Since the mid-2000s ITERA is being deeply involved in civil construction (civil engineering) and industrial engineering. With its own capacities the Company successfully carried out and keeps implementing several big construction projects in Russia, Belarus and Turkmenistan. Among them are an Office Complex for an Organizing Committee of the Winter Olympic Games Sochi 2014, a skyscraper and a business center in Minsk, a big project of a country house settlement in Moscow Region, sport facilities and pipelines in Turkmenistan and Russia, and some others. Itera. Electric power is becoming another promising area for ITERA business development. The Company commenced construction of a steam-gas power cogeneration plant with a capacity of 900 mW in Nizhny Novgorod Region. Thus, the Region will receive not only electric power it needs so badly, but also additional jobs. Zabaykalsky Krai Since 2008 ITERA Group of Companies, through its subsidiary Arkticheskiye razrabotki, develops Apsatskoe mineral coal mine, one of the largest in Russia, in Zabaykalsky Krai. In mid-2010 the drilling process, aimed at prospect evaluation of potential reserves, has started. It is planned to finish undiscovered potential assessment in 2012, to enter its reserves in the state coal balance in 2016, and to start production of metallurgical coal in 2017, at the latest. The total expenditure on exploration is Rub. 700 million. Development of Apsatskoe coal mine is to boost local economy and provide necessary raw materials for metallurgical plants home and abroad. ITERA and the Community The Company’s production projects allowed to create a few thousands of new jobs in Russia, Belarus and Georgia (Georgia country). ITERA is engaged in various charity activities facilitating social programs, education, culture and sports development. In Russia ITERA is a long-term main sponsor of the Russian Cycling Federation and one of the three key sponsors (together with Gazprom and Rostechnologii) of Russian cycling teams – Katusha ProTour cycling team Katusha Team , ITERA-Katusha continental cycling team Itera-Katusha Continental and two youth cycling teams ITERA-Katusha Under 21 and ITERA-Katusha Under 23 Katusha Youth. ProTour team Katusha is one of the best world cycling teams. In 2010 it topped first in the annual world team rating, having won such prestigious cycle races like Vuelta a Espana and Vuelta Catalunya. Meanwhile, its leading rider, Joaquim Rodriguez, was the first in the final individual classification. Un ottimo 2010 per la Katusha, November 18, 2010. In 2011 Katusha performed less effectively, however, already won the top of the podium at such races like Classica Sarda and Vuelta Burgos. He received his undergraduate degree in physics in 1971 in the former Soviet Union. He later moved to the United States, where he obtained his Ph.D. at Buffalo (University at Buffalo, The State University of New York). His work has been featured in numerous newspaper and magazine articles in the United States, Europe, Russia, and Japan, and in many popular books. '''All-Russian Committee for Defence of Kuriles''' (in Russian (Russian language): ''Всероссийский комитет защиты Курил'') is an association in Russia, formed by the 1992 Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1992)) of Sergei Skvortsov to politically counter the Japanese claims to the Kuriles. It credits itself with having forced president Boris Yeltsin to cancel a trip to Japan.stellaris habitat.jpg thumb left Typical habitat of ''Saxifraga stellaris'': on wet rocks in a wet mountain flush ''Saxifraga stellaris'' has an Arctic-alpine distribution (Arctic-alpine). It is found from Baffin Island, Labrador and Greenland to Arctic Russia, including Iceland, Scandinavia and the British Isles. Commons:Category:Russia WikiPedia:Russia Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia
6296601.stm work BBC News title Europe diary: Serbian Radicals date 26 January 2007 accessdate 23 May 2010 first Mark last Mardell which, according to Šešelj, is the ''raison d'être (wikt:raison d'être)'' of the party.
'''Russia''' ( Extending across the entirety of northern Asia (North Asia) and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones (Time in Russia) and incorporates a wide range of environments (Environment of Russia) and landforms.
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. ", ''Journal of World-Systems Research'' Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219–229 (2006).
Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, Rozhnov, Konstantin, "Who won World War II?". BBC. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements (Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records) of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite (Sputnik), and the first man in space (Yuri Gagarin). Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality (the sole successor state (Succession of states)) of the Union state (Government of the Soviet Union).
The Russian economy ranks as the ninth largest (List of countries by GDP (nominal)) by nominal GDP and sixth largest (List of countries by GDP (PPP)) by purchasing power parity in 2014. GDP, PPP (current international $) Data Table Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, have made it one of the largest producers of oil (oil producer) and natural gas (natural gas producer) globally. The country is one of the five recognized (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction (Russia and weapons of mass destruction). Russia is a great power and a permanent member (Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council) of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States.