(2008) p. 819 it is coal mining which has become the single industry synonymous with Wales and its people. Initially, coal seams were exploited to provide energy for local metal industries but, with the opening of canal systems and later the railways, Welsh coal mining saw a boom in its demand. As the south Wales coalfield was exploited, mainly in the upland valleys around Aberdare and later the Rhondda, the ports of Swansea, Cardiff and later Penarth, grew into world exporters of coal and, with them, came a population boom. By its height in 1913, Wales was producing almost 61 million tons of coal. As well as in South Wales, there was also a significant coalfield in the north-east of the country, particularly around Wrexham. Before the Rhondda (w:Rhondda) Magistrates' Court (w:Magistrates' Court) Wiosna admitted breaching the noise abatement (w:noise pollution) notice (w:summons), with which he was served. He was ordered to pay a £ (w:Pound sterling)200 fine. He was also ordered to pay £50 in costs, £15 in victim surcharge, and to destroy his music collection.
and money were sought. This saw the popularity of activities such as greyhound races, cock fighting, open air handball courts (often attached to a public house), boxing booths, foot racing and rugby union. Smith (1980), p. 103 thumb 125px right Dai 'Tarw' Jones (File:Dai Tarw Jones.jpg) '''Rugby union''' During the mid-19th century the influx of immigrants from the older mining towns, such as Aberdare and Merthyr, brought
Thomas, were an important artistic movement in 20th-century Welsh art. The most notable members of the group include Ernest Zobole, a painter from Ystrad, whose expressionist work was deeply rooted in the juxtaposition of the industrialised buildings of the valleys set against the green hills that surround them. Stephens, Meic; Obituary: Ernest Zobole Independent.co.uk, 7 December 1999 Also from the Rhondda Fawr was sculptor Robert Thomas (Robert Thomas (sculptor)); Stephens, Meic; Obituary: Robert Thomas independent.co.uk, 21 May 1999 born in Cwmparc, his heavy cast statues have become icons of contemporary Wales, with five of his statues publicly displayed in the centre of Cardiff. Science and social science In sciences and social sciences the Rhondda has provided important academics within the aspects of Wales and on the World stage. Donald Davies, born in Treorchy in 1924 was the co-inventor of packet switching, a process which enabled the exchange of information between computers, a feature which enabled the Internet. Before the Rhondda (w:Rhondda) Magistrates' Court (w:Magistrates' Court) Wiosna admitted breaching the noise abatement (w:noise pollution) notice (w:summons), with which he was served. He was ordered to pay a £ (w:Pound sterling)200 fine. He was also ordered to pay £50 in costs, £15 in victim surcharge, and to destroy his music collection.
with the extension of the Taff Vale Railway (TVR) line. After Royal Assent was given to construct the railway in 1836, the original line was laid from Cardiff to Abercynon, and by 1841 a branch was opened to link Cardiff with Dinas via Pontypridd. This would allow easier
http: www.bbc.co.uk legacies work wales w_se article_3.shtml accessdate 2009-01-12 a distance of 18½ miles although the several branches brought this to 26 miles (41.6 km) in length covering an area from the docks to the Rhondda Valley (Rhondda). Additionally, access was created via junctions with the existing and authorised railways, to all the other great mineral-producing districts of South Wales. The original line had connected with the Taff Vale Railway
, the Rhondda has produced Welsh historian John Davies (John Davies (historian)), an important voice on Welsh affairs, who is one of the most recognised faces and voices of present day Welsh history, and is also one of the main authors of ''The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales''. The Rhondda has also produced J. Gwyn Griffiths, an eminent Egyptologist, who was also a member of the Cadwgan Circle. Griffiths and his wife Käte Bosse-Griffiths were influential writers and curators
. Brown and Sons Ltd location Cowbridge isbn 0-905928-82-2 page 8 url accessdate - Cymmer Colliery Cymmer 15 July 1856 112 gas explosion - Ferndale No. 1 Pit (Ferndale Colliery) Blaenllechau 8 November 1867 178 gas explosion Rhondda Cynon Taff library services - Ferndale History - Ferndale No. 1 Pit Blaenllechau 10 June
Dinas 13 January 1879 63 gas explosion - Naval Colliery Penygraig 10 December 1880 101 gas explosion - Gelli Colliery Gelli 21 August 1883 5 gas explosion - Naval Colliery Penygraig 27 January 1884 14 gas explosion - Maerdy Colliery Maerdy 23–24 December 1885 81 gas explosion Rhondda Cynon Taff library services
- Maerdy History - National Colliery (Wattstown#National Colliery 1887 disaster) Wattstown 18 February 1887 39 gas explosion - Tylorstown Colliery Tylorstown 27 January 1896 57 gas explosion - Rhondda Cynon Taff library services - Tylorstown History - National Colliery (Wattstown#National Colliery 1905 disaster) Wattstown 11
sqmi . Davies (2008), p. 153 This coalfield took in the majority of Glamorgan, and the entirety of the Rhondda was situated within it. Although neighbouring areas such as Merthyr and Aberdare had already sunk coal mines, it was not until Walter Coffin initiated the Dinas (Dinas Rhondda) Lower Colliery in 1812 that coal was first exported from the Rhondda Valleys on any sort of commercial scale. ref name "Davies 746" >
. The A4233 begins outside Rhondda at Tonyrefail, heading north through Porth and through the Rhondda Fach to Maerdy, where the road eventually links up with the A4059 at Aberdare. Two other A roads service the area; the A4119 is a relief road, known as the Tonypandy Bypass and the other is the A4061 which links Treorchy to the Ogmore Vale before reaching Bridgend. There is a single rail link to the Rhondda, the Rhondda Line, based around the old Taff Vale Railway which serviced both the Rhondda Fach and Rhondda Fawr. The Rhondda Line runs through the Rhondda Fawr, linking Rhondda to Cardiff Central (Cardiff Central railway station). The railway stations that once populated the Rhondda Fach were all closed after the Beeching Axe. The railway line serves ten Rhondda stations with the villages not directly linked connected through bus services. Residents of note ''See also'' :Category:People from Rhondda Due to the scarcity of inhabitants in the Rhondda prior to industrialisation, there are few residents of note before the valleys became a coal mining area. The earliest individuals to come to the fore were linked with the coal industry and the people; physical men who found a way out of the Rhondda through sport; charismatic orators who led the miners through unions or political and religious leaders who tended to the deeply religious chapel going public. Sport right thumb 175px Boxer, Jimmy Wilde (File:Jimmy Wilde.jpg) The two main sports with which the Rhondda appeared to produce quality participants were rugby union and boxing. One of the first true rugby stars to come from the Rhondda was Willie Llewellyn, who not only gained 20 caps for Wales (Wales national rugby union team) scoring 48 points, but was also the first Rhondda born member of the British Lions (British and Irish Lions). Such was Llewellyn's fame that during the Tonypandy Riots, his pharmacy was left unscathed by the crowds due to his past sporting duties. Many players came through the Rhondda to gain international duty, and after the split between amateur rugby union and the professional Northern League (rugby league), many were also tempted to the North of England to earn a wage for their abilities. Amongst the new league players was Jack Rhapps, Aberaman born, but living in the Rhondda when he 'Went North', eventually becoming the world's first dual-code international rugby player. The most famous rugby player from the Rhondda of the later half of the 20th century is Cliff Morgan. Morgan was born in Trebanog, and gained 29 caps for Wales, four for the British Lions and was one of the inaugural inductees of the International Rugby Hall of Fame. Another notable player is Billy Cleaver from Treorchy, a member of the 1950 Grand Slam winning team. During the 20th century The Rhondda also supplied a steady stream of championship boxers. Percy Jones (Percy Jones (boxer)) was not only the first World Champion from the Rhondda, but was the first Welshman to hold a World Title when he won the Flyweight belt in 1914. After Jones came the Rhondda's most notable boxer, Jimmy Wilde also known as the "Mighty Atom", who took the IBU (International Boxing Union) world flyweight title in 1916. British Champions from the valleys include Tommy Farr who held the British and Empire heavyweight belt and Llew Edwards who took the British featherweight title. Although association football was not as popular as rugby in the Rhondda in the early 20th century, after the 1920s several notable players had emerged from the area. Two of the most important players both came from the village of Ton Pentre; Jimmy Murphy (Jimmy Murphy (footballer)) was capped 15 times for Wales, and in 1958 managed both the Welsh national team and Manchester United. Roy Paul, also from Ton Pentre, led Manchester City to two successive FA Cup finals in 1955 and 1956 and gained 33 Welsh caps. Alan Curtis (Alan Curtis (footballer)), who was best known for representing Swansea City (Swansea City A.F.C.) and Cardiff City (Cardiff City F.C.), came from the neighbouring village of Pentre, and in an 11 year international career won 35 caps for Wales scoring 6 goals. The Rhondda Valleys have also produced two world class darts players. In 1975 Alan Evans (Alan Evans (darts player)) from Ferndale won the Winmau World Masters, a feat repeated in 1994 by Richie Burnett from Cwmparc. Burnett surpassed Evans when he also became BDO World Darts Champion (BDO World Darts Championship) winning the tournament in 1995 (1995 BDO World Darts Championship). Politics right thumb 200px Leanne Wood, from Penygraig (File:Leanne Wood Senedd.jpg) Despite neither being born in the Rhondda, the two most notable political figures to emerge from the area are William Abraham (William Abraham (Welsh politician)), known as Mabon, and George Thomas, Viscount Tonypandy (George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy). Abraham, best known as a trade unionist was the first Member of Parliament of the Rhondda and the leader of the South Wales Miners' Federation. A strong negotiator in the early years of valleys' unionism, as a moderate he lost ground to more radical leaders in his later years. Thomas was the born in Port Talbot but raised in Trealaw near Tonypandy. He was a Member of Parliament for Cardiff for 38 years and Speaker of the House of Commons (1976–1983). On his retirement from politics he was made Viscount Tonypandy. Leanne Wood, current leader of Plaid Cymru is from the Rhondda. Film and television The most well known actors to have been born in the Rhondda are Sir Stanley Baker and brothers Donald (Donald Houston) and Glyn Houston. Baker was born in Ferndale and starred in films such as the ''The Cruel Sea (The Cruel Sea (1953 film))'' (1953) and ''Richard III (Richard III (1955 film))'' (1955), though it was as actor producer of the 1964 film Zulu (Zulu (1964 film)) that his legacy endures. Davies (2008) p. 47 The Houston brothers were both born in Tonypandy, with Donald gaining better success as a film actor, with memorable roles in ''The Blue Lagoon (The Blue Lagoon (1949 film))'' (1949) and Ealing's ''Dance Hall (Dance Hall (film))'' (1950). Davies (2008) p. 378 Glyn Houston acted primarily in British B-Movies, and was better known as a television actor. Literature Of the Cadwgan Circle, the most notable of their number is Rhydwen Williams, the winner of the Eisteddfod Crown on two occasions who used the landscape of the industrial valleys as a basis for much of his work. Writing in the English language Peter George (Peter George (author)) was born in Treorchy and is best known as the Oscar nominated screenwriter of Dr. Strangelove, based on his book Red Alert (Red Alert (novel)). Reflecting the lives of the residents of the Rhondda, both Gwyn Thomas (Gwyn Thomas (novelist)) and Ron Berry brought a realism to the industrial valleys which was missing in the more rose-tinted writings of Richard Llewellyn. Visual arts The Rhondda Valleys has not produced as notable a group of visual artists as it has writers, though in the 1950s a small group of students, brought together through a daily commute by train to the Cardiff College of Art, came to prominence and are known as the 'Rhondda Group'. Before the Rhondda (w:Rhondda) Magistrates' Court (w:Magistrates' Court) Wiosna admitted breaching the noise abatement (w:noise pollution) notice (w:summons), with which he was served. He was ordered to pay a £ (w:Pound sterling)200 fine. He was also ordered to pay £50 in costs, £15 in victim surcharge, and to destroy his music collection.
;ref name "Morgan101" Morgan (1988), p. 101 The TUC called off the strike just nine days later, without resolving the miners' cut in wages. The miners disagreed and stayed on strike for a further seven months until they were starved into surrendering. The Rhondda saw many schemes set up by miners to aid their plight, such as soup kitchens and fêtes and 'joy' days to support them; Wales in the Twentieth Century World: Family on the Dole 1919-1939; Mid Glamorgan County Council Education Department (1994) pp. 3-4 while in Maerdy the local miners set up a rationing system. By the time the miners returned to work there was little desire for further action through strikes, which saw a decline in the popularity of 'The Fed' and greater emphasis on solving problems through political and parliamentary means. Morgan (1988), p. 102 With the advent of the Great Depression (Great Depression in the United Kingdom), employment within the Rhondda Valleys continued to fall. This in turn led to a decline in public and social services, as people struggled to pay rates and rents. John (1980), p. 541 One of the outcomes of a lack of funds was a fall in health provisions, which in Rhondda lead to a lack of medical and nursing staff, John (1980), p. 542 a failure to provide adequate sewage works and a rise in deaths from tuberculosis. John (1980), p. 543 By 1932 the long-term unemployment figure in the Rhondda was recorded at 63%, John (1980), p. 539 and in Ferndale the unemployment figure for adult males rose as high as 72.85%. With little other employment available in the Rhondda John (1980), p. 518 the only solution appeared to be emigration. Between 1924 and 1939, 50,000 people left the Rhondda. During this time life was difficult for communities built solely around a singular industry, especially as most families were on a single wage. The start of the Second World War saw a complete turnaround in the employment figures, and by 1944 unemployment figures in the Rhondda ranged from 1% in Treorchy to 3.7% at Tonypandy. John (1980), p. 563 Mining disasters 250px right thumb The Lewis Merthyr Colliery, now part of the Rhondda Heritage Park (File:Lewis Merthyr Colliery.jpg) As with any heavy industry, the possibility of serious injury or death was an everyday risk for the mine workers of the Rhondda Valley. The most notorious form of colliery disaster (Mining accident) was the gas explosion, Davies (2008), p. 160 caused by either a buildup of methane gas or coal dust. As the mines became deeper and ventilation become more difficult to control the risk increased. The worst single incident in the Rhondda was the 1867 Ferndale disaster in which an explosion saw the loss of 178 lives. However, the major disasters only accounted for roughly 20% of overall fatalities, with individual accidents accounting for the bulk of deaths. Davies (2008), p. 161 The list below shows mining disasters which saw the loss of five or more lives during a single incident. class "wikitable" + '''Mining disasters in the Rhondda Valley 1850 - 1965''' ! Colliery Location Date Year Death toll cause - Dinas Colliery Dinas 1 January 1844 12 gas explosion Before the Rhondda (w:Rhondda) Magistrates' Court (w:Magistrates' Court) Wiosna admitted breaching the noise abatement (w:noise pollution) notice (w:summons), with which he was served. He was ordered to pay a £ (w:Pound sterling)200 fine. He was also ordered to pay £50 in costs, £15 in victim surcharge, and to destroy his music collection.
their distinctive appearance. In the nineteenth century the Rhondda had over 60 mines. At its peak the Arsenal had 40,000 workers, many of them women. Large numbers of them were transported by bus from the Rhondda and the valleys. At the time the Arsenal was the largest factory (employee-wise) ever in the UK (United Kingdom) Before the Rhondda (w:Rhondda) Magistrates' Court (w:Magistrates' Court) Wiosna admitted breaching the noise abatement (w:noise pollution) notice (w:summons), with which he was served. He was ordered to pay a £ (w:Pound sterling)200 fine. He was also ordered to pay £50 in costs, £15 in victim surcharge, and to destroy his music collection.
'''Rhondda''' Rhondda is part of Rhondda Cynon Taf County Borough (Rhondda Cynon Taf) and is part of the South Wales Valleys.
The Rhondda Valley is most notable for its historical link to the coal mining industry which was at its peak between 1840-1925 AD. The Rhondda Valleys were home to a strong early Nonconformist Christian movement which manifested itself in the Baptist chapels which moulded Rhondda values in the 19th and early 20th century. Rhondda is also famous for strong masculine cultural ties within a social community which expressed itself outside industry in the form of male voice choirs, sport and politics.