Rafah

What is Rafah known for?


training site

: web.archive.org web 20040726043850 http: www.haaretz.com hasen spages 455377.html archivedate July 26, 2004 In October 2010 five children and three women were injured after a Qassam rocket training site exploded near a crowded residential area of Tel As-Sultan in Rafah


ancient temple'

pillars of granite which the locals called ''Bab el Medinet,'' meaning "The Gate of the town". Guérin, 1869, pp. 233-35 In 1881, Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria wrote: "Fragments of gray granite pillars, still standing, are here to be met with about the road, the fields, and the sand, and we saw one lying on the ground half buried... The pillars are the remains of an ancient temple, Raphia, and are of special importance in the eyes of the Arabs, who call them Rafah, as they mark the boundary between Egypt and Syria." Ludwig Salvator, Archduke of Austria, 1881, p. 54 British mandate era In 1917, the British army captured Rafah (Battle of Rafa), and used it as a base for their attack on Gaza (First Battle of Gaza (1917)). The presence of the army bases was an economic draw that brought people back to the city. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities (British Mandate of Palestine), Rafah had a population of 599, all Muslim, Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Gaza, p. 8 increasing in the 1931 census (1931 census of Palestine) to 1,423, still all Muslims, in 228 houses. Mills, 1932, p. 6 In 1945 Rafah had a population of 2,220, all Arabs, with 40,579 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. ''Village Statistics, April, 1945.'' Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 46 Of this, 275 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 24,173 used for cereals, Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. ''Village Statistics, April, 1945.'' Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 88 while 16,131 dunams were un-cultivable land. Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. ''Village Statistics, April, 1945.'' Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 138 1948, and after thumb right Mosque in Rafah, destroyed during the Gaza War (2008–09) Gaza War (File:14_-_Destroyed_mosque.jpg) After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the refugee camps were established. In the 1956 war involving Israel, Britain, France, and Egypt, 111 people, including 103 refugees, were killed by the Israeli army in the Palestinian refugee camp of Rafah, during the Rafah massacre. The United Nations was unable to determine the circumstances surrounding the deaths. http: unispal.un.org UNISPAL.NSF 0 6558F61D3DB6BD4505256593006B06BE http: cosmos.ucc.ie cs1064 jabowen IPSC php place.php?plid 210 During the 1967 Six-Day War, the Israel Defense Forces captured Rafah with the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip, the population was about 55,000, of whom only 11,000 lived in Rafah itself. In the summer of 1971, the IDF, under General Ariel Sharon (then head of the IDF southern command (Israeli Southern Command)), destroyed approximately 500 houses in the refugee camps of Rafah in order to create patrol roads for Israeli forces. These demolitions displaced nearly 4000 people. UN Doc A 8389 of 5 October 1971 (h) The continued transfer of the population of the occupied territories to other areas within the occupied territories. Such transfers of population have occurred in the case of several villages that were systematically destroyed in 1967: the population of these villages was either expelled or forced to live elsewhere in the occupied territories. The same practice has been followed in occupied Jerusalem. According to a report in the Jerusalem Post of 17 May 1971, Mr. Teddy Kollek, Israeli Mayor of Jerusalem, stated that 4,000 Arabs had been evacuated from Jerusalem. Likewise, in the case of Gaza, according to reports appearing in several newspapers and in letters addressed by Governments, several thousands of persons were displaced from the three major refugee camps in Gaza. Official Israeli sources have stated that these transfers of population were necessitated by new security measures, such as the construction of wider roads inside the camps in order to facilitate patrolling and the maintenance of law and order in the camps. Most of the persons whose refugee accommodation was destroyed to permit of the construction of these roads were forced to leave for the West Bank and El Arish, while a few were said to have sought refuge with other families inside Gaza. The Special Committee considers that the transfers were unwarranted and that even if the construction of new roads was considered indispensable for the maintenance of law and order, the arbitrary transfer of population was unnecessary, unjustified and in breach of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Israel established the Brazil and Canada housing projects to accommodate displaced Palestinians and to provide better conditions in the hopes of integrating the refugees into the general population and its standard of living; http: www.shaml.org publications monos mono4.htm Brazil is immediate south of Rafah, while Canada was just across the border in Sinai. Both were named because UN peacekeeping troops from those respective countries had maintained barracks in those locations. After the 1978 Camp David Accords mandated the repatriation of Canada project refugees to the Gaza Strip, the Tel al-Sultan project, northwest of Rafah, was built to accommodate them. Human Rights Watch. Razing Rafah: Mass Home Demolitions in the Gaza Strip. October 2004. Because of the Camp David Accords, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and Rafah was divided, with part of it on the Egyptian side of the border under Egyptian rule. To cope with the division of the town, smugglers made tunnels (Gaza Strip smuggling tunnel) under the border, connecting the two parts and permitting the smuggling of goods and persons. About Rafah Rafah Today. Demographics In 1922, Rafah's population was 599, which increased to 2,220 in 1945. In 1982, the total population was approximately 10,800. Welcome to Rafah Palestine Remembered. In the 1997 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) census, Rafah and its adjacent camp had a combined population of 91,181, Tall as-Sultan was listed with a further 17,141. Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years Refugee (Palestinian refugee)s made up 80.3% of the entire population. Palestinian Population by Locality and Refugee Status. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). In the 1997 census, Rafah's (together with Rafah camp) gender distribution was 50.5% male and 49.5% female. Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. In the 2006 PCBS estimate, Rafah city had a population of 71,003, PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statisctics (PCBS) Projected Mid-Year Population for Rafah Governorate by Locality 2004-2006 Rafah camp and Tall as-Sultan form separate localities for census purposes, having populations of 59,983 and 24,418, respectively. Rafah Border Crossing Rafah is the site of the Rafah Border Crossing, the main crossing between the Gaza Strip and Egypt. Formerly operated by Israeli military forces, control of the crossing was transferred to the Palestinian Authority in September 2005 as part of the larger Israeli withdrawal (Israel's unilateral disengagement plan) from the Gaza Strip. A European Union commission began monitoring (European Union Border Assistance Mission Rafah) the crossing in November 2005 amid Israeli security concerns, and in April 2006, Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas's Presidential Guard assumed responsibility for the site on the Palestinian Authority side. Mitch Potter, Something that works: the Rafah crossing, ''The Toronto Star'', May 21, 2006. On the Egyptian side, the responsibility is assumed by the 750 Border Guards allowed by an agreement of Egypt with Israel. The agreement was signed in November 2005 forced by US pressure, and specifies that it is under security requirements demanded by Israel. Climate Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot semi-arid (hot semi-arid climate) (BSh). The Israeli (Israel) military launched at least six airstrikes into the Gaza Strip in retaliation for rockets that were fired into Southern Israel by members of Hamas (w:Hamas) earlier in the day. Among the targets hit were a police station and other sites in the city of Rafah (w:Rafah), believed to be tunnel locations (w:Smuggling tunnel#Smuggling tunnels in Rafah, Gaza Strip). Small arms fire has also been reported. No one was injured or killed in the strikes.


program including

: story.news.yahoo.com news?tmpl story&u nm mideast_tunnel_dc (Yahoo\Reuters) *U.S. President (President of the United States) George W. Bush, speaking to business executives and economists at the White House, vows to push through big reforms to the Social Security (Social Security (United States)) program, including partial privatization of the state pension fund, during his second term. (BBC) ** At least two Palestinians


single training

, 1956. The squadron had not flown a single training sortie before fighting began and had only two full crews ready for battle. Israeli piston-engined aircraft flew few missions in the first two days of the war, but on October 31, 69 Squadron received an order to bomb Rafah in support of IDF Brigade 27 operations. Arriving over the target early on November 1, the aircraft could not tell the location of friendly troops and without being able to communicate with the forces on the ground, were


making frequent

Archibald Murray. Allenby quickly won the respect of his men by making frequent visits to front line troops (something which Murray, who generally ran his campaigns by remote control from Cairo, rarely did during his tenure with the EEF) and moving GHQ from comfortable Cairo to Rafah, much nearer the front lines at Gaza. His usual installation of discipline and organisation, organising the heretofore disparate forces of the EEF into three corps - the XX (XX Corps (United Kingdom)) and XXI Corps, both of infantry, and the Desert Mounted Corps, made up of mostly Australian Light Horse (mounted infantry). One of Allenby's first moves was to support the efforts of T. E. Lawrence amongst the Arabs with £200,000 a month. Many of Allenby's men said after the war that they were willing to tolerate his strictness and rigidity because he gave the impression that he was in control of the situation, a feeling which Murray never inspired in his soldiers. The Israeli (Israel) military launched at least six airstrikes into the Gaza Strip in retaliation for rockets that were fired into Southern Israel by members of Hamas (w:Hamas) earlier in the day. Among the targets hit were a police station and other sites in the city of Rafah (w:Rafah), believed to be tunnel locations (w:Smuggling tunnel#Smuggling tunnels in Rafah, Gaza Strip). Small arms fire has also been reported. No one was injured or killed in the strikes.


conducting military

with Israeli bulldozers in background DATE OF DEATH March 16, 2003 PLACE OF DEATH Rafah, Gaza Strip right thumb 200px Rachel Corrie (File:Rachel Corrie 2003 March 16 cropped.jpg) stands before Israeli IDF Caterpillar D9 bulldozers ISM volunteer Rachel Corrie was killed as she attempted to block an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) bulldozer conducting military operations in Rafah in the Gaza Strip on March 16, 2003. Controversy surrounds her death. An internal IDF (Israel Defence Forces) investigation concluded that Corrie's death was an accident but ISM eyewitnesses vehemently dispute this account, contending that the bulldozer driver deliberately struck Corrie as she was protesting in plain view. The IDF claims that tapes of the event show Corrie below the driver's eye level, and also contend that the noise level was too loud for Ms. Corrie to be heard. The activities of the bulldozer she was blocking are also subject to disagreement — ISM claim it was preparing to demolish the home of a Palestinian pharmacist. Other accounts backed by the film footage claim that the bulldozer was not near a house but was removing shrubbery covering an arms smuggling tunnel — according to an article in ''Mother Jones (Mother Jones (magazine))'' magazine, Hammer, Joshua. The Death of Rachel Corrie. ''Mother Jones (Mother Jones (magazine)).'' September October 2003. hotly disputed by the ISM, Israeli authorities claimed that the crew's assignment was to sweep the area for booby traps planted by militants. The IDF itself has never explicitly claimed that the house contained a tunnel and two tunnels were found when the home was eventually demolished 9 months later. The Israeli (Israel) military launched at least six airstrikes into the Gaza Strip in retaliation for rockets that were fired into Southern Israel by members of Hamas (w:Hamas) earlier in the day. Among the targets hit were a police station and other sites in the city of Rafah (w:Rafah), believed to be tunnel locations (w:Smuggling tunnel#Smuggling tunnels in Rafah, Gaza Strip). Small arms fire has also been reported. No one was injured or killed in the strikes.


story amp

celebration of "''Bull Durham'', sportswriter Roger Kahn cancels a planned appearance at the baseball museum.story&u nm 20030411 people_nm people_robbins_writer_dc_4 * Tom Hurndall, a British photojournalist is shot in the head by an Israeli sniper in Rafah, Gaza strip. Allenby was sent to Egypt to be made commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) on 27 June 1917, replacing Sir

and one was seriously wounded after the IDF demolished the house they were hiding in. In Rafah, one Hamas member was killed from a tank shell as the IDF uncovered a smuggling tunnel in a residential building.story&u afp mideast_unrest_lead * December 7: Nadav Kudinski, an Israeli soldier from the K9 (Police dog) unit, and his dog were killed from a bomb hidden in a chicken coop covering an underground tunnel. In the ensuing battle

two Hamas militants were killed. Later, two Islamic Jihad (Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine) were killed.story&u nm mideast_dc * December 12: At least 5 Israeli soldiers from the ''Bedouin Scouts Battalion'' are killed and 10 are injured, as a tunnel (smuggling tunnels) rigged with 1500 kg of explosives, combined with two suicide bombers, exploded near the Humanitarian Rafah crossing between Rafah and Egypt


study program

August 2003 pages 62–64 title Southern California Chronicle: Hundreds Salute International Solidarity Movement, Rachel Corrie's Parents author Pat and Samir Twair url http: www.wrmea.com archives july_aug2003 0307062.html In her senior year, she proposed an independent-study program in which she would travel to Gaza, join protesters from the International Solidarity Movement (ISM), and initiate a "sister city" project between Olympia and Rafah. ref name Hammer


news feature

claim it was preparing to demolish the home of a Palestinian pharmacist. Other accounts backed by the film footage claim that the bulldozer was not near a house but was removing shrubbery covering an arms smuggling tunnel — according to an article in ''Mother Jones (Mother Jones (magazine))'' magazine, Hammer, Joshua.news feature 2003 09 ma_497_01.html The Death of Rachel Corrie. '' Mother Jones (magazine) Mother Jones


intifada

was captured after heavy fighting (October 19), cutting Egyptian lines of communications and leaving Egyptian forces near Hebron and at Faluja isolated. The Egyptians were forced to withdraw from Ashdod (October 27) and Majdal (November 5) and concentrate their remaining forces in the Gaza area. The Gaza International Airport was built by the PA in the city of Rafah, but operated for only a brief period before being razed by Israel following the outbreak of Al-Aqsa Intifada

; The Yasser Arafat International Airport near Rafah opened in 1998 and is northeast of the city. The Gaza Strip operations The city of Rafah was strategically important to Israel because control of that city would sever

. Palestinian Center for Human Rights has condemned Hamas for storing explosive material near civilians. In August a similar explosion wounded 58 and destroyed seven houses. The Israeli Engineering Corps used armored versions of the D9L, D9N and D9R to clear booby-trapped (booby trap) areas, open routes, rescue stuck armored fighting vehicles and build sand mounds. During the Al Aqsa Intifada D9 bulldozers were used to demolish houses under

Rafah

'''Rafah''' ( south of Gaza (Gaza City), Rafah's population of 152,950 (2014) is overwhelmingly made up of Palestinian refugees. Rafah camp and Tall as-Sultan camp (Palestinian refugee camps) form separate localities. Rafah is the district capital of the Rafah Governorate. Yasser Arafat International Airport, Gaza's only airport, is located just south of the city; the airport operated from 1998 to 2001, when it was bombed and bulldozed by the Israeli military (Israel Defense Forces) (IDF) after the killing of Israeli soldiers by members of Hamas. Rafah is the site of the Rafah Border Crossing, the main crossing between the Gaza Strip and Egypt.

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