Qing dynasty

What is Qing dynasty known for?


including early

government. This institution was established to supervise the administration of Tibet and the Mongol lands. As the empire expanded, it took over administrative responsibility of all minority ethnic groups living in and around the empire, including early contacts with Russia — then seen as a tribute nation. The office had the status of a full ministry and was headed by officials of equal rank. However, appointees were at first restricted only to candidates of Manchu and Mongol ethnicity, until later open to Han Chinese as well. Even though the Board of Rites and Lifan Yuan performed some duties of a foreign office, they fell short of developing into a professional foreign service. It was not until 1861 — a year after losing the Second Opium War to the Anglo-French coalition — that the Qing government bowed to foreign pressure and created a proper foreign affairs office known as the Zongli Yamen. The office was originally intended to be temporary and was staffed by officials seconded from the Grand Council. However, as dealings with foreigners became increasingly complicated and frequent, the office grew in size and importance, aided by revenue from customs duties which came under its direct jurisdiction. There was also another government institution called Imperial Household Department which was unique to the Qing dynasty. It was established before the fall of the Ming, but it became mature only after 1661, following the death of the Shunzhi Emperor and the accession of his son, the Kangxi Emperor. ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


field history

with significant support in the field. History In Qing dynasty China, the Liaodong Peninsula was administratively part of Liaoning Province. In 1882, the Beiyang Fleet established a naval base and coaling station at Lüshunkou near the southern end of the peninsula. Ancient After their use in Ancient Greece for raising the height of important characters in the Greek theatre and their similar use by high-born prostitutes or courtesans in Venice in the sixteenth century


large influence

Russia ), Marianne (France (Third French Republic)), and a samurai (Japan (Empire of Japan)) while a Mandarin official (Mandarin (bureaucrat)) helplessly looks on. Korea had traditionally been a tributary state and continued to be so under the influence of China's Qing dynasty, which exerted large influence over the conservative Korean officials gathered around the royal family of the Joseon Dynasty. Opinion in Korea itself was split; conservatives wanted to retain the traditional subservient relationship with China, while reformists wanted to establish closer ties with Japan and western nations. After two Opium Wars in 1839 (First Opium War) and 1856 (Second Opium War) against the British Empire and the Sino-French War, China had become weak and was unable to resist political intervention and territorial encroachment by western powers (see Unequal Treaties). Japan saw this as an opportunity to replace Chinese influence in Korea with its own. Soon after its introduction to the Old World, tobacco came under frequent criticism from state and religious leaders. Murad IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire 1623-40 was among the first to attempt a smoking ban by claiming it was a threat to public moral and health. The Chinese emperor Chongzhen issued an edict banning smoking two years before his death and the overthrow of the Ming dynasty. Later, the Manchu of the Qing dynasty, who were originally a tribe of nomadic horse warriors, would proclaim smoking "a more heinous crime than that even of neglecting archery". In Edo period Japan, some of the earliest tobacco plantations were scorned by the shogunate as being a threat to the military economy by letting valuable farmland go to waste for the use of a recreational drug instead of being used to plant food crops ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


century great

PA190&dq maqsud+shah#v onepage&q maqsud%20shah&f false title Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang author James A. Millward year 2007 publisher Columbia University Press location isbn 0-231-13924-1 page 190 pages accessdate 2010-06-28 In early 20th century, Great Britain sent an expedition force (British Expedition to Tibet) to Tibet and forced Tibetans to sign a treaty. The Qing court responded by asserting Chinese sovereignty over Tibet, ref>


style teaching

in the body and somewhat higher stances with the feet relatively closer together than in other styles of t'ai chi ch'uan. Wu Kung-i also formulated new styles of pushing hands based on smaller circles, most notably the "four corner" method of basic pushing hands.


legal development

-inspired system of codified law, the traditional Chinese preference for collective social sanctions over impersonal legalism (Legalism (Chinese philosophy)) hindered constitutional and legal development. The spirit of the new laws never penetrated to the grass-roots level or provided hoped-for stability. Ideally, individuals were to be equal before the law, but this premise proved to be more rhetorical than substantive. In the end, most of the new laws were discarded


traditional characters

;ref group n Chinese (Chinese language): t (traditional characters) , p (pinyin) ''lǐzhèng''. during the Sui (Sui dynasty) and Tang (Tang dynasty), ''baozheng'' Chinese language


great social

of rice from Southeast Asia led to a huge increase in production. Merchant guilds proliferated in all of the growing Chinese cities and often acquired great social and even political influence. Rich merchants with official connections built up huge fortunes and patronized literature, theater and the arts. Textile and handicraft production boomed. Arts and culture


arts part

who considered the Four Arts part of their cultural identity and social standing. “Qing Dynasty, Painting,” Metropolitan Museum of Art The painting of the early years of the dynasty (Chinese art#Early Qing painting) included such painters as the orthodox Four Wangs and the individualists Bada Shanren (1626–1705) and Shitao (1641–1707). The nineteenth century saw such innovations as the Shanghai School and the Lingnan School "The Lingnan School of Painting," which used the technical skills of tradition to set the stage for modern painting. Traditional learning flourished, especially among Ming loyalists such as Dai Zhen and Gu Yanwu, but scholars in the school of evidential learning (Kaozheng) made innovations in skeptical textual scholarship. Scholar-bureaucrats, including Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan, developed a school of practical statecraft (He Changling) which rooted bureaucratic reform and restructuring in classical philosophy. Literature (Chinese literature) grew to new heights in the Qing period. Poetry (Qing poetry) continued as a mark of the cultivated gentleman, but women wrote in larger and larger numbers and poets (:Category:Qing dynasty poets) came from all walks of life. The poetry of the Qing dynasty is a lively field of research, being studied (along with the poetry of the Ming dynasty (Ming poetry)) for its association with Chinese opera, developmental trends of Classical Chinese poetry, the transition to a greater role for vernacular language (Written vernacular Chinese), and for poetry by women in Chinese culture. The Qing dynasty was a period of much literary collection and criticism, and many of the modern popular versions of Classical Chinese poems were transmitted through Qing dynasty anthologies, such as the ''Quantangshi'' and the ''Three Hundred Tang Poems''. Pu Songling brought the short story form to a new level in his ''Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio'', published in the mid-18th century, and Shen Fu demonstrated the charm of the informal memoir in ''Six Chapters of a Floating Life (Six Records of a Floating Life)'', written in the early 19th century but published only in 1877. The art of the novel reached a pinnacle in Cao Xueqin's ''Dream of the Red Chamber'', but its combination of social commentary and psychological insight were echoed in highly skilled novels such as Wu Jingzi's ''The Scholars (The Scholars (novel))'' (1750) and Li Ruzhen's ''Flowers in the Mirror'' (1827). "Ming and Qing Novels," ''Berkshire Encyclopedia'' In drama, Kong Shangren's Kunqu opera ''The Peach Blossom Fan'', completed in 1699, portrayed the tragic downfall of the Ming dynasty in romantic terms. The most prestigious form became the so-called Peking opera, though local and folk opera were also widely popular. Cuisine (History of Chinese cuisine#History) aroused a cultural pride in the accumulated richness of a long and varied past. The gentleman gourmet, such as Yuan Mei (Yuan Mei#Yuan as a gastronome), applied aesthetic standards to the art of cooking, eating, and appreciation of tea (Chinese tea culture) at a time when New World crops and products (Columbian Exchange) entered everyday life. The Manchu Han Imperial Feast originated at the court. Although this banquet was probably never common, it reflected an appreciation by Han Chinese for Manchu culinary customs. Jonathan Spence, "Ch'ing," in Kwang-chih Chang, ed., ''Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977): 260–294, reprinted in Jonathan Spence, ''Chinese Roundabout: Essays in History and Culture'' (New York: W.W. Norton, 1992). By the end of the nineteenth century, all elements of national artistic and cultural life had recognized and begun to come to terms with world culture as found in the West and Japan. Whether to stay within old forms or welcome Western models was now a conscious choice rather than an unchallenged acceptance of tradition. Classically trained Confucian scholars such as Liang Qichao and Wang Guowei broke ground later cultivated in the New Culture Movement. See also ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.


important contributions

The newly allied armies captured Beijing on June 6

Qing dynasty

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The '''Qing dynasty''' ( ), also '''Empire of the Great Qing''', '''Great Qing''' or '''Manchu dynasty''', was the last imperial dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration (Manchu Restoration) in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China (Republic of China (1912–49)). The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state.

The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen (Jurchen people) Aisin Gioro clan in Northeastern China. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing Jurchen clans into "Banners (Eight Banners)", military-social units. Nurhaci formed them into a Manchu people, a term used, especially by foreigners, to call Northeast China Manchuria. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital Beijing. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels (Battle of Shanhai Pass) and seized Beijing. The conquest of China proper (Manchu conquest of China) was not completed until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Central Asia. While the early rulers maintained Manchu culture, they governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government. They retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work in parallel with Manchus. They also adopted the ideals of the tributary system (Imperial Chinese tributary system) in international relations.

The reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735–1796) saw the apogee and initial decline of prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites did not change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium War (First Opium War), European powers imposed unequal treaties (Unequal treaty), free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1849–60) and Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back by Empress Dowager Cixi, a ruthless but capable leader. When, in response to the violently anti-foreign Yihetuan (Boxer Rebellion) ("Boxers"), foreign powers (Eight-Nation Alliance) invaded China, the Empress Dowager declared war on them, leading to disastrous defeat.

The government then initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with reformers such as Liang Qichao and monarchists such as Kang Youwei to transform the Qing empire into a modern nation. After the death of the Empress Dowager and the Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike. Local uprisings starting on October 11, 1911 led to the 1911 Revolution (Xinhai Revolution). The last emperor (Puyi) abdicated on February 12, 1912.

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