History journal The Journal of Asian Studies volume 55 number 4 year 1996 pages 829–850 jstor 2646525 ref none postscript . * A review essay on revisionist works. External links
the estates of the officials, the comparatively minuscule aristocracy, and the degree-holding literati (Scholar-official), there also existed a major division among ordinary Chinese between commoners and people with inferior status. They were divided into two categories: one of them, the good "commoner" people, the other "mean" people. The majority of the population belonged to the first category and were described as ''liangmin'', a legal term meaning good
people, as opposed to ''jianmin'' meaning the mean (or ignoble) people. Qing law explicitly stated that the traditional four occupational groups (four occupations) of scholars, farmers, artisans and merchants were "good", or having a status of commoners. On the other hand, slaves or bondservants, entertainers (including prostitutes and actors), and those low-level employees of government officials were the "mean people". Mean people were considered legally inferior
0CDYQ6AEwBA#v onepage&q&f false title China and the international system, 1840-1949: power, presence, and perceptions in a century of humiliation author David Scott year 2008 publisher SUNY Press location isbn 0791476278 page 104 pages accessdate 2010-06-28 This system broke down in the 18th and 19th centuries in two ways. First during the 17th century, China was ruled by the ethnically Manchu Qing dynasty which ruled a multi-ethnic empire and justified their rule
. The pronunciation of the borrowed Chinese characters in Japanese, Vietnamese and Korean also provide valuable insights. Old Chinese was not wholly uninflected. It possessed a rich sound system in which aspiration (Aspiration (phonetics)) or rough breathing differentiated the consonants, but probably was still without tones. Work on reconstructing Old Chinese started with Qīng dynasty (Qing dynasty) philologists. Some early Indo-European loan-words in Chinese have been proposed, notably 蜜 (:wikt:蜜) ''mì'' "honey", 獅 (:wikt:獅) ''shī'' "lion," and perhaps also 馬 (:wikt:馬) ''mǎ'' "horse", 豬 (:wikt:豬) ''zhū'' "pig", 犬 (:wikt:犬) ''quǎn'' "dog", and 鵝 (:wikt:鵝) ''é'' "goose". The source says the reconstructions of old Chinese are tentative, and not definitive so no conclusions should be drawn. The reconstruction of Old Chinese can not be perfect so this hypothesis may be called into question. Encyclopædia Britannica s.v. "Chinese languages": "Old Chinese vocabulary already contained many words not generally occurring in the other Sino-Tibetan languages. The words for ‘honey' and ‘lion,' and probably also ‘horse,' ‘dog,' and ‘goose,' are connected with Indo-European and were acquired through trade and early contacts. (The nearest known Indo-European languages were Tocharian and Sogdian, a middle Iranian language.) A number of words have Austroasiatic cognates and point to early contacts with the ancestral language of Muong–Vietnamese and Mon–Khmer"; Jan Ulenbrook, ''Einige Übereinstimmungen zwischen dem Chinesischen und dem Indogermanischen'' (1967) proposes 57 items; see also Tsung-tung Chang, 1988 Indo-European Vocabulary in Old Chinese;. The source also notes that southern dialects of Chinese have more monosyllabic words than the Mandarin Chinese dialects. With the introduction of European astronomy into China via the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), the motions of both the sun and moon began to be calculated with sinusoids (trigonometric function) in the 1645 Shíxiàn calendar ( ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.
in the body and somewhat higher stances with the feet relatively closer together than in other styles of t'ai chi ch'uan. Wu Kung-i also formulated new styles of pushing hands based on smaller circles, most notably the "four corner" method of basic pushing hands.
who considered the Four Arts part of their cultural identity and social standing. “Qing Dynasty, Painting,” Metropolitan Museum of Art The painting of the early years of the dynasty (Chinese art#Early Qing painting) included such painters as the orthodox Four Wangs and the individualists Bada Shanren (1626–1705) and Shitao (1641–1707). The nineteenth century saw such innovations as the Shanghai School and the Lingnan School "The Lingnan School of Painting," which used the technical skills of tradition to set the stage for modern painting. Traditional learning flourished, especially among Ming loyalists such as Dai Zhen and Gu Yanwu, but scholars in the school of evidential learning (Kaozheng) made innovations in skeptical textual scholarship. Scholar-bureaucrats, including Lin Zexu and Wei Yuan, developed a school of practical statecraft (He Changling) which rooted bureaucratic reform and restructuring in classical philosophy. Literature (Chinese literature) grew to new heights in the Qing period. Poetry (Qing poetry) continued as a mark of the cultivated gentleman, but women wrote in larger and larger numbers and poets (:Category:Qing dynasty poets) came from all walks of life. The poetry of the Qing dynasty is a lively field of research, being studied (along with the poetry of the Ming dynasty (Ming poetry)) for its association with Chinese opera, developmental trends of Classical Chinese poetry, the transition to a greater role for vernacular language (Written vernacular Chinese), and for poetry by women in Chinese culture. The Qing dynasty was a period of much literary collection and criticism, and many of the modern popular versions of Classical Chinese poems were transmitted through Qing dynasty anthologies, such as the ''Quantangshi'' and the ''Three Hundred Tang Poems''. Pu Songling brought the short story form to a new level in his ''Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio'', published in the mid-18th century, and Shen Fu demonstrated the charm of the informal memoir in ''Six Chapters of a Floating Life (Six Records of a Floating Life)'', written in the early 19th century but published only in 1877. The art of the novel reached a pinnacle in Cao Xueqin's ''Dream of the Red Chamber'', but its combination of social commentary and psychological insight were echoed in highly skilled novels such as Wu Jingzi's ''The Scholars (The Scholars (novel))'' (1750) and Li Ruzhen's ''Flowers in the Mirror'' (1827). "Ming and Qing Novels," ''Berkshire Encyclopedia'' In drama, Kong Shangren's Kunqu opera ''The Peach Blossom Fan'', completed in 1699, portrayed the tragic downfall of the Ming dynasty in romantic terms. The most prestigious form became the so-called Peking opera, though local and folk opera were also widely popular. Cuisine (History of Chinese cuisine#History) aroused a cultural pride in the accumulated richness of a long and varied past. The gentleman gourmet, such as Yuan Mei (Yuan Mei#Yuan as a gastronome), applied aesthetic standards to the art of cooking, eating, and appreciation of tea (Chinese tea culture) at a time when New World crops and products (Columbian Exchange) entered everyday life. The Manchu Han Imperial Feast originated at the court. Although this banquet was probably never common, it reflected an appreciation by Han Chinese for Manchu culinary customs. Jonathan Spence, "Ch'ing," in Kwang-chih Chang, ed., ''Food in Chinese Culture: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives'' (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977): 260–294, reprinted in Jonathan Spence, ''Chinese Roundabout: Essays in History and Culture'' (New York: W.W. Norton, 1992). By the end of the nineteenth century, all elements of national artistic and cultural life had recognized and begun to come to terms with world culture as found in the West and Japan. Whether to stay within old forms or welcome Western models was now a conscious choice rather than an unchallenged acceptance of tradition. Classically trained Confucian scholars such as Liang Qichao and Wang Guowei broke ground later cultivated in the New Culture Movement. See also ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.
things," and "consequently there is nothing we lack...." Demand in Europe for Chinese goods such as silk, tea, and ceramics could only be met if European companies funneled their limited supplies of silver into China. In the late 1700s, the governments of Great Britain and France were deeply concerned about the imbalance of trade and the drain of silver. To meet the growing Chinese demand for opium (History of opium in China), the British East
&f false title The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ... author Samuel Wells Williams year 1848 edition 3 editor publisher Wiley & Putnam location New York page 489 isbn pages volume Volume 1 of The Middle kingdom: a survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, religion, &c., of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants accessdate 2011-05-08 (Original from Harvard University) The '''Shunzhi Emperor''' (
and remained there for almost two months until a sentence of strangulation was imposed. A high court found the sentence too light and ordered them to be cut up into bits while still alive. ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.
. Drama Traditional drama, often called "Chinese opera," grew out of the ''zaju'' (variety plays) of the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368) and continues to exist in 368 different forms, the best known of which is Beijing Opera, which assumed its present form in the mid-nineteenth century and was extremely popular in the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) court. In Beijing Opera, traditional Chinese string instrument and percussion instruments provide a strong rhythmic accompaniment to the acting. The acting is based on allusion: gestures, footwork, and other body movements express such actions as riding a horse, rowing a boat, or opening a door. Spoken dialogue is divided into recitative and Beijing colloquial speech, the former employed by serious characters and the latter by young females and clowns. Character roles are strictly defined. The traditional repertoire of Beijing Opera includes more than 1,000 works, mostly taken from historical novels about political and military struggles. In the final years of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), reform advocates in the government implemented certain aspects of the modernized Japanese legal system, itself originally based on German judicial (Judiciary of Germany) precedents (see Hundred Days' Reform). These efforts were short-lived and largely ineffective. ) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is the largest of the three halls of the Inner Court (the other two being the Hall of Union and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility), located at the northern end of the Forbidden City. During the Qing dynasty, the palace often served as the Emperor's audience hall, where he held council with the Grand Council. History The Beijing–Shanghai railway is composed of three sections. These three sections are some of the earliest railways in China, built before 1910 during the Qing dynasty. The first section is from Beijing to Tianjin, constructed as part of the Imperial Railways of Northern China between 1897 and 1900.
title Qing dynasty pic piccap picsize pictooltip c l p Qīng Cháo w Ch'ing 1 Ch'ao 2 j cing 1 ciu 4 altname Empire of the Great Qing t2 s2 l2 p2 Dà Qīng Dìguó w2 Ta 2 Ch'ing 1 Ti 4 -kuo 2 j2 daai 6 cing 1 dai 3 gwok 3 altname3 Great Qing State t3 s3 l3 p3 Dà Qīng Guó
j3 daai 6 cing 1 gwok 3 altname4 Chinese Great Qing State t4 s4 l4 p4 Zhōnghuá Dà Qīng Guó w4 Chung 1 -hua 2 Ta 2 Ch'ing 1 Kuo 2 j4 zung 1 waa 4 daai 6 cing 1 gwok 3 altname5 Later Jin t5 s5 l5 p5 Hòu Jīn Cháo w5 Hou 4 Chin 1 Chao 2 mnc 12px alt Daicing Gurun (File:Daicing gurun.svg) 45px alt Amaga Aisin Gurun (File:amaga aisin gurun1.png) j5 hau 6 gam 1 ciu 4
The '''Qing dynasty''' ( ), also '''Empire of the Great Qing''', '''Great Qing''' or '''Manchu dynasty''', was the last imperial dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration (Manchu Restoration) in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China (Republic of China (1912–49)). The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state.
The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen (Jurchen people) Aisin Gioro clan in Northeastern China. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing Jurchen clans into "Banners (Eight Banners)", military-social units. Nurhaci formed them into a Manchu people, a term used, especially by foreigners, to call Northeast China Manchuria. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of Liaodong and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In 1644, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital Beijing. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by Prince Dorgon, who defeated the rebels (Battle of Shanhai Pass) and seized Beijing. The conquest of China proper (Manchu conquest of China) was not completed until 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Central Asia. While the early rulers maintained Manchu culture, they governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government. They retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work in parallel with Manchus. They also adopted the ideals of the tributary system (Imperial Chinese tributary system) in international relations.
The reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735–1796) saw the apogee and initial decline of prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 million, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites did not change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium War (First Opium War), European powers imposed unequal treaties (Unequal treaty), free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1849–60) and Dungan Revolt (1862–77) in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back by Empress Dowager Cixi, a ruthless but capable leader. When, in response to the violently anti-foreign Yihetuan (Boxer Rebellion) ("Boxers"), foreign powers (Eight-Nation Alliance) invaded China, the Empress Dowager declared war on them, leading to disastrous defeat.
The government then initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with reformers such as Liang Qichao and monarchists such as Kang Youwei to transform the Qing empire into a modern nation. After the death of the Empress Dowager and the Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike. Local uprisings starting on October 11, 1911 led to the 1911 Revolution (Xinhai Revolution). The last emperor (Puyi) abdicated on February 12, 1912.