Province of Silesia

What is Province of Silesia known for?


part

'') was a province (Provinces of Prussia) of the German Kingdom of Prussia, existing from 1815 to 1919, when it was divided into the Upper (Upper Silesia Province) and Lower Silesia (Lower Silesia Province (Prussia)) provinces, and briefly again from 1938 to 1941. As a Prussian province, Silesia became part of the German Empire during the Prussian-led unification of Germany in 1871. The provincial capital was Breslau (Wrocław) (present-day Wrocław, Poland). Geography

thumb left Crown land of Silesia until 1742 (outlined in cyan) and Silesia Province from 1815 (outlined in yellow), superimposed on modern international borders (File:Silesia (Now).png) The territory on both sides of the Oder river formed the southeastern part of the Prussian kingdom. It comprised the bulk of the former Bohemian crown land (Lands of the Bohemian Crown) of Upper (Upper Silesia) and Lower (Lower Silesia) Silesia as well as the adjacent County of Kladsko, which

the Prussian King Frederick the Great had all conquered from the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy under Empress Maria Theresa in the 18th century Silesian Wars. It furthermore included the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia around Görlitz and Lauban (Lubań), ceded to Prussia by the Kingdom of Saxony according to the resolutions of the Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna) in 1815. The province bordered on the Prussian heartland of Province of Brandenburg Brandenburg


important early

Silesia . His most notable contribution to architecture is the Centennial Hall built between 1911 and 1913 as part of a series of works commemorating the 100th anniversary of the 1813 War of Liberation (Battle of Leipzig) against Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France). The Hall is an important early landmark of European reinforced concrete buildings, and it was designated a World Heritage Site in 2006. New Silesia had its capital at Siewierz. However, it was originally to be governed by the Silesian (Province of Silesia) capital Breslau (Wrocław) (Wrocław) and later largely administered by South Prussia. After the defeat of Prussia in the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806, the province was dissolved and the territory was made part of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw in the Treaties of Tilsit of 1807. Courant was born in Lublinitz (Lubliniec) in the German Empire's Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) Province of Silesia. During his youth, his parents had to move quite often, to Glatz (Kłodzko), Breslau (Wrocław), and in 1905 to Berlin. He stayed in Breslau and entered the university (University of Wrocław) there. As he found the courses not demanding enough, he continued his studies in Zürich and Göttingen (University of Göttingen). Courant eventually became David Hilbert's assistant in Göttingen and obtained his doctorate there in 1910. He had to fight in World War I, but he was wounded and dismissed from the military service shortly after enlisting. After the war, in 1919, he married Nerina (Nina) Runge, a daughter of the Göttingen professor for Applied Mathematics, Carl Runge. Richard continued his research in Göttingen, with a two-year period as professor in Münster (University of Münster). There he founded the Mathematical Institute, which he headed as director from 1928 until 1933. Life Freytag was born in Kreuzburg (Kluczbork) (Kluczbork) in Silesia (Province of Silesia). After attending the gymnasium at Oels (Oleśnica) (Oleśnica), he studied philology at the universities of Breslau (Wrocław) (University of Wrocław) and Berlin (University of Berlin), and in 1838 received his degree with a dissertation titled ''Über die Anfänge der dramatische Poesie bei den Germanen.'' Harald Bachmann: ''Gustav Freytag (1816–1895)''. In: ''Coburger Geschichtsblätter.'' 3 1995, Historische Gesellschaft Coburg e. V., S. 121–122 In 1839, he settled in Breslau (Wrocław), as ''Privatdozent'' in German language and literature (German literature), but organ of German and Austrian (Austrian Empire) liberalism. Freytag helped to conduct it until 1861, and again from 1867 till 1870, when for a short time he edited a new periodical, ''Im neuen Reich''. In 1863 he developed what is known as Freytag's pyramid; see Dramatic structure. DATE OF BIRTH 3 July 1940 PLACE OF BIRTH Smilovice (Frýdek-Místek District), Province of Silesia, Nazi Germany DATE OF DEATH *Rossitten Bird Station (Rossitten Bird Observatory) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, founded 1901 in Rossitten and integrated into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1921. The ornithological station was ceased at the end of the Second World War, but work continues at the ornithological station Radolfzell which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology. *Silesian (Province of Silesia) Coal Research Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, in Breslau. In the following years, large groups of French Huguenots settled in Stettin, bringing new developments into the city crafts and factories. The population increased from 6000 in 1720 to 21,000 in 1816, and 58,000 in 1861. The 19th century was an age of large territorial expansion for the city, especially after 1873, when the old fortress was abolished. In 1821, the crafts corporations were abolished, and in steam transport on the Oder began, allowing further development of trade. The port was developing quickly, specialising in exports of agricultural products and coal from the Province of Silesia. Economic development and rapid population growth brought many ethnic Poles from Pomerania and Greater Poland looking for new career opportunities in the Stettin industry. More than 95% of the population consisted of Germans. In 1843, Stettin was connected by the first railway line to the Prussian capital Berlin, and in 1848 by the second railway to Posen (Poznań) (Poznań). New branches of industry were developed, including shipbuilding (at the AG Vulcan Stettin and Oderwerke shipyards) and ironworks using Swedish ores. Before World War I, there were 3,000 Polish inhabitants in the city, Tadeusz Białecki, "Historia Szczecina" Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1992 Wrocław; pgs. 9, 20-55, 92-95, 258-260, 300-306 including some wealthy industralists and merchants. Among them was Kazimierz Pruszak, director of the Gollnow industrial works, who predicted eventual "return of Szczecin to Poland". The population grew to 236,000 in 1910 and 382,000 in 1939. Bavaria Born in Trebnitz (Trzebnica) (Silesia (Province of Silesia)), and brought up in Nördlingen, he became a school teacher by profession. Philip Rees, ''Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890'', 1990, p. 279 He joined the SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany) in 1917 and was instrumental in the setting up of a short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1919. Indeed for a time at the start of the year, following the resignation of Kurt Eisner and immediately before the establishment of the Soviet Republic Niekisch wielded effective power as chairman of the central executive of Bavarian councils, an interim governing body. Chris Harman, ''The Lost Revolution: Germany 1918 to 1923'', Bookmarks, 1982, pp. 129-130 He left the SPD soon after and joined the USPD (Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) for a time, before returning. History The first German licence plates that had a lettering plan were issued from 1906 onwards. Berlin for example was using I A (I for Prussia), Munich II A (II for Bavaria), Stuttgart III A (III for Württemberg (Free People's State of Württemberg)). Other German states used further Roman numbers such as IV (Baden (Republic of Baden)), V (Hesse (People's State of Hesse)), and VI (Alsace-Lorraine; now France). Many states used prefixes derived from the state names, such as B (Brunswick (Free State of Brunswick)), HB (Bremen), HH (Hamburg), and HL (Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck)), the latter three used again for the same entities since 1956. Other bigger cities: IV B Baden (Heidelberg, Mannheim, Karlsruhe, Freiburg, Lake Constance), II N Cities of Nuremberg and Fürth. The Prussian provinces had the following prefixes: I E Province of Brandenburg (to a minor part now Poland), I C Province of East Prussia (now divided between Lithuania, Poland and Russia), I S Province of Hannover, I T Province of Hesse-Nassau (Today Frankfurt, State of Hessen and neighboring counties), I L Province of Hohenzollern, I Z Rhine Province (Cologne, Düsseldorf and other large cities in the Ruhr Area), I H Province of Pomerania (now prevailingly Poland), I Y Province of Posen (now Poland), I B Province of Posen-West Prussia (now Poland), I M Province of Saxony, I P Province of Schleswig-Holstein, I K Province of Silesia (now mostly Poland), I X Province of Westphalia, and finally I D Province of West Prussia (now Poland). Šturm was born and raised in Görlitz, Prussian Silesia (Province of Silesia), when the Görlitz region was still part of the homeland of the Sorbs. His parents were both ethnic Sorbs (not Serbs). He finished the royal Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) military academy in Breslau (Wrocław) (Wrocław) and went to Serbia before the Balkan wars to fight the Ottoman Turks, studying in the Serbian military academy (Serbian military) and volunteering in the Serbian Army. Cohn was born in Breslau in the Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) Province of Silesia. At the age of 10 he suffered hearing impairment. He received a degree in botany in 1847 at the age of nineteen at the University of Berlin. He was a teacher and researcher at University of Breslau for his entire career. In the 1850s he mostly studied algae. In the 1860s he studied plant physiology in several different aspects. From 1870 onward he mostly studied bacteria. He published over 150 research reports during his lifetime. The University of Breslau became an innovative center for plant physiology and microbiology while he was there. Early life Mellenthin was born in Breslau (Wrocław), Silesia (Province of Silesia), into a military family; his father Paul Henning von Mellenthin was a lieutenant-colonel of artillery who was killed in action in 1918. Friedrich's older brother, Horst von Mellenthin, was also a World War II general. In 1924, upon graduation from Breslau's Realgymnasium, Friedrich enlisted as a private in the Seventh Cavalry Regiment of the Reichswehr. He studied for his commission over the next several years, and won a rare promotion to lieutenant in 1928 (the Reichswehr at the time having only 4,000 officers in its entirety). He married Ingeborg von Aulock, granddaughter of a South African emigrant, in 1932. Although he described himself as "perfectly happy" with regimental life, his superior assigned him to prepare operational reports to divisional headquarters, and these were generally approved of. In recognition of his talents, he was assigned to the Kriegsakademie in 1935, where he took its two-year course for General Staff officers. '''Max Karl Wilhelm von Gallwitz''' (2 May 1852 – 18 April 1937) was a German (Germany) general from Breslau (Wrocław) (Wrocław), Silesia (Province of Silesia), who served with distinction during World War I on both the Eastern (Eastern Front (World War I)) and Western Fronts (Western Front (World War I)). Reichsgaue established during the Second World War Of the territories annexed from Poland (Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany) and the Free City of Danzig in 1939, Reichsgau Wartheland and Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia were created. Annexed territories of pre-war Poland (Second Polish Republic) not within these two Reichsgaue was incorporated into the neighboring Gaue (Gau (country subdivision)) East Prussia and Silesia (Province of Silesia). The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg as well as Alsace-Lorraine, annexed from pre-war France in 1940, were attached to the bordering Southwestern Gaue of Nazi Germany. Two further Reichsgaue in Belgium were established in 1944, and also annexed ''de jure'' to Germany.


local line

to the Glogau (Głogów)-Grünberg-Guben railway line in 1871, followed by connections to Christianstadt (Krzystkowice) in 1904, Wollstein (Wolsztyn) in 1905, and a local line to Sprottau (Szprotawa) in 1911. Modernization Frederick managed to transform Prussia from a European backwater to an economically strong and politically reformed state. His acquisition of Silesia (Province of Silesia) was orchestrated so as to provide Prussia's fledgling industry


attitude

Protestant population especially in Lower Silesia, it became one of the most loyal territories of the House of Hohenzollern. When the Prussian territories were reorganized upon the Congress of Vienna, the Province of Silesia was created out of the territories acquired by Prussia in the Silesian Wars, as well as those Upper Lusatian territories, which King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony had to relinquish due to his indecisive attitude in the Napoleonic Wars. As the lands had been part

members were expelled . The museum was rearranged in 1950 and opened again in 1953. The club still exists in Germany, although its mission is obsolete. In view of the previous clashes of arms and the "lost" territories, the remaining German population from the beginning had a strong nationalistic (German nationalism) attitude, with the national conservative German National People's Party (DNVP) emerging as the strongest political power

Polish (Poland) and Jewish friends and attempted to make the world aware of the impending systematic murder of the Jewish people. Suspected by the Gestapo for his critical attitude, he was charged with being a member of the Red Orchestra (Red Orchestra (spy)), sentenced to death by hanging, and executed in Plötzensee Prison. Early life Misch was born in Alt-Schalkowitz (Popielów) near Oppeln (Opole) in the Province of Silesia (now Popielów, Poland). He became


style biography

''. His literary work was varied. As a poet he used forms like the ''Minnesang'' or the folksong and the anacreontics' style. Biography Naumann was born in Guhrau (Góra (Lower Silesian Voivodship)) in Silesia (Province of Silesia), Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), Germany (German Empire). After finishing school, he studied political economics. Naumann joined the NSDAP in 1928. Naumann became a member of the SA (Sturmabteilung) where he rose to the rank of ''Brigadeführer'' by 1933. Thereafter, Naumann joined the SS (Schutzstaffel). In 1937 he was Chief of the Propaganda Office in Breslau. Reichsgaue established during the Second World War Of the territories annexed from Poland (Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany) and the Free City of Danzig in 1939, Reichsgau Wartheland and Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia were created. Annexed territories of pre-war Poland (Second Polish Republic) not within these two Reichsgaue was incorporated into the neighboring Gaue (Gau (country subdivision)) East Prussia and Silesia (Province of Silesia). The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg as well as Alsace-Lorraine, annexed from pre-war France in 1940, were attached to the bordering Southwestern Gaue of Nazi Germany. Two further Reichsgaue in Belgium were established in 1944, and also annexed ''de jure'' to Germany.


making+natural

for the War-making Natural Resources of the Rhineland Letter from Konrad Adenauer to Robert Schuman (26 July 1949) Warning him of the consequences of the dismantling policy. (requires Flash Player) Letter from Ernest Bevin to Robert Schuman (30 October 1949) British and French foreign ministers. Bevin argues that they need to reconsider the Allies' dismantling policy in the occupied zones (requires Flash Player) (See: Monnet Plan) Katowice gained city status (Town privileges) in 1865 as Kattowitz in the Prussian Province of Silesia. Reichsgaue established during the Second World War Of the territories annexed from Poland (Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany) and the Free City of Danzig in 1939, Reichsgau Wartheland and Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia were created. Annexed territories of pre-war Poland (Second Polish Republic) not within these two Reichsgaue was incorporated into the neighboring Gaue (Gau (country subdivision)) East Prussia and Silesia (Province of Silesia). The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg as well as Alsace-Lorraine, annexed from pre-war France in 1940, were attached to the bordering Southwestern Gaue of Nazi Germany. Two further Reichsgaue in Belgium were established in 1944, and also annexed ''de jure'' to Germany.


paintings biography

factory where soon 1,500 persons found employment. Frederick the Great followed his recommendations in the field of toll levies and import restrictions. In 1763 when Gotzkowsky went broke during a financial crisis, which started in Amsterdam, Frederick took over his porcelain factory, known as KPM (Royal Porcelain Factory, Berlin), but refused to buy more of his paintings. Biography Maria Goeppert was born in Kattowitz (now Katowice, Poland), within the German Empire's Kingdom


technical book

with the University of Frankfurt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main). Throughout the Weimar years (Weimar Republic), Neumann's political commitment was to the laborist wing of the Social Democratic Party. From 1928 to 1933 he worked in Berlin in partnership with Ernst Fraenkel (Ernst Fraenkel (political scientist)) as an attorney specializing in labor law, representing trade unions and publishing briefs and articles, and a technical book in this innovative field. In 1932-33 he became lead attorney for the Social Democratic Party and published a brief, itself suppressed by the Nazis (Nazism), against the suppression of the principal Social Democratic newspaper. thumb left The ''Saxony provincial consistory'', in the background Magdeburg Cathedral Magdeburg's Cathedral (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-29427-0003, Magdeburg, Dom, 1000 Jahre.jpg). The ''Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces'' had substructures, called ecclesiastical province ( Reichsgaue established during the Second World War Of the territories annexed from Poland (Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany) and the Free City of Danzig in 1939, Reichsgau Wartheland and Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia were created. Annexed territories of pre-war Poland (Second Polish Republic) not within these two Reichsgaue was incorporated into the neighboring Gaue (Gau (country subdivision)) East Prussia and Silesia (Province of Silesia). The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg as well as Alsace-Lorraine, annexed from pre-war France in 1940, were attached to the bordering Southwestern Gaue of Nazi Germany. Two further Reichsgaue in Belgium were established in 1944, and also annexed ''de jure'' to Germany.


defensive campaign

); on a counter attack, his troops took the village back. Later that day, Klenau foiled his attempt to flank the Austrian main army, commanded by Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg. After the Battle of Leipzig, he was ordered to cover the evacuation of Leipzig with Prince Poniatowski (Józef Antoni Poniatowski). After the blowing up of the last bridge over the river, he managed to swim the Elster (Weisse Elster), but Poniatowski drowned. During the defensive campaign of 1814, MacDonald


political influence

Biography Michaelis, born in Haynau (Chojnów) in the Prussian Province of Silesia, grew up in Frankfurt (Oder). He studied jurisprudence at the University of Breslau, the University of Leipzig and the University of Würzburg from 1876 to 1884, becoming a Doctor of Laws (Juris Doctor). Modern influences Being the bulwark of Hohenzollern (House of Hohenzollern) Prussia, the Junkers controlled the Prussian Army, leading in political influence (Politics) and social status, and owning immense estates (Estate (house)), especially in the north-eastern half of Germany (Brandenburg (Province of Brandenburg), Mecklenburg, Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1815–1945)), East Prussia (Province of East Prussia), Saxony (Province of Saxony), Silesia (Province of Silesia)). Their political influence extended from the German Empire of 1871–1918 through the Weimar Republic of 1919–1933. It was said that "''if Prussia ruled Germany, the Junkers ruled Prussia, and through it the Empire itself.''" Frederic Austin Ogg, ''The governments of Europe'' (1920), Macmillan, p. 681 In 1810, MacDonald served in Spain and in 1812, he commanded the left wing of the Grande Armée for the invasion of Russia. In 1813, after participating in the battles of Lützen (Battle of Lützen (1813)) and Bautzen (Battle of Bautzen), he was ordered to invade Silesia (Province of Silesia), where Blücher (Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher) defeated him with great loss at Katzbach (Battle of Katzbach). At the Battle of Nations in 1813, his force was pushed out at Liebertwolkwitz (Battle of Leipzig#Battle of Liebertwolkwitz) by Johann von Klenau's IV Corps (Austrian); on a counter attack, his troops took the village back. Later that day, Klenau foiled his attempt to flank the Austrian main army, commanded by Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg. After the Battle of Leipzig, he was ordered to cover the evacuation of Leipzig with Prince Poniatowski (Józef Antoni Poniatowski). After the blowing up of the last bridge over the river, he managed to swim the Elster (Weisse Elster), but Poniatowski drowned. During the defensive campaign of 1814, MacDonald again distinguished himself. He was one of the marshals sent by Napoleon to take the notice of his abdication to Paris. When all were deserting Napoleon, MacDonald remained faithful. He was directed by Napoleon to give his adherence to the new ''régime'', and was presented with the sabre of Murad Bey for his fidelity. Life Kaluza was born to a Roman Catholic family from the town of Ratibor (Racibórz) in the German Empire's Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) Province of Silesia. Kaluza himself was born in Wilhelmsthal (a village that was incorporated into Oppeln (present-day Opole) (Opole) in 1899). He spent his youth in Königsberg, where his father, Max Kaluza, was a professor of the English language. He entered the University of Königsberg to study mathematics and gained his doctorate with a thesis on Tschirnhaus transformations. Kaluza was primarily a mathematician but began studying relativity (theory of relativity). In April 1919 Kaluza noticed that when he solved Albert Einstein's equations for general relativity using five dimensions, then James Clark Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism emerged spontaneously. Kaluza wrote to Einstein who, in turn, encouraged him to publish. Kaluza's theory was published in 1921 in a paper, "Zum Unitätsproblem der Physik" with Einstein's support in ''Sitzungsberichte Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften'' '''96''', 69. (1921). He was born at Oppeln (Opole), Silesia (Province of Silesia) (now Opole, Poland), into a Jewish merchant family, went to Leipzig University and then in 1887 to Berlin University, where he wrote his thesis ''De Gente Valeria'' under the supervision of Otto Hirschfeld. In 1893 he traveled to Rome, where Georg Wissowa recruited him to write biographical articles for the ''Pauly-Wissowa'' encyclopedia. From there he went to Athens and participated in excavations on the Acropolis. He also met Clara Engels there; they were married two years later, on 4 September 1897. Some smaller territories were incorporated directly into the already existing Gaue (Gau (administrative division)) East Prussia and Silesia (Province of Silesia), while the bulk of the land was used to create new Reichsgaue Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia) and Wartheland (Reichsgau Wartheland). Of those, Reichsgau Wartheland was the largest and the only one comprising solely the annexed territory. Czesław Łuczak, "Położenie ludności polskiej w Kraju Warty 1939-1945. Dokumenty niemieckie", Poznań 1987, pages V-XIII Since 1935, Nazi Germany was divided into provinces (''Gaue (Gau (administrative division))'') which had replaced the former German states (States of the Weimar Republic) and Prussian provinces (Provinces of Prussia). Of the territories annexed, some were attached to the already existing ''Gaue (Gau (administrative division))'' East Prussia and Silesia (Province of Silesia) (later Upper Silesia), while from others new ''Reichsgaue'' Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia) and Wartheland (Reichsgau Wartheland) were constituted. Wartheland was the only Gau constituted solely from annexed territory, Danzig-West Prussia comprised also former German areas and the former Free City of Danzig. The occupied General Government remained outside the Third Reich. America (United States), which had been the major destination of emigrants from the German East (Former eastern territories of Germany), lost much of its attraction when it stopped granting free land to settlers in 1893. Otto Büsch, Ilja Mieck, Wolfgang Neugebauer, Handbuch der preussischen Geschichte, p.57 At the same time, the Ruhr area prospered, leading to a high demand of workforce, especially in coal mining and heavy industries. This led to an East-to-West inner-Prussian migration. Until 1907, of Prussia's eastern provinces (Pomerania (Province of Pomerania (1815–1945)), West Prussia, East Prussia, Posen (Province of Posen), Silesia (Province of Silesia)), 2,300,000 emigrated, while only 358,000 migrated into these provinces. Otto Büsch, Ilja Mieck, Wolfgang Neugebauer, Handbuch der preussischen Geschichte, p.58 Among these were 600,000 were Poles "Świat, Europa, Polska 1795-1939" Halina Tomalska, page 258 Warsaw 1994 , This loss of workforce hit farms, which made up for this calling in season workers from further east. Berlin and Brandenburg in the same time gained 1,200,000 inhabitants, while the Ruhr area (Ruhr) and surrounding provinces (Westphalia and Palatinate (Palatinate (region))) gained 640,000 people

Province of Silesia

The '''Province of Silesia''' ( ; Silesian (Silesian language): ''Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ'') was a province (Provinces of Prussia) of the German Kingdom of Prussia, existing from 1815 to 1919, when it was divided into the Upper (Upper Silesia Province) and Lower Silesia (Lower Silesia Province (Prussia)) provinces, and briefly again from 1938 to 1941. As a Prussian province, Silesia became part of the German Empire during the Prussian-led unification of Germany in 1871. The provincial capital was Breslau (Wrocław) (present-day Wrocław, Poland).

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