Prince-Bishopric of Liège

What is Prince-Bishopric of Liège known for?


great victory

its unexpected great victory at Nordlingen (Battle of Nördlingen (1634)) in 1634, made plans for major operations in Germany to end the war against the Protestants there and in the Netherlands; these plans included Thomas leading an army in Westphalia, under the overall command of the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand, brother of Philip IV. Nothing came of this, but in 1635, when France declared war on Spain (Franco-Spanish war of 1635-59 (Franco-Spanish War (1635))), Thomas served under


modern history

) (died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (''pagus Bedensis'') and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. He received also the advocacy of the Abbey of Saint Rumbold (Rumbold of Mechelen) The abbey founded by St. Rumbold in the 6th, 7th or 8th century and a 9th century St. Rumbold's abbey church subordinate to the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) are assumed to have been located in the ''Holm'', higher grounds a little outside the later city walls of Mechelen. A 9th century St. Rumbold's Chapel in the city centre stood till 1580, was rebuilt in 1597 en demolished in 1798. After Prince-Bishop Notger (Notker of Liège)'s founding of the St. Rumbold's Chapter (Chapter (religion)) around 1000, an adjacent collegiate church was built and its parish title was handed to the chapter in 1134. Most likely on its spot, already from around the next turn of the century onwards the wellknown Saint Rumbold's Church (St. Rumbold's Cathedral) was built, consecrated (Consecration) in 1312, and functions as metropolitan cathedral (Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels) since 1559. This edifice never belonged to the abbey. Source: Sint-Romboutskerk (ID: 74569), VIOE (Retrieved 29 July 2011) at Mechelen from Charles III of France. From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia (Count Palatine of the Rhine). He was the founder of the House of Ardennes. The title is reminiscent of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, a noble title of the Holy Roman Empire which ceased to exist in 1795.


speaking

Secunda) ecclesiastical province of Rouen , which corresponded approximately to the Duchy of Normandy. This was a Romance-speaking territory, but it was not included within the French nation. *Picard nation: the Romance-speaking bishopric (diocese)s of Beauvais (Roman Catholic Diocese of Beauvais), Noyon (Ancient Diocese of Noyon), Amiens (Roman Catholic Diocese of Amiens), Laon (Ancient Diocese of Laon), and Arras (Roman Catholic Diocese of Arras); the bilingual (Romance

and Germanic-speaking) bishoprics of Thérouanne (Ancient Diocese of Thérouanne), Cambrai (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cambrai), and Tournai (Roman Catholic Diocese of Tournai); a large part of the bilingual bishopric of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège); the southernmost part of the Germanic-speaking bishopric of Utrecht (Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Utrecht) (the part of that bishopric located south of the Meuse River; the rest of the bishopric north of the Meuse River belonged

;Note 1: (#fn_1_back) The example of these expensive wars which is best known to English-speaking people is that of the Spanish Armada. However, that came in 1588, a little after the Dutch had become exasperated to the extent of signing the Union of Utrecht in 1579. * Note 2: (#fn_2_back) A seignory comes closest to the concept of a ''heerlijkheid''; there is no equivalent in English for the Dutch-language term. In its earliest


building activities

building activities in the city, which flourished under his rule (churches of St Paul, St. John the Evangelist, Sainte-Croix and St Denis). This bishop also strengthened the parochial organization of the city. He was one of the first church leaders to spread the observance of All Souls' Day, which he authorized for his diocese. Under Notger's administration, following up on the work of Heraclius, educational institutions in Liège flourished. With these two bishops (and Wazo) "The schools of Liège were, in fact, at that time one of the brightest literary foci of the period". In the 11th century the city was indeed known as the ''Athens of the North''. "Liège for more than a century occupied among the nations a position in regard to science which it has never recovered". Subsequent bishops, Balderic of Looz (1008–18), Wolbodo (1018–21), Durandus (1021–25), Reginard (1025–38), Nitard (1038–42), the learned Wazo, and Theoduin (1048–75), valiantly sustained the heritage of Notger. The schools formed many brilliant scholars, and gave the Catholic Church popes Stephen IX (Pope Stephen IX) and Nicholas II (Pope Nicholas II). The diocese also supplied the University of Paris with a number of important doctors — William of Saint-Thierry, Gerard of Liège and Godfrey of Fontaines. Alger of Liège (1055–1131) was an important intellectual of the period. He was first appointed deacon of church of St Bartholomew (St Bartholomew's Church, Liège) and finally retired at the monastery of Cluny. In the reign of Henry of Verdun (1075–91) a tribunal was instituted (''tribunal de la paix'') to prevent war and enforce the Peace of God. Otbert (Otbert of Liège) (1091–1119) increased the territory of the principality by purchasing the Lordship of Bouillon (Lords of Bouillon). He remained faithful to emperor Henry IV (Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor), who died as his guest. Henry of Namur (1119–21) was venerated as a martyr. During the administration of Alexander of Juliers (1128–34) the pope, the emperor (Holy Roman Emperor) and St Bernard (Bernard of Clairvaux) visited Liège. The episcopate of Raoul of Zachringen was marked by the preaching of the reformer Lambert le Bègue, who is credited with founding the béguines. Albert of Louvain was elected Bishop of Liège in 1191, but Emperor Henry VI, on the pretext that the election was doubtful, gave the see to Lothair of Hochstadt. Albero's election was confirmed by the pope but in 1192, shortly after he took office, he was assassinated by three German knights at Reims. It is probable that the emperor was privy to this murder but Albero was canonized. In 1195, Albert de Cuyck (1195–1200) formally recognized the political franchise (suffrage) of the people of Liège. During the 12th century, the cathedral chapter (chapter (religion)), along with the bishop, assumed a more important role in the history of the principality. The struggles between the upper and lower classes, in which the prince-bishops frequently intervened, developed through the 13th and 14th centuries, and culminate in the 15th century in the pillage and destruction of the episcopal city. In the reign of Robert of Thourotte (1240–46), Saint Juliana (Juliana of Liège) — a nun of Cornillon Abbey — was led by certain visions to the project of having a feast established in honour of the Blessed Sacrament. After much hesitation, the bishop approved of her idea but death prevented the institution of the feast. The completion of the work was left to a former prior of the Dominicans (Dominican Order) in Liège, Hugh of Saint-Cher, who returned to the city as papal legate. In 1252 Hugh made the feast of the Blessed Sacrament an obligation throughout his diocese. John of Troyes, who, after having been archdeacon at Liège, was elected pope as Urban IV (Pope Urban IV), encouraged the observance of the feast of Corpus Christi (Corpus Christi (feast)) in the whole Church. Another archdeacon of Liège became pope under the name Gregory X (Pope Gregory X) and deposed the unworthy Henry of Gueldres (1247–74). The Peace of Fexhe, signed in 1316 during the reign of Adolph II de la Marck (1313–44), regulated the relations between the prince-bishop and his subjects. Nevertheless internal discord continued and the episcopate of Arnold of Horne (County of Horne) (1378–89) was marked by the triumph of the popular party. In 1366, the county of Loon was annexed to the bishopric. Burgundian and Habsburg influence thumb The Archiepiscopal Palace at Liège (File:Het paleis van de prins-bisschoppen.jpg) Upon the death of Louis of Male (Louis II of Flanders), count of Flanders, in 1384, the Low Countries began their unification within the Burgundian Netherlands. Though the Principality was still nominally independent, the Dukes of Burgundy (Duke of Burgundy) have had an increasing influence on its government. Louis of Bourbon (Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Liège) (1456–82) was placed on the throne of Liège by the political machinations of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. The population resisted Burgundian rule leading to the Liège Wars, the destruction of Dinant in 1466, and of Liège in 1468 by Charles the Bold, marking the ending of democratic ascendancy in the Principality. Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) completed the union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, and unofficially also controlled the principality. ) (died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (''pagus Bedensis'') and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. He received also the advocacy of the Abbey of Saint Rumbold (Rumbold of Mechelen) The abbey founded by St. Rumbold in the 6th, 7th or 8th century and a 9th century St. Rumbold's abbey church subordinate to the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) are assumed to have been located in the ''Holm'', higher grounds a little outside the later city walls of Mechelen. A 9th century St. Rumbold's Chapel in the city centre stood till 1580, was rebuilt in 1597 en demolished in 1798. After Prince-Bishop Notger (Notker of Liège)'s founding of the St. Rumbold's Chapter (Chapter (religion)) around 1000, an adjacent collegiate church was built and its parish title was handed to the chapter in 1134. Most likely on its spot, already from around the next turn of the century onwards the wellknown Saint Rumbold's Church (St. Rumbold's Cathedral) was built, consecrated (Consecration) in 1312, and functions as metropolitan cathedral (Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels) since 1559. This edifice never belonged to the abbey. Source: Sint-Romboutskerk (ID: 74569), VIOE (Retrieved 29 July 2011) at Mechelen from Charles III of France. From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia (Count Palatine of the Rhine). He was the founder of the House of Ardennes. The title is reminiscent of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, a noble title of the Holy Roman Empire which ceased to exist in 1795.


single political

year 1881 publisher Sandoz et Fischbacher He was consecrated at the alleged age of 297, and is said to have lived for 375 years (birth 8 9 AD). History Historically, French-speaking Belgium was never a single

political entity until being unified under French rule during the French Revolution and Napoleonic rule. Prior to that, the region had never belonged to France. It was composed of the County of Hainaut (half of which was annexed by France (Treaties of Nijmegen) under Louis XIV), the County of Namur, the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy, the southern part of the Duchy of Brabant and the western part of the Duchy of Luxembourg


important musical

de Bles Henri Blès are generally called mosan (Mosan art) painters. Lambert Lombard (Liège (Liège (city)), 1505 – 1566) was a Renaissance painter, architect and theorist for the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. Gérard de Lairesse, Bertholet Flemalle were also important painters in the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. thumb 200px Guillaume Dufay (Image:DufayBinchois.jpg) (left), with Gilles Binchois There was an important musical life in Prince-Bishopric of Liège since the beginning. Between 1370 and 1468 flourished a school of music in Liège, with Johannes Brassart, Johannes de Sarto and firstly Johannes Ciconia, the third Master of Ars Nova. French ’’Le troisième grand Maître de l'Ars Nova'' in Robert Wangermée et Philippe Mercier, La musique en Wallonie et à Bruxelles, La Renaissance du livre, Bruxelles, 1980, Tome I,pp. 37-40. The modern borders of the province of Liège originated in 1795 in the unification of the Principality or Prince-Bishopric of Liège with the revolutionary France Department of the Ourthe (sometimes spelled Ourte). Most of the province traces its history to the Prince-Bishopric of Liège though. Prince-Bishopric of Liège was dissolved in 1795, when it was annexed by France. Its territory was divided over the départements Meuse-Inférieure, Ourthe, and Sambre-et-Meuse. Creating the modern boundaries of the Liege Province. Lafayette had already decided to flee with his similarly endangered staff officers to the Republic of the United Netherlands (Dutch Republic). Lafayette hoped to gather his family in Britain, then retire to the United States, Clary, p. 409 Spalding, pp. 5–6 but did not make it. Troops of the counter-revolutionary coalition of Austria and Prussia had been massing in the Southern Netherlands, to invade France with the intention of restoring the old French monarchy. Flemish Austrian troops under Major General (later Field Marshal) Johann von Moitelle arrested Lafayette's party the evening of 17 August at Rochefort, Belgium, at that time a village in the officially neutral Prince-Bishopric of Liège. Among those arrested with Lafayette were Jean Baptiste Joseph, chevalier de Laumoy, Louis Saint Ange Morel, chevalier de la Colombe, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Charles César de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg, Marie Victor de Fay, marquis de Latour-Maubourg, Juste-Charles de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg, Jean-Xavier Bureau de Pusy. Holbrook, p. 114 Doyle, p. 190 Lafayette Collection, Library of Congress, Reel 1, Folder 2A Spalding, pp. 2–3, 6–7 From 25 August to 3 September 1792, he was held at Nivelles; then transferred to Luxemburg (Luxembourg) where an Austrian-Prussian-French royalist military tribunal declared him, César de La Tour-Maubourg, Jean Bureaux de Pusy, and Alexandre de Lameth, all previously deputies in the French National Convention, to be "prisoners of state" for their leading roles in the Revolution. The tribunal sentenced them to an incarceration that was to last until, as was anticipated by coalition rulers, a restored French king could render final judgment on the prisoners for their alleged political crimes. On 12 September 1792, a Prussian military escort received the men from their Austrian guards. The party travelled down the Moselle river to Coblentz (Koblenz), then down the Rhine river to the Prussian fortress-city of Wesel, where the Frenchmen remained in the central citadel from 19 September to 22 December 1792. When victorious French revolutionary troops began to threaten the Rhineland, King Frederick William II of Prussia transferred the prisoners east to the citadel at Magdeburg, where they remained an entire year, from 4 January 1793 to 4 January 1794. Those walls have been dismantled in 1467, when Charles the Bold attacked the Prince-Bishopric of Liège during the Liège Wars and destructed many cities in the region. Maaseik was also besieged in 1672, by Louis XIV. The city burned in 1650 and 1684; the last one destroyed 1 3 of the entire city, included the historic center. After that the ''Maaseikenaars'' built stone houses instead of wooden ones. During the iconoclasm, Maaseik became almost independent, but Gerard van Groesbeek could calm down the people. In the early Middle Ages, Huy was one of the most prosperous cities on the Meuse, with a flourishing economy based mostly on metallurgy, but also on tanning, sculpting, woodworking, and wine-making. In the 10th century, Huy was promoted to county status, but soon became part of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, with which it would share its history for more than eight centuries. Huy was the recipient of the first historically known charter north of the Alps, confirming it as a city in 1066. It is around that time that Peter the Hermit harangued the locals and persuaded them to participate in the First Crusade. left 230px thumb Center of Verviers (Image:Verviers Centrum.jpg) In the 10th century, Charles the Simple ceded the Marquisate of Franchimont to the bishop of Liège, just before the creation of the Prince-Bishopric (Prince-Bishopric of Liège). Liège took direct control of the marquisate in 1014, an act which was confirmed by emperor Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor) and by Pope Adrian IV in 1155. The medieval hamlet of ''Woromia'' was cited for the first time in 965. On February 5, 1078, ''Woromia'' was ceded to the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, together with its castle, five mills, and six breweries.thumb left Waremme City Hall 150px (File:Waremme 050910 (6).JPG) By 1215, with its 815 inhabitants, it had grown to town size. Its frontier position near the Duchy of Brabant, however, attracted several raids from the duke, causing it to be burnt to the ground and rebuilt at least a couple of times. In the 14th century, the town built a market place and a hospital, slowly becoming an important regional center, where coins were issued and important meetings held. '''André Ernest Modeste Grétry''' (8 February 1741 – 24 September 1813) was a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (present-day Belgium), who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took French nationality. He is most famous for his ''opéras comiques (opéra comique)''. Another testing point concerned the pro-French Archbishop-Elector, Maximilian Henry (Maximilian Henry of Bavaria), and the question of his succession in the state of Cologne (Electorate of Cologne). The territory of the archbishopric lay along the left bank of the Rhine and included three fortresses of the river-line: Bonn, Rheinberg, and Kaiserswerth (Düsseldorf-Kaiserswerth), besides Cologne itself. Moreover, the archbishop was also prince-bishop of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège), the small state astride the strategic highway of the river Meuse (Meuse (river)). When the Elector died on 3 June 1688 Louis XIV pressed for the pro-French Bishop of Strasbourg, William Egon of Fürstenberg, to succeed him. The Emperor, however, favoured Joseph Clement (Joseph Clemens of Bavaria), the brother of Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria). McKay & Scott: ''The Rise of the Great Powers: 1648–1815,'' 42. The Bavarian Wittelsbachs (House of Wittelsbach) traditionally provided the electoral bishop. With neither candidate able to secure the necessary two-thirds of the vote of the canons (Canon (priest)) of the cathedral chapter, the matter was referred to Rome (Vatican City). There was no prospect of the Pope, already in deep conflict with Louis XIV, favouring the French candidate, and on 26 August 1688 he awarded the election to Clement. Childs: ''The Nine Years' War and the British Army,'' 15. The ''New Cambridge Modern History VI'' states Clement was awarded the election on 18 September. ) (died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (''pagus Bedensis'') and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. He received also the advocacy of the Abbey of Saint Rumbold (Rumbold of Mechelen) The abbey founded by St. Rumbold in the 6th, 7th or 8th century and a 9th century St. Rumbold's abbey church subordinate to the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) are assumed to have been located in the ''Holm'', higher grounds a little outside the later city walls of Mechelen. A 9th century St. Rumbold's Chapel in the city centre stood till 1580, was rebuilt in 1597 en demolished in 1798. After Prince-Bishop Notger (Notker of Liège)'s founding of the St. Rumbold's Chapter (Chapter (religion)) around 1000, an adjacent collegiate church was built and its parish title was handed to the chapter in 1134. Most likely on its spot, already from around the next turn of the century onwards the wellknown Saint Rumbold's Church (St. Rumbold's Cathedral) was built, consecrated (Consecration) in 1312, and functions as metropolitan cathedral (Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels) since 1559. This edifice never belonged to the abbey. Source: Sint-Romboutskerk (ID: 74569), VIOE (Retrieved 29 July 2011) at Mechelen from Charles III of France. From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia (Count Palatine of the Rhine). He was the founder of the House of Ardennes. The title is reminiscent of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, a noble title of the Holy Roman Empire which ceased to exist in 1795.


Moroccan (Morocco) kickboxer "Prince"

image_coat Wappen Bistum

Lüttich.png image_map Low Countries Locator Prince-Bischopric of Liege.svg image_map_caption The Prince-Bishopric of Liège around 1350. image_flag LuikVlag.svg continent Europe region Low Countries era Middle Ages status Vassal status_text Ecclesiastic state (States of the Holy Roman Empire) of the Holy Roman Empire empire Holy Roman Empire

of Maastricht Saint Lambert (at Maastricht) year_leader2 approximately 670-700 leader3 Notger (Notker of Liège) (first prince-bishop) year_leader3 972–1008 leader4 François-Antoine-Marie de Méan (François Antoine Marie Constantin de Méan et de Beaurieux) (last) year_leader4 1792–94 title_leader Prince-Bishop footnotes The '''Prince-Bishopric of Liège''' The name


important role

. Albero's election was confirmed by the pope but in 1192, shortly after he took office, he was assassinated by three German knights at Reims. It is probable that the emperor was privy to this murder but Albero was canonized. In 1195, Albert de Cuyck (1195–1200) formally recognized the political franchise (suffrage) of the people of Liège. During the 12th century, the cathedral chapter (chapter (religion)), along with the bishop, assumed a more important role in the history of the principality. The struggles between the upper and lower classes, in which the prince-bishops frequently intervened, developed through the 13th and 14th centuries, and culminate in the 15th century in the pillage and destruction of the episcopal city. In the reign of Robert of Thourotte (1240–46), Saint Juliana (Juliana of Liège) — a nun of Cornillon Abbey — was led by certain visions to the project of having a feast established in honour of the Blessed Sacrament. After much hesitation, the bishop approved of her idea but death prevented the institution of the feast. The completion of the work was left to a former prior of the Dominicans (Dominican Order) in Liège, Hugh of Saint-Cher, who returned to the city as papal legate. In 1252 Hugh made the feast of the Blessed Sacrament an obligation throughout his diocese. John of Troyes, who, after having been archdeacon at Liège, was elected pope as Urban IV (Pope Urban IV), encouraged the observance of the feast of Corpus Christi (Corpus Christi (feast)) in the whole Church. Another archdeacon of Liège became pope under the name Gregory X (Pope Gregory X) and deposed the unworthy Henry of Gueldres (1247–74). The Peace of Fexhe, signed in 1316 during the reign of Adolph II de la Marck (1313–44), regulated the relations between the prince-bishop and his subjects. Nevertheless internal discord continued and the episcopate of Arnold of Horne (County of Horne) (1378–89) was marked by the triumph of the popular party. In 1366, the county of Loon was annexed to the bishopric. Burgundian and Habsburg influence thumb The Archiepiscopal Palace at Liège (File:Het paleis van de prins-bisschoppen.jpg) Upon the death of Louis of Male (Louis II of Flanders), count of Flanders, in 1384, the Low Countries began their unification within the Burgundian Netherlands. Though the Principality was still nominally independent, the Dukes of Burgundy (Duke of Burgundy) have had an increasing influence on its government. Louis of Bourbon (Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Liège) (1456–82) was placed on the throne of Liège by the political machinations of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. The population resisted Burgundian rule leading to the Liège Wars, the destruction of Dinant in 1466, and of Liège in 1468 by Charles the Bold, marking the ending of democratic ascendancy in the Principality. Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) completed the union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, and unofficially also controlled the principality. ) (died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (''pagus Bedensis'') and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. He received also the advocacy of the Abbey of Saint Rumbold (Rumbold of Mechelen) The abbey founded by St. Rumbold in the 6th, 7th or 8th century and a 9th century St. Rumbold's abbey church subordinate to the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) are assumed to have been located in the ''Holm'', higher grounds a little outside the later city walls of Mechelen. A 9th century St. Rumbold's Chapel in the city centre stood till 1580, was rebuilt in 1597 en demolished in 1798. After Prince-Bishop Notger (Notker of Liège)'s founding of the St. Rumbold's Chapter (Chapter (religion)) around 1000, an adjacent collegiate church was built and its parish title was handed to the chapter in 1134. Most likely on its spot, already from around the next turn of the century onwards the wellknown Saint Rumbold's Church (St. Rumbold's Cathedral) was built, consecrated (Consecration) in 1312, and functions as metropolitan cathedral (Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels) since 1559. This edifice never belonged to the abbey. Source: Sint-Romboutskerk (ID: 74569), VIOE (Retrieved 29 July 2011) at Mechelen from Charles III of France. From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia (Count Palatine of the Rhine). He was the founder of the House of Ardennes. The title is reminiscent of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, a noble title of the Holy Roman Empire which ceased to exist in 1795.


important part

. Notger (Notker of Liège) (972–1008), by securing the feudal authority of Huy, became himself a sovereign prince. This status his successors retained until the French Revolution: and throughout that period of nearly eight centuries the Prince-Bishopric of Liège succeeded in maintaining its autonomy, though theoretically it was part of the Holy Roman Empire. This virtual independence was owed largely to the ability of its bishops, who on several occasions played an important part

) and the former Prince-Bishopric of Liège into a single constitutional monarchy called the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, with the House of Orange-Nassau elevated to royal status and providing the king. A stronger country on France's northern border was considered (especially by the Russian tsar (Alexander I of Russia)) to be an important part of the strategy to keep France's power in check. Shortly after 1200 the city received dual authority (condominium (international law)), with both the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) and the dukes of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) holding joint sovereignty over the city. Maastricht received city rights (City rights in the Netherlands) in 1204. Soon afterwards the first ring of Medieval walls were built. Throughout the Middle Ages, the city remained an important centre for trade and manufacturing (wool, leather), although gradually economic decline set in. After a brief period of economic prosperity in the 15th century, the city's economy suffered during the wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, and recovery did not happen until the industrial revolution in the early 19th century. Biography Urban IV was the son of a cobbler of Troyes, France. He studied theology and common law in Paris and was appointed a canon of Laon and later Archdeacon of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège). At the First Council of Lyon (1245) he attracted the attention of Pope Innocent IV, who sent him on two missions in Germany. One of the missions was to negotiate the Treaty of Christburg between the pagan Prussians (Old Prussians) and the Teutonic Knights. He became Bishop of Verdun (Bishopric of Verdun) in 1253. In 1255, Pope Alexander IV made him Patriarch of Jerusalem (Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem). * The Viking ring castle of Trelleborg (Trelleborg (Slagelse)) is constructed in Denmark. * Foundation by Notger (Notker of Liège) of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège which will remain an independent state inside the Holy Roman Empire for more than 800 years, and where the Walloon language will develop. * Vladimir I of Kiev starts to rule in Russia. The '''United Kingdom of the Netherlands''' (1815–1839) ( ) (died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (''pagus Bedensis'') and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. He received also the advocacy of the Abbey of Saint Rumbold (Rumbold of Mechelen) The abbey founded by St. Rumbold in the 6th, 7th or 8th century and a 9th century St. Rumbold's abbey church subordinate to the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) are assumed to have been located in the ''Holm'', higher grounds a little outside the later city walls of Mechelen. A 9th century St. Rumbold's Chapel in the city centre stood till 1580, was rebuilt in 1597 en demolished in 1798. After Prince-Bishop Notger (Notker of Liège)'s founding of the St. Rumbold's Chapter (Chapter (religion)) around 1000, an adjacent collegiate church was built and its parish title was handed to the chapter in 1134. Most likely on its spot, already from around the next turn of the century onwards the wellknown Saint Rumbold's Church (St. Rumbold's Cathedral) was built, consecrated (Consecration) in 1312, and functions as metropolitan cathedral (Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels) since 1559. This edifice never belonged to the abbey. Source: Sint-Romboutskerk (ID: 74569), VIOE (Retrieved 29 July 2011) at Mechelen from Charles III of France. From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia (Count Palatine of the Rhine). He was the founder of the House of Ardennes. The title is reminiscent of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, a noble title of the Holy Roman Empire which ceased to exist in 1795.


work history

of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, and unofficially also controlled the principality. He nominated Erard de la Marck (1505–38) who brought a period of restoration

Prince-Bishopric of Liège

The '''Prince-Bishopric of Liège''' The name of the city and prince-bishopric was spelled Liége until the early 20th century and that spelling is still occasionally found in the title of old newspapers, etc. http: www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org jsource judaica ejud_0002_0012_0_12513.html was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, situated for the most part in present Belgium, which was ruled by the Bishop of Liège (Bishopric of Liège) as a prince within the Empire. The ecclesiastical domain of the bishop was much larger than the domain which he controlled as a prince.

The bishops of Liège acquired their status as a Prince-bishop between 980 and 985 when Bishop Notger (Notker of Liège), who had been the bishop of Liege since 972, received secular control of the County of Huy from Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor.

The Prince-Bishopric belonged from 1500 on to the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle. Its territory included most of the present Belgian provinces of Liège (Liège (province)) and Limburg (Limburg (Belgium)), and some exclaves in other parts of Belgium and the Netherlands.

It briefly became a republic (the Republic of Liège) from 1789 to 1791, before reverting to a Prince-Bishopric in 1791. The role of Prince-Bishop permanently ended when the state was annexed by France in 1795. In 1815 it became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and in 1830 it was within the part of that kingdom which split off to become Belgium.

The principality ruled by the bishops of Liège was never part of the Seventeen Provinces or the Spanish and Austrian Southern Netherlands, but from the 16th century onwards its politics were strongly influenced by the dukes of Burgundy (duke of Burgundy) and later the Habsburgs (House of Habsburg), under the sovereignty of the family de la Marck (House of La Marck) ( ).

In 1559 its 1,636 parishes were grouped into eight archdeaconries, and twenty-eight councils, '' '') of the bishopric were: Liège, Beringen (Beringen, Belgium), Bilzen, Borgloon, Bree (Bree, Belgium), Châtelet (Châtelet, Belgium), Ciney, Couvin, Dinant, Fosses-la-Ville, Hamont (Hamont-Achel), Hasselt, Herk-de-Stad, Huy, Maaseik, Peer (Peer, Belgium), Sint-Truiden, Stokkem (Dilsen-Stokkem), Thuin, Tongeren, Verviers, Visé and Waremme.

The city of Maastricht fell under the joint jurisdiction (condominium (international law)) of the Prince-Bishop of Liège and the Duke of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) (later the States-General of the United Provinces (States-General of the Netherlands)). The second city of the prince-bishopric thus kept its '' ''.

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