of Portugal year_leader1 King (List of Portuguese monarchs) 1515–21 leader2 Francisco da Costa Gomes year_leader2 President (President of Portugal) 1974–75 title_representative Governor (List of colonial heads of Portuguese Timor) representative1 António Coelho Guerreiro year_representative1 1702–05 (first) representative2 Mário Lemos Pires year_representative2 1974–75 (last) currency Portuguese Timorese pataca
, and a United Nations administered transition period (United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor), East Timor became formally independent in 2002. The first Timorese currency was the Portuguese Timor pataca (introduced 1894), and after 1959 the Portuguese Timor escudo, linked to the Portuguese escudo, was used. In 1975 the currency ceased to exist as East Timor was annexed by Indonesia and began using the Indonesian rupiah. See also * History of East Timor
(Canton) and Hong Kong. In August 1943, Japanese troops seized the British steamer ''Sian'' in Macao and killed about 20 guards. The next month they demanded the installation of Japanese "advisors" under the alternative of military occupation. The result was that a virtual Japanese protectorate was created over Macau. Japanese domination ended in August 1945. Monetary system In Macau, the unit of currency is the pataca (Macanese pataca) which is currently pegged to the Hong
;the universal doctrines of socialism", as well as "the right to independence", Quoted in Dunn, p. 56. and later declared itself "the only legitimate representative of the people". Quoted in Dunn, p. 60. A third party, APODETI emerged advocating East Timor's integration with Indonesia Dunn, p. 62; Indonesia (1977), p. 19. expressing concerns that an independent East Timor would be economically weak
authorities there to announce plans for decolonisation of Portuguese Timor, the eastern half of the island of Timor whose western half was a part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara. In the elections held in 1975, Fretilin, a left-leaning party and UDT, aligned with the local elite, emerged as the largest parties, having previously formed an alliance to campaign for independence from Portugal. Apodeti, a party advocating integration with Indonesia, enjoyed little popular
in 1975. In spite of this grounding and in spite of his being in his 60s, he oriented the church towards support for the Timorese people fighting in the mountains and for those priests (Portuguese and Timorese) who had gone to live in the mountains with them. In 1981 the country's lingua franca the Tetum language, was made an official language of the Catholic liturgy in East Timor, instead of Indonesian (Indonesian language). A group of Portuguese low-ranking officers organised in the Armed Forces Movement (''MFA – Movimento das Forças Armadas''), including elements who had been fighting the pro-independence guerrillas in the Portuguese empire's territories in Africa, Manuel Amaro Bernardo, Guerra, Paz e Fuzilamentos dos Guerrilheiros rose to overthrow the corporatist (Corporatism) and authoritarian ''Estado Novo'' regime that had ruled Portugal since the 1930s. Portugal's new regime pledged itself to end the colonial wars and began negotiations with the African independence movements. By the end of 1974, Portuguese troops had been withdrawn from Portuguese Guinea and the latter had become a UN member. This was followed by the independence of Cape Verde, Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique), São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola (Portuguese Angola) in 1975. The Carnation Revolution in Portugal also led to Portugal's withdrawal from East Timor (Portuguese Timor) in Southeast Asia. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from Angola (Overseas Province of Angola) and Mozambique (Overseas Province of Mozambique)), creating over a million destitute Portuguese refugees — the ''retornados (Retornados#The retornados)''. Flight from Angola, The Economist (16 August 1975). Dismantling the Portuguese Empire, Time Magazine (Monday, 7 July 1975). World War II gave the Japanese Empire occasion to conquer vast swaths of Asia, sweeping into China and seizing the Western colonies of Vietnam, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Burma, Malaya (British Malaya), Timor (Portuguese Timor) and Indonesia among others, albeit only for the duration of the war. An estimated 20 million Chinese died during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1931–1945). Remember role in ending fascist war Following its surrender to the Allies (Allies of World War II) in 1945, Japan was deprived of all its colonies. Japan further claims that the southern Kuril Islands are a small portion of its own national territory, colonized by the Soviet Union. * São Tomé and Príncipe an overseas province between 1951 and 1971); local administration between 1971 and 1975, before it became an independent nation in 1975; * Portuguese Timor an overseas territory between 1951 and 1961, until unilaterally declaring independence as East Timor in 1975, it was annexed by Indonesia in 1976, recognised by UN (United Nations) as non-self-governing-territory under Portuguese administration between 1961–1999. After 1999 it was a United Nations protectorate until formal independence in 2002. Initially the population of these overseas territories were made to exploit resources (minerals, spices, wood or slaves), but later there was a sense of evangelisation or ''lusotropolicalism'', that facilitated the colonization of these lands. Gerald J. Bender (1978), p.2-18 The first significant colony was Brazil whose history included a period as kingdom (monarchy) within the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve(1815–1822), before a political schism would result in its independence in 1822. * ISO 3166-2:PT * Portuguese Timor and Macau History The pataca was introduced in Macau and Portuguese Timor in the year 1894, but only as a unit of account. The unit initially corresponded to the Mexican dollar, and it replaced the Portuguese real at a rate of 1 pataca 450 réais. The name '''pataca''' derives from the fact that the Portuguese always referred to the Mexican dollar as the 'Pataca Mexicana'. Formosa (Taiwan under Portuguese rule) list5 '''Present colonies (only Atlantic Ocean)'''
Kong unit, and at a 1 shilling and 4 pence discount in relation to the Straits dollar. It was notably the underlying principle of French and Portuguese colonial rule (colonialism) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was influential in the French colonies of Algeria (French rule in Algeria), French West Africa, and Indochina (French Indochina), and in the Portuguese colonies of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Guinea (Portuguese Guinea), Portuguese Mozambique
Kong dollar at a rate of HK$1 MOP1.03. The name pataca is a Portuguese word which was applied to the Mexican dollars that were the main circulating coin in the wider region in the second half of the 19th century. In the year 1894, the pataca was introduced in both Macau and Portuguese Timor as a unit of account for the Mexican dollar and the other silver dollar coins in circulation. In 1901 it was decided to grant the Banco Nacional Ultramarino the exclusive rights to issue
banknotes denominated in patacas, and in the year 1906, these notes went into circulation at an official equivalent rate of 2 shillings and 4 pence sterling (Pound sterling), and all foreign coins were outlawed. However, the Chinese were suspicious of these paper patacas, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, and as such, the paper patacas circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins. In the year 1935, when China and Hong Kong abandoned the silver standard, the Hong
1894 and 1958, except for the period 1942-1945, when the occupying Japanese forces introduced the Netherlands Indies gulden and the roepiah (Netherlands Indies roepiah). As in the case of the Macanese pataca which is still in use today, the East Timor unit was based on the silver Mexican dollar coins which were prolific in the wider region in the 19th century. These Mexican dollar coins were in turn the lineal descendants of the Spanish pieces of eight which had been
) Despite major internal political, social and sectarian divisions during the National Revolution (Indonesian National Revolution), Indonesians, on the whole, found unity in their fight for independence. Portuguese Timor, now East Timor, remained under Portuguese rule until 1975 when it was invaded by Indonesia. The Indonesian government declared the territory an Indonesian province but relinquished it in 1999. In 1975, the Carnation Revolution in Portugal caused
Udo became part of Ainaro in exchange. The suco of Mape-Zumalai became part of Cova-Lima in 2003. In Portuguese Timor, the city was known as '''Vila General Carmona''', after the Portuguese dictator António Óscar Carmona. The arms of Portuguese Timor followed the same format of other Portuguese colonies (Portuguese Empire) (later overseas provinces) with the territory being represented by the black and white Dominican cross in recognition of the role played by the Dominican Order in converting the East Timorese to Roman Catholicism. East Timor: flag proposal of 1967 Family Rogerio Lobo's father, Pedro José Lobo, moved from Portuguese Timor to Macau between late 19th century and early 20th century. He settled in Macau and married Branca Hyndman, the great granddaughter of Scottish sea captain Henry Hyndman, served in the British East India Company at Singapore and settled in Macau at the beginning of the 19th century. Pedro José Lobo was a famous and important businessman, politician and philanthropist of Macau. AIF troops were also dispatched from Darwin to the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) in the first weeks of the Pacific War. Reinforced battalions from the 23rd Brigade were sent to Koepang (Kupang) in West Timor ('Sparrow Force') and the island of Ambon (Ambon Island) ('Gull Force') to defend these strategic locations from Japanese attack. The 2 2nd Independent Company (2 2nd Commando Squadron (Australia)) was also sent to Dili in Portuguese Timor in violation of Portugal's neutrality. The force at Ambon was defeated (Battle of Ambon) by the Japanese landing on 30 January and surrendered on 3 February 1942. Over 300 Australian prisoners were subsequently killed by Japanese troops in a series of mass executions during February. Coulthard-Clark (2001). pp. 201–202. While the force at Koepang was defeated after the Japanese landed there on 20 February and also surrendered, Australian commandos waged a guerrilla campaign (Battle of Timor) against the Japanese in Portuguese Timor until February 1943. Coulthard-Clark (2001). pp. 207–208. Formosa (Taiwan under Portuguese rule) list5 '''Present colonies (only Atlantic Ocean)'''
, however, felt they could not trust Adolf Hitler, especially as Germany began to dominate its neighbors in the years leading up to the Second World War. During the Second World War, Portugal remained neutral. It was bound by the 550-year old Treaty of Windsor (Treaty of Windsor (1386)), the world's oldest diplomatic alliance, to afford assistance to the United Kingdom. Portugal refused to declare war on the Axis powers, but granted the Allies access to establish military bases in the Azores. In 1942, Australian troops briefly occupied Portuguese Timor in advance of their occupation by the Japanese (Japanese Empire). * '''Portuguese India''' - Joaquim José Machado, Governor of Portuguese India (1897–1900) * '''Portuguese Timor''' - José Celestino da Silva, Governor of Portuguese Timor (List of colonial heads of Portuguese Timor) (1896–1908) * '''São Tomé and Príncipe''' - Amâncio de Alpoim Cerqueira Borges Cabral, Governor of São Tomé and Príncipe (List of colonial heads of São Tomé and Príncipe) (1899–1901) * '''Angola''' - João Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos, High Commissioner of Angola (1921-1924) * '''Portuguese Timor''' - José de Paiva Gomes, Governor (1921-1923) *Mozambique (Mozambique (Portugal)) - Eduardo Arantes e Oliveira, High Commissioner and Governor-General of Mozambique (List of colonial heads of Mozambique) (1970–1972) *Portuguese Timor - José Nogueira Valente Pires, Governor of Portuguese Timor (List of colonial heads of Portuguese Timor) (1968–1972) * São Tomé and Príncipe - António Jorge da Silva Sebastião, High Commissioner of São Tomé and Príncipe (List of colonial heads of São Tomé and Príncipe) (1963–1972) **President - Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines (Presidents of the Philippines) (1965–1986) *Portuguese Timor (overseas province of Portugal (Administrative divisions of Portugal#Overseas Provinces)) **Governor - **President - Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines (Presidents of the Philippines) (1965–1986) *Portuguese Timor (overseas province of Portugal (Administrative divisions of Portugal#Overseas Provinces)) **Governor - Fernando Alves Adeía, Governor of Portuguese Timor (List of colonial heads of Portuguese Timor) (1972–1974) **President - Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines (Presidents of the Philippines) (1965–1986) *Portuguese Timor (overseas province of Portugal (Administrative divisions of Portugal#Overseas Provinces)) **Governor - *Portuguese India - became part of India *Portuguese Timor - The eastern side of the island of Timor was a Portuguese (Portugal) colony until 1975, when independence was declared as East Timor. Indonesian troops seized the country, but the country was finally declared independent in 2002. *Portuguese West Africa - became Angola Formosa (Taiwan under Portuguese rule) list5 '''Present colonies (only Atlantic Ocean)'''
the revolution. The ''retornados'' (from the Portuguese verb "Retornar", to return) are a Portuguese population who fled their overseas colonies during the decolonization process which was managed by the revolutionary National Salvation Junta, in the following months after the Carnation Revolution. After the military coup of 25 April 1974 Portugal faced political turmoil and the colonial army, often highly politicised by the Salazar Regime and the Independence Wars returned home, taking
and Francoist funded MDLP (Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Portugal). These groups carried out a number of attacks and bombings during the "Hot Summer" of 1975, mostly in the north of Portugal, while the MDLP was involved in the attempted coup of 11 March. When Spínola and his allies came to power in November, the MDLP disbanded, the ELP continued its campaign. When Portuguese Timor achieved its independence in 1975, the territory was taken by Indonesian rule after 9 days
'''Portuguese Timor''' was the name of East Timor when it was under Portuguese (Portuguese Empire) control. During most of this period, Portugal shared the island of Timor with the Dutch East Indies.
The first Europeans to arrive in the region were Portuguese in 1515. West, p. 198. Dominican friars established a presence on the island in 1556, and the territory was declared a Portuguese colony in 1702. Following a Lisbon-instigated decolonisation process (Carnation Revolution), Indonesia invaded East Timor (Indonesian invasion of East Timor) in 1975. However, the invasion was never accepted by other countries, so Portuguese Timor existed officially until independence in 2002.