Portuguese Mozambique

What is Portuguese Mozambique known for?


free world

African territories were refuted on the grounds that all Portuguese Africans would be Westernized and assimilated in due time, through a process called civilising mission, while for the other hand, the United States of America, a superpower and the self proclaimed "leader of the free World" remained hypocritically a place where millions of African-Americans struggled for civil rights and political freedoms (African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968)). The wars had


architectural efforts

and Thomas Honney amongst others. The earliest architectural efforts around the city focused on classical European designs such as the Central Train Station (CFM) designed by architects Alfredo Augusto Lisboa de Lima, Mario Veiga and Ferreira da Costa and built between 1913 and 1916 (sometimes mistaken with the work of Gustav Eiffel), Morais, João Sousa. '' Kaúlza de Arriaga (General), O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MOÇAMBIQUE E A PROMOÇÃO DAS SUAS POPULAÇÕES - SITUAÇÃO EM 1974, Kaúlza de Arriaga's published works and texts As part of this redevelopment program, construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam began in 1969 in the Overseas Province of Mozambique (the official designation of Portuguese Mozambique by then). This particular project became intrinsically linked with Portugal's concerns over security in the overseas colonies. The Portuguese government viewed the construction of the dam as testimony to Portugal’s “civilising mission” Allen Isaacman. ''Portuguese Colonial Intervention, Regional Conflict and Post-Colonial Amnesia: Cahora Bassa Dam, Mozambique 1965–2002'', cornell.edu. Retrieved on March 10, 2007 and intended for the dam to reaffirm Mozambican belief in the strength and security of the Portuguese colonial government. The 1960s, however, were crisis years for Portugal. Guerrilla movements (Portuguese Colonial War) emerged in the Portuguese African overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources. At the same time, social changes brought about by urbanization, emigration, the growth of the working class, and the emergence of a sizable middle class put new pressures on the political system to liberalize. Instead, Salazar increased repression, and the regime became even more rigid and ossified (Wiktionary:ossified).


black football

public universities were in operation, two of them in Lisbon (which compares with the 14 Portuguese public universities today). Several figures in Portuguese society, including one of the most idolized sports stars in Portuguese football history, a black football player from Portuguese East Africa named Eusébio, were another examples of assimilation and multiracialism. Since 1961, with the beginning of the colonial wars in its overseas territories, Portugal had begun to incorporate black


small poor

Kaúlza de Arriaga (General), O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MOÇAMBIQUE E A PROMOÇÃO DAS SUAS POPULAÇÕES - SITUAÇÃO EM 1974, Kaúlza de Arriaga's published works and texts As part of this redevelopment program, construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam began in 1969 in the Overseas Province of Mozambique (the official designation of Portuguese Mozambique by then). This particular project became intrinsically linked with Portugal's concerns over security in the overseas colonies. The Portuguese government viewed the construction of the dam as testimony to Portugal’s “civilising mission” Allen Isaacman. ''Portuguese Colonial Intervention, Regional Conflict and Post-Colonial Amnesia: Cahora Bassa Dam, Mozambique 1965–2002'', cornell.edu. Retrieved on March 10, 2007 and intended for the dam to reaffirm Mozambican belief in the strength and security of the Portuguese colonial government. The 1960s, however, were crisis years for Portugal. Guerrilla movements (Portuguese Colonial War) emerged in the Portuguese African overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources. At the same time, social changes brought about by urbanization, emigration, the growth of the working class, and the emergence of a sizable middle class put new pressures on the political system to liberalize. Instead, Salazar increased repression, and the regime became even more rigid and ossified (Wiktionary:ossified).


strong artistic

was diverse, owing especially to the Portuguese cuisine and Muslim heritage, and seafood was also quite abundant. Lourenço Marques had always been a point of interest for artistic and architectural development since the first days of its urban expansion and this strong artistic spirit was responsible for attracting some of the world's most forward architects at the turn of the 20th century. The city was home to masterpieces of building work by, Pancho Guedes, Herbert Baker and Thomas Honney amongst others. The earliest architectural efforts around the city focused on classical European designs such as the Central Train Station (CFM) designed by architects Alfredo Augusto Lisboa de Lima, Mario Veiga and Ferreira da Costa and built between 1913 and 1916 (sometimes mistaken with the work of Gustav Eiffel), Morais, João Sousa. '' Kaúlza de Arriaga (General), O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MOÇAMBIQUE E A PROMOÇÃO DAS SUAS POPULAÇÕES - SITUAÇÃO EM 1974, Kaúlza de Arriaga's published works and texts As part of this redevelopment program, construction of the Cahora Bassa Dam began in 1969 in the Overseas Province of Mozambique (the official designation of Portuguese Mozambique by then). This particular project became intrinsically linked with Portugal's concerns over security in the overseas colonies. The Portuguese government viewed the construction of the dam as testimony to Portugal’s “civilising mission” Allen Isaacman. ''Portuguese Colonial Intervention, Regional Conflict and Post-Colonial Amnesia: Cahora Bassa Dam, Mozambique 1965–2002'', cornell.edu. Retrieved on March 10, 2007 and intended for the dam to reaffirm Mozambican belief in the strength and security of the Portuguese colonial government. The 1960s, however, were crisis years for Portugal. Guerrilla movements (Portuguese Colonial War) emerged in the Portuguese African overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources. At the same time, social changes brought about by urbanization, emigration, the growth of the working class, and the emergence of a sizable middle class put new pressures on the political system to liberalize. Instead, Salazar increased repression, and the regime became even more rigid and ossified (Wiktionary:ossified).


national interest

territories in Africa during the 1960s. The independence movements active in Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea were supported by both the United States and the Soviet Union, which both wanted to end all colonial empires and expand their own spheres of influence. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the centuries-old overseas empire was a matter of national interest. The criticism against some kinds of racial discrimination in the Portuguese

: www.barnard.edu history sample%20thesis Fine%20thesis.pdf Colorblind Colonialism? Lusotropicalismo and Portugal’s 20th. Century Empire. in Africa. Leah Fine. Barnard College Department of History, Spring 2007 For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national interest. In Portuguese Africa, trained Portuguese black Africans were allowed to occupy positions in several occupations including specialized military, administration, teaching, health and other posts


promotion based

, the integration of traditional authorities into the colonial administration was deepened, a level of social integration, miscegenation and social promotion based in skill and human qualities of each individual, rather than in the ethnic background, which was coined '' '' (municipalities), in urban areas, governed


quot fighting

. The 1960s, however, were crisis years for Portugal. Guerrilla movements (Portuguese Colonial War) emerged in the Portuguese African overseas territories of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources


main cultural

115,000 inhabitants at the time with around 30,000 Europeans. Most of the other cities ranged from 10 to 15% in the number of Europeans, while Portuguese Angola (Angola (Portugal)) cities had European majorities ranging from 50% to 60%. Society '' (The Statute of Indigenous Populations) adopted in 1929


agricultural productions

, and also included British and South African investment. In 1959–60, Mozambique's major exports included cotton, cashew nuts, tea, sugar, copra and sisal. Other major agricultural productions included rice and coconut. The expanding economy of the Portuguese overseas province was fuelled by foreign direct investment, and public investment which included ambitious state-managed development plans. British capital owned two of the large sugar concessions (the third

Portuguese Mozambique

'''Portuguese Mozambique''' or '''Portuguese East Africa''' are the common terms by which ''''Mozambique'''' is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory (Portuguese Empire). Former Portuguese Mozambique constituted a string of Portuguese colonies and later a single Portuguese overseas province along the south-east African coast, which now form the Republic of Mozambique.

During its history, Portuguese Mozambique had the following formal designations: '''Captaincy of Sofala''' (1501-1569), '''Captaincy of Mozambique and Sofala''' (1570-1676), '''Captaincy-General of Mozambique and Rivers of Sofala''' (1676-1836), '''Province of Mozambique''' (1836-1926), '''Colony of Mozambique''' (1926-1951), '''Province of Mozambique''' (1951-1972) and '''State of Mozambique''' (1972-1975).

Portuguese trading settlements and, later, colonies were formed along the coast from 1498, when Vasco da Gama first reached the Mozambican coast. Lourenço Marques (Lourenço Marques (explorer)) explored the area that is now Maputo Bay in 1544. He settled permanently in present-day Mozambique, where he spent most of his life, and his work was followed by other Portuguese (Portuguese people) explorers, sailors and traders. Some of these colonies were handed over in the late 19th century for rule by chartered companies such as the '' as an integral part of Portugal. Most of the original colonies have given their names to the modern provinces of Mozambique.

Mozambique, according to official policy, was not a colony at all but rather a part of the "pluricontinental and multiracial nation" of Portugal. Portugal sought in Mozambique, as it did in all its colonies, to Europeanise the local population and assimilate them into Portuguese culture. Lisbon also wanted to retain the colonies as trading partners and markets for its goods. African inhabitants of the colony were ultimately supposed to become full citizens with full political rights through a long development process. To that end, segregation in Mozambique was minimal compared to that in neighbouring South Africa. However, paid forced labour (forced labour#Payment for unfree labour), to which all Africans were liable if they failed to pay head taxes (tax per head), was not abolished until the early 1960s.

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