Portuguese India

What is Portuguese India known for?


term originating

: a study in inter-relationship between habitat, technology, economy, society, and culture'' (1977), P. R. G. Mathur, Anthropological Survey of India, Kerala Historical Society, p. 1 The Indian government designates members of the community as "Syrian Christians", a term originating with the Dutch colonial authority (Dutch India) distinguishing the Saint Thomas Christians, who used Syriac (Syriac language) as the liturgical language, from newly evangelized Christians following Latin liturgy. Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). ''Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique'', p. 52. Media House Delhi. The term ''Syrian'' relates not to their ethnicity but to their historical, religious and liturgical connection to the Church of the East, or East Syrian Church. Menachery, George (1973) ''The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India'', vol. II. B. N. K. Press. ISBN 81-87132-06-X The Portuguese had a keen interest in implanting themselves in the spice trade and in spreading their particularly bellicose version of Christianity, which had been forged during several centuries of warfare in the Reconquista. Frykenberg, Eric (2008). ''Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present'', 125–127. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. Facilitating their goals was the ''Padroado Real'', a series of treaties and decrees in which the Pope conferred upon the Portuguese government certain authority in ecclesiastical matters in the foreign territories they conquered. They set up in Goa, forming a colonial government (Portuguese India) and a Latin church hierarchy under the Archbishop of Goa, and quickly set to bringing the Saint Thomas Christians under his authority. Frykenberg, Eric (2008). ''Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present'', pp. 127–128. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. - Dom Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal (Afonso, Duke of Porto) 31 July 1865 21 February 1920 Infante of Portugal (Infante), Duke of Porto, Viceroy of India (Portuguese India), and after 1908 Prince Royal. In March 1505, having received from Manuel I of Portugal the appointment of viceroy of the newly conquered territory in India (Portuguese India), he set sail from Lisbon in command of a large and powerful fleet, and arrived in July at Quiloa (Kilwa (Kilwa Kisiwani)), which yielded to him almost without a struggle. A much more vigorous resistance was offered by the Moors of Mombasa, but the town was taken and destroyed, and its large treasures went to strengthen the resources of Almeida. Attacks followed on Hoja (now known as Ungwana, located at the mouth of the Tana River (Tana River (Kenya))), Barawa, Angoche, Pate (Pate Island) and other coastal towns until the western Indian Ocean was a safe haven for Portuguese commercial interests. At other places on his way, such as the island of Angediva, near Goa, and Cannanore (Kannur), the Portuguese built forts, and adopted measures to secure the Portuguese supremacy. Indian postal systems for efficient military and governmental communications had developed long before the arrival of Europeans. When the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch India), French (French India), Danish (Danish India) and British (United Kingdom) displaced the Mughals (Mughal Empire), their postal systems existed alongside those of many somewhat independent states. The British East India Company gradually displaced other powers and brought into existence a British administrative system over most of India, with a need to establish and maintain both official and commercial mail systems. The international context was not favourable to the Portuguese regime. The Cold War was near its peak, and both Western (Western Bloc) and Eastern-bloc (Eastern Bloc) states were supporting the guerrillas in the Portuguese colonies, attempting to bring these under, respectively, American and Soviet influence (see Portuguese Colonial War). The overseas policy of the Portuguese Government and the desire of many overseas residents to remain under Portuguese rule would led to an abrupt decolonisation, which occurred only after the Carnation Revolution of April 1974 and the fall of the regime. Unlike other European colonial powers, Portugal had long-standing and close ties to its African colonies. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national interest. In the view of many Portuguese, a colonial empire was necessary to continued national power and influence. In contrast to Britain and France, Portuguese colonial settlers had extensively inter-married and assimilated within the colonies over a period of 400 years. Despite objections in world forums such as the United Nations, Portugal had long maintained that its African colonies were an integral part of Portugal, and felt obliged to militarily defend them against Communist-inspired armed groups, particularly after India's unilateral and forcible annexation of Portuguese exclaves Goa, Daman (Daman District, India) and Diu (Diu district) (Portuguese India), in 1961 (see Indian Invasion of Goa). thumb right Portuguese Air Force (File:AssaltonaMatadaSanga....jpg)'s helicopter operating in an African theatre during the Portuguese Colonial War. *In the Second World War, Portugal was neutral (Participants in World War II#Portugal) but the treaty was invoked by the Allies to establish bases on the Azores. *In 1961, during the invasion (Operation Vijay (1961)) of the Portuguese possessions (Portuguese India) of Goa, Daman and Diu by the Indian Union, Portugal sought the help of Britain to little effect. *During the 1982 Falklands War the facilities of the Azores were again offered to the Royal Navy. Expansion and territory The English East India Company (hereafter, the Company) was founded in 1600, as ''The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies''. It gained a foothold in India in 1612 after Mughal (Mughal Empire) emperor Jahangir granted it the rights to establish a factory (Factory (trading post)), or trading post, in the port of Surat on the western coast. In 1640, after receiving similar permission from the Vijayanagara ruler (Vijayanagara Empire) farther south, a second factory was established in Madras on the southeastern coast. Bombay island, not far from Surat, a former Portuguese outpost gifted to England (Kingdom of England) as dowry in the marriage of Catherine of Braganza to Charles II (Charles II of England), was leased by the Company in 1668. Two decades later, the Company established a presence on the eastern coast as well; far up that coast, in the Ganges river delta, a factory was set up in Calcutta. Since, during this time other ''companies''—established by the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch East India Company), French (French East India Company), and Danish (Danish East India Company)—were similarly expanding in the region, the English Company's unremarkable beginnings on coastal India offered no clues to what would become a lengthy presence on the Indian subcontinent. left thumb 250px India in 1765 and 1805 showing East India Company Territories (Image:India1765and1805b.jpg) '''Old Goa''' (Konkani (Konkani language):पोरणें गोंय – ''Pornnem Goem''; Hindi ओल्ड गोवा – ''Old Gova'', पुराणा गोवा – ''Purana Gova'') or '''Velha Goa''' (''Velha'' means "old" in Portuguese (Portuguese language)) is a historical city in North Goa district in the Indian state (States and territories of India) of Goa. The city was constructed by the Bijapur Sultanate in the 15th century, and served as capital of Portuguese India from the 16th century until its abandonment in the 18th century due to plague. The remains of the city are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India were Portuguese India. The period of European contact of Ceylon began with the arrival of Portuguese soldiers and explorer (Exploration)s of the expedition of Lorenzo de Almeida, the son of Francisco de Almeida in 1505. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


quot discovery

Christopher Columbus was greated harshly by its residents, when he and his crew disembarked in the Baía dos Anjos (in February 1493) on their return from their famous "discovery" of the New World. Several of his crew were captured, and complex negotiations were undertaken to liberate the same. Thankful for their liberation, a mass was celebrated by him and his party in the old chapel The old chapel of Anjos is only survived by a ruined ornate window portico on the site of the relatively new chapel (constructed in the 18th century). before he returned to Spain. Although relatively far from the routes used by ships traveling to India, the island was repeatedly attacked by French pirates (1553), Nine French warships while in the waters of Santa Maria, captured a fisherman near the Ponte de Carestante. He was able to escape to the waters of São Jorge, finding land, and reporting it to the local officials. A notice arrived in Terceira and preparations were made for the defense of the island. The preparations were so exaggerated that the pirates desisted, and made for the coasts of England instead.(FIGUEIREDO, 1990:75) the island assaulted by French troops (1576), A small group of boast (including a galleon and a carrack) disembarked on the island with several armed troops (equipped with arquebuses. After attacking several residents, they assaulted and burned down Vila do Porto. Then Captain-major Pedro Soares, in order to reinforce the defense, solicited his brother-in-law Rodrigo de Baeça, to travel to São Miguel (São Miguel Island) for help from Captain-major D. Manuel da Câmara (who immediately sent troops under the command of Sergeant-major Simão do Quental. Following several days of skirmishes, wherein the troops pillaged, sacked and destroyed the Vila, they were confronted by Baeça's near Santo Antão. After ferocious fighting, the French troops then reembarked and abandoned the island. (FIGUEIREDO:1990:75). the English (1589) English pirates, after artillery fire from their two boats, disembarked in the port of Vila. They climbed the rocky cliffs of Conceição and were met by gunfire from the defenders, under the command of Captain-major Brás Soares de Albergaria and his adjunct André de Sousa (as recorded by Father Manoel Corvelo, who also an active participant; extorting the defenders while holding an image of the Virgin his hands). Throwing rocks from the cliffs, the Portuguese caused several injuries, disorder and confusion, eventually causing the English to desist, retreating and leaving behind small boats, muskets and cutlasses, as well as a trumpet (which was used by the defenders in their triumph).(FIGUEIREDO, 1990:75-76). and Moors (1616 In July 1616, 500 Muslims from the area of Algeria left to pursue carracks traveling to India (Portuguese India). Unsuccessful, they guided their boats to Santa Maria, finding landfall in southern beaches (along Praia). Their captain, Tabaqua-raz (a renegade Genovese (Genoa)) spent the following weeks sacking and burning down churches, homes and public buildings (including the Convent of ''São Francisco''), kidnapping many and collecting prisoners (who were sold into bondage in North Africa). Many residents hid in the caves near Santana while waiting for support from São Miguel. and 1675 This assault was attributed to carelessness of sentinels, who were caught unawares when several Moors disembarked near Anjos. The Chapel of Nossa Senhora de Anjos was sacked, several women raped and eleven were taken into captivity (women and children).(FIGUEIREDO, 1990:76) ). By the 17th Century, a series of fortifications were constructed along the coast to defend the populous from these attacks, including the '''Fort of São Brás''' (Vila do Porto) and the (ruined) Fort of São João Baptista in Praia Formosa. Shahajahan dispatched a force of 48,000 to reduce Maharaji Shahaji, Nizam and his ally Adilshah. Under such mounting attack Adilshah sued for peace. With the withdrawal of Adilshah's support,Maharaja Shahaji could not hold much against the Mughals. His possessions were reduced quickly. In the fort of Mahuli he was besieged. Portuguese (Portuguese India) did not offer any help from naval side due to fear of the Mughals. In this war, Maharaja Shahaji fought till the last. But, unfortunately Nizam Murtaza, the little kid, was being kidnapped by Mughals and for the purpose of saving the life of Nizam, it became necessary for Maharaja Shahaji to make compromise. This compromise finished Nizamshahi. Maharaja Shahaji, on the condition of protecting the life of little Mourtaza Nizam at any condition, handed him over to Shahajahan. Nizam was taken away by Shah Jahan to Delhi. He was inducted into Adilshahi. As a precaution Shahajahan ensured that Shahaji was posted in deep south so as not to pose any challenge to Mughals. He finally became one of the top generals in the Adilshah's army, accepting a Jagir in his court, being based in Bangalur (Present day Bangalore in Karnataka). This is one phase of Shahaji's life. This title of Patriarch of the East Indies was conferred upon the Archbishop of Goa as part of a settlement between the Holy See and the Portuguese (Portugal) government concerning the link between religious and political aspects of Portuguese colonial expansion (Portuguese India). Later, with Portugal's decline as a colonial power, a difficult period resulted that was resolved by a further agreement by which Portugal renounced its rights of patronage (Padroado). In this way the episcopal appointments in actual or former Portuguese colonial territory reverted to the common provisions of ecclesiastical law, and hence to the unhampered decisions of the Holy See. As regards India, this meant that the Holy See was free to make appointments to the episcopate there that took account of the growth of British expansion (British Raj). * João Daniel de Sines, ''O Raspalhista'', João Daniel received his nickname, ''O Raspalhista'', for his adherence to Medical practices and republican (republicanism) ideology of the French (France) medic François-Vincent Raspail, who was notable for theories on cell (cell (biology))s, proponent of the use of microscopes, antiseptics, better sanitation and diet (diet (nutrition)). GColTE (Order of the Tower and Sword) (c.February 1809 - 19 April 1878; Lisbon) - a liberalist sympathizer and hero of the Liberal Wars, he would go on to fame for his medical knowledge and contribuitions during cholera (1856) and yellow-fever (1857) outbreaks, as well as his attacks on the royalist medicine and power of the Catholic Church, founding the Sociedade Humanitariana Raspalhista and publishing various articles in '''''O Portuguez''''' and '''''O Patriota'''''. * Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c.1460 or 1469 – 24 December 1524; Kochi (Kochi (India)), India) - was a Portuguese explorer (Portugal in the Age of Discovery) and the commander of the first ships to India; for a short time (in 1524) he was Governor of Portuguese India. He was born at the castle where his father Estêvão da Gama (Estêvão da Gama (15th century)) was the local ''alcalde'', and following his return from India, was given feudal rights over Sines. Portuguese visitors and their South Asian and African crewmembers often engaged in slavery in Japan, where they bought or captured young Japanese women and girls, who were either used as sexual slaves (Sexual slavery) on their ships or taken to Macau and other Portuguese colonies (Portuguese Empire) in Southeast Asia, the Americas (Portuguese colonization of the Americas), and India (Portuguese India), where there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders in Goa by the early 17th century. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


series history

page 3 isbn 9789057024535


poetry book

) Mozambique , a Portuguese colony at the time, he spent his youth in Goa, Portuguese India, another Portuguese colony. At the age of 18, he left Goa and traveled to Lisbon, where he studied history and philosophy at the local university. In 1951, Costa published his first work, a poetry book entitled ''A Estrada e a Voz''. He continued publishing, not only poetry, but also drama and romance (romance novel). Goa Formerly known as the ''Estado da Índia (Portuguese India)'' this territory was an integral part of Portugal (as distinct from a colony) under Portugal's Constitution (Constitution of Portugal) of 1910. '''Antao D'Souza''' (born January 17, 1939, Goa, Portuguese India) is a former Pakistani cricketer who played in six Tests (Test cricket) from 1959 to 1962. He was the fourth Christian to play Test cricket for Pakistan. They've served Pak cricket, on the field and off it He was a medium pace bowler and tail-end obdurate batsman. D'Souza toured England in 1962, heading the batting averages (53) as he remained not out in five of his six innings. Given a minimum of ten innings, D'Souza is one of only two Test cricketers, whose batting averages exceeded their highest score. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


black line

Verde , São Tomé and Príncipe, Angola and Mozambique), in Portuguese India (most importantly Bombay and Goa), in China (Macau), and Oceania (most importantly Timor, namely East Timor), amongst many other smaller or short-lived possessions (see Evolution of the Portuguese Empire). thumb 200 px This figure illustrates the path of Vasco da Gama heading for the first time to India (black line) (File:Caminho maritimo para a India.png) The western


major attempt

Santa Maria; later came to be known as St Mary's Islands. In 1640, the Keladi Nayaka kingdom defeated the Portuguese. From the 16th century, the Portuguese meddled in the church affairs of the Syrian Christians of Malabar. The Udayamperoor Synod (1599) was a major attempt by the Portuguese Archbishop Menezes to Latinize the Syrian rite. Later in 1653, Coonan Cross Oath led to the division of the local church into Syrian Catholics and Syrian Christians (Jacobites). Bombay (present day Mumbai) was given to Britain in 1661 as part of the Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza's dowry to Charles II of England. Most of the Northern Province was lost to the Marathas of the Maratha Empire in 1739 when the Maratha General Chimnaji Appa defeated the Portuguese. Later Portugal acquired Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1779. thumb Portuguese Indian coin from 1799 (File:Portuguese India 20 Bazaucos reverse.JPG) In 1843 the capital was shifted to Panjim, then renamed "Nova Goa", when it officially became the administrative seat of Portuguese India, replacing the city of Velha Goa (now Old Goa), although the Viceroys lived there already since 1 December 1759. Before moving to the city, the viceroy remodelled the fortress of Adil Khan, transforming it into a palace. The Portuguese also shipped over many Orfãs del Rei to Portuguese colonies in the Indian peninsula, Goa in particular. Orfãs del Rei (Orfas del Rei) literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with high status. Thus there are Portuguese footprints all over the western and eastern coasts of the Indian peninsula, though Goa became the capital of Portuguese Goa from 1530 onwards until the annexation of Goa proper and the entire Estado da Índia Portuguesa, and its merger with the Indian Union in 1961. Post British Raj '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


national interest

African colonies. For the Portuguese ruling regime, the overseas empire was a matter of national interest. In the view of many Portuguese, a colonial empire was necessary to continued national power and influence. In contrast to Britain and France, Portuguese colonial settlers had extensively inter-married and assimilated within the colonies over a period of 400 years. Despite objections in world forums such as the United Nations, Portugal had long maintained that its African colonies were an integral part of Portugal, and felt obliged to militarily defend them against Communist-inspired armed groups, particularly after India's unilateral and forcible annexation of Portuguese exclaves Goa, Daman (Daman District, India) and Diu (Diu district) (Portuguese India), in 1961 (see Indian Invasion of Goa). thumb right Portuguese Air Force (File:AssaltonaMatadaSanga....jpg)'s helicopter operating in an African theatre during the Portuguese Colonial War. *In the Second World War, Portugal was neutral (Participants in World War II#Portugal) but the treaty was invoked by the Allies to establish bases on the Azores. *In 1961, during the invasion (Operation Vijay (1961)) of the Portuguese possessions (Portuguese India) of Goa, Daman and Diu by the Indian Union, Portugal sought the help of Britain to little effect. *During the 1982 Falklands War the facilities of the Azores were again offered to the Royal Navy. Expansion and territory The English East India Company (hereafter, the Company) was founded in 1600, as ''The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies''. It gained a foothold in India in 1612 after Mughal (Mughal Empire) emperor Jahangir granted it the rights to establish a factory (Factory (trading post)), or trading post, in the port of Surat on the western coast. In 1640, after receiving similar permission from the Vijayanagara ruler (Vijayanagara Empire) farther south, a second factory was established in Madras on the southeastern coast. Bombay island, not far from Surat, a former Portuguese outpost gifted to England (Kingdom of England) as dowry in the marriage of Catherine of Braganza to Charles II (Charles II of England), was leased by the Company in 1668. Two decades later, the Company established a presence on the eastern coast as well; far up that coast, in the Ganges river delta, a factory was set up in Calcutta. Since, during this time other ''companies''—established by the Portuguese (Portuguese India), Dutch (Dutch East India Company), French (French East India Company), and Danish (Danish East India Company)—were similarly expanding in the region, the English Company's unremarkable beginnings on coastal India offered no clues to what would become a lengthy presence on the Indian subcontinent. left thumb 250px India in 1765 and 1805 showing East India Company Territories (Image:India1765and1805b.jpg) '''Old Goa''' (Konkani (Konkani language):पोरणें गोंय – ''Pornnem Goem''; Hindi ओल्ड गोवा – ''Old Gova'', पुराणा गोवा – ''Purana Gova'') or '''Velha Goa''' (''Velha'' means "old" in Portuguese (Portuguese language)) is a historical city in North Goa district in the Indian state (States and territories of India) of Goa. The city was constructed by the Bijapur Sultanate in the 15th century, and served as capital of Portuguese India from the 16th century until its abandonment in the 18th century due to plague. The remains of the city are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India were Portuguese India. The period of European contact of Ceylon began with the arrival of Portuguese soldiers and explorer (Exploration)s of the expedition of Lorenzo de Almeida, the son of Francisco de Almeida in 1505. '''André Pereira dos Reis''' was a Portuguese (Portugal) captain, pilot, and cartographer. A native of Goa, he was engaged in the wars against the Arabs, serving in the fleets of fortress of Portuguese India. In 1647, he was knighted (knight). He was blamed for the loss of Muscat (Muscat, Oman) (1650). thumb right w:St. Paul's Church, Diu St. Paul's Church in Diu (File:Eglise St Paul.jpg) named after St. Paul (w:St. Paul), the Apostle of Jesus (w:Apostle (Christian)) also known as the Apostle to the Gentiles, in baroque architecture (w:Baroque architecture) in India. '''Daman and Diu (w:Daman and Diu)''' is a union territory (w:Union Teritory) in India. For over 450 years, the coastal exclaves of Daman (w:Daman) and Diu (w:Diu) on the Arabian Sea (w:Arabian Sea) coast (w:Coast) were part of Portuguese India (w:Portuguese India), along with Goa (Goa) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w: Dadra and Nagar Haveli). Goa, Daman, and Diu (w: Goa, Daman, and Diu) were incorporated into the Republic of India (w: Republic of India) on 19 December 1961 by military conquest (w:Operation Vijay 1961). *Goa, Daman and Diu were the main Portuguese possessions (w:Portuguese India) in India which remained under the Portuguese rule for 450 years. They were liberated on 19 December 1961 during Operation Vijay (w:Operation Vijay 1961). Both Daman and Diu were governed from Goa till their liberation (w:Liberation) on 19 December 1961. Before the Portuguese period, from fourteenth to sixteenth century. Diu (w:Diu, India) was one of the best port and naval bases and both Daman and Diu were notable. **Kumar Suresh Singh, et al, in Daman and Diu (1994), p. 5 *The twin islands are a perfect example of a place where history and nature meet.The tranquillity (w:Tranquillity) is what symbolises the beaches (w:Beaches) of Daman and Diu Islands. Daman was the Portuguese colony (w:Portuguese India) for over four centuries and joined the Indian Union (w:Indian Union) in 1961. **Prakash Talwar, in Travel And Tourism Management (4 Vols.) (1 January 2006), p. 208


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;Scott multiple" Scott volumes 4-6. After India attained independence in 1947, pro-Indian residents of the Portuguese overseas territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organisations, liberated Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in 1954. P S Lele, Dadra and Nagar Haveli: past and present, Published by Usha P. Lele, 1987, In 1961, São João Baptista de Ajudá


centuries period

of present France, this would mean France without its overseas departments (Département d'outre-mer) and other territories. * For Portugal, during the 19th and 20th centuries period, ''Metrópole'' designated the European part of Portugal (Mainland Portugal plus the Azores and Madeira); the overseas provinces (Portuguese Empire) were called ''Ultramar'' ( overseas). Until 1975, Portuguese Africa's ''Ultramar'' referred to Angola (Portuguese Angola), Portuguese Mozambique


international publishing

there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders in Goa by the early 17th century. Later European East India companies (East India Company (disambiguation)), including those of the Dutch (Dutch East India Company) and British (East India Company), were involved in prostitution while in Japan. ref

From 1527 the Paravars were being threatened by Arab fleets offshore, headed by the Muslim-supporting Zamorin of Calicut, and also by an onshore campaign of the Rajah of Madura to wrest control of Tirunelveli and the Fishery Coast from the hands of the Rajah

usually young Japanese (Japanese people) women and girls brought or captured as sexual slaves (Sexual slavery) by Portuguese (Portuguese Empire) traders and their South Asian ''lascar'' crewmembers from Japan. '''Kochi (Kochi (India))''' is a city in the Indian state of Kerala

Portuguese India

The '''State of India''', formally, '''Estado da Índia Portuguesa,''' and commonly '''Portuguese India''', was a colonial state of the Portuguese Empire (List of states of the Portuguese Empire), founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.

The first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, established his headquarters in Cochin (''Cochim'', Kochi). Subsequent Portuguese governors (List of governors of Portuguese India) were not always of viceroy rank. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa. Until the 18th Century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions (Portuguese empire) in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Macau (Portuguese Macau), Solor and Timor (Portuguese Timor), and its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar (Malabar Coast) coast of present-day India.

At the time of the British Indian Empire's dissolution in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on modern-day India's western coast, sometimes referred to collectively as '''Goa''': Goa; Daman (Daman, Daman and Diu) (Portuguese: Damão) which included the inland enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and Diu (Daman and Diu). Portugal lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, and finally the rest of the overseas territory in December 1961, when it was taken by India after military action. In spite of this, Portugal only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime (Estado Novo (Portugal)).

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