Portuguese Guinea

What is Portuguese Guinea known for?


centuries period

. * For Portugal, during the 19th and 20th centuries period, ''Metrópole'' designated the European part of Portugal (Mainland Portugal plus the Azores and Madeira); the overseas provinces (Portuguese Empire) were called ''Ultramar'' ( overseas). Until 1975, Portuguese Africa's ''Ultramar'' referred to Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique), Portuguese Guinea, Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe. The term ''Metrópole'' was dropped from common usage


black football

; ref ), during a time that in the European mainland only four public universities were in operation, two of them in Lisbon (which compares with the 14 Portuguese public universities today). Several figures in Portuguese society, including one of the most idolized sports stars in Portuguese football history, a black football player from Portuguese East Africa named Eusébio, were another examples of assimilation and multiracialism. Since 1961, with the beginning of the colonial wars


small poor

of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources. At the same time, social changes brought about by urbanization, emigration, the growth of the working class, and the emergence of a sizable middle class put new pressures on the political system to liberalize. Instead, Salazar increased repression, and the regime became even more rigid and ossified (Wiktionary:ossified). list1 '''Former colonies''' list2 '''Africa & nearby Islands:''' Aguz (Souira Guedima) Souira Guedima, Morocco (1506-1525) Nova Colônia do Sacramento, Uruguay (1680-1777)


campaign building

Biographical Dictionary'', 1994, p. 73. By 1967, the PAIGC had carried out 147 attacks on Portuguese barracks and army encampments, and effectively controlled 2 3 of Portuguese Guinea. The following year, Portugal began a new campaign against the guerrillas with the arrival of the new governor of the colony, António de Spínola. Spínola began a massive construction campaign, building schools, hospitals, new housing (houses) and improving telecommunications and the road


quot fighting

of Angola (Portuguese Angola), Mozambique (Portuguese Mozambique) and Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) that aimed at liberating those territories from "the last colonial empire". Fighting three guerrilla movements for more than a decade proved to be enormously draining for a small, poor country in terms of labor and financial resources. At the same time, social changes brought about by urbanization, emigration, the growth of the working class, and the emergence of a sizable middle


multiple quot

, Portuguese India and Timor issued war tax stamps. Scott volumes 4-6. '''Boe''' (full name '''Madina do Boe''') is a settlement in the southeastern region of Guinea-Bissau. In this location the independence of Guinea-Bissau was declared on September 24, 1973. Boe served as the Guinea-Bissau ''de facto'' capital until 1974, when Portugal offered independence to Portuguese Guinea after the Carnation Revolution


low annual

institutional relations between the colonies and Portugal-based individuals and organizations were numerous, though migration to, from, and between Portugal and its overseas departments was limited in size, due principally to the long distance and low annual income of the average Portuguese as well that of the indigenous overseas populations. By early 1974, guerrilla operations in Angola and Mozambique had been reduced to sporadic ambush operations against the Portuguese in the rural countryside areas, far from the main centers of population. The only exception was Portuguese Guinea, where PAIGC guerrilla operations, strongly supported by neighbouring allies like Guinea and Senegal, were largely successful in liberating and securing large areas of Portuguese Guinea. According some historians, Portugal recognized its inability to win the conflict in Guinea at the outset, but was forced to fight on to prevent an independent Guinea from serving as a inspirational model for insurgents in Angola and Mozambique. NORRIE MACQUEEN, Portugal's First Domino: ‘Pluricontinentalism’ and Colonial War in Guiné-Bissau, 1963–1974, "Portugal's presence in Guiné-Bissau through eleven years of intense guerrilla war was justified by the doctrine of ‘pluricontinentalim’. In this view concession to nationalist pressure in one part of the ‘indivisible state’ would lead inevitably to the collapse of the whole. The defence of Portuguese Guiné, therefore, was the price to be paid for the maintenance of the infinitely more valuable territories of Angola and Mozambique. While the Salazar regime was rigid in its adherence to this doctrine, some movement was detectable under his successor from 1968, Marcelo Caetano. The governor-general in Guiné, General Spínola, was permitted to explore possibilities of negotiation. Politically insecure in the face of residual Salazarist power in the regime, however, Caetano abandoned this approach in 1972. This apparent loss of nerve would contribute to the overthrow of the Caetano government by its own military in 1974.", Contemporary European History (1999), 8: 209-230 Cambridge University Press thumb right A PAIGC checkpoint in 1974 (Image:PAIGC posto de controlo.jpg) In Portuguese Guinea (also simply referred to as Guinea at that time), the Marxist African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) started fighting in January 1963. Its guerrilla fighters attacked the Portuguese headquarters in Tite, located to the south of Bissau, the capital, near the Corubal river. Similar actions quickly spread across the entire colony, requiring a strong response from the Portuguese forces. The war in Guinea has been termed "Portugal's Vietnam". The PAIGC was well-trained, well-led, and equipped and received substantial support from safe havens in neighbouring countries like Senegal and Guinea-Conakry. The jungles of Guinea and the proximity of the PAIGC's allies near the border proved to be of significant advantage in providing tactical superiority during cross-border attacks and resupply missions for the guerrillas. The conflict in Portuguese Guinea involving the PAIGC guerrillas and the Portuguese Army would prove the most intense and damaging of all conflicts in the Portuguese Colonial War, blocking Portuguese attempts to pacify the disputed territory via new economic and socioeconomic policies that had been applied with some success in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique. In 1965 the war spread to the eastern part of Guinea; that same year, the PAIGC carried out attacks in the north of the territory where at the time only the Front for the Liberation and Independence of Guinea (FLING), a minor insurgent group, was active. By this time, the PAIGC had begun to openly receive military support from the Socialist Bloc, mainly from Cuba, and the Soviet Union. Prior to their own Colonial War the Portuguese military had studied French and British efforts in Indo-China, Algeria and Malaya (Cann, 1997). Based on their analysis of operations in those theatres and considering their own situation in Africa, the Portuguese military took the unusual decision to restructure their entire armed forces, from top to bottom, for counterinsurgency. This transformation did, however, take seven years to complete and only saw its final form in 1968. By 1974 the counterinsurgency efforts were successful in the Portuguese territories of Angola (Angola (Portugal)) and Mozambique (Mozambique (Portugal)), but in Portuguese Guinea the local guerrilla was making progresses. As the conflict escalated, the Portuguese authorities developed progressively tougher responses, these included the Gordian Knot Operation and the Operation Green Sea. right 250px thumb The Portuguese Airforce employed Fiat G91 (Image:Fiat G91.jpg) aircraft like this in the Portuguese Colonial War. Unlike the Vietnam War, Portugal's limited national resources did not allow for widespread use of the helicopter. Only those troops involved in raids (Raid (military)) (also called ''golpe de mão'' (hand blow) in Portuguese) - mainly Commandos (Portuguese Army Commandos) and Paratroopers - would deploy by helicopter. Most deployments were either on foot or in vehicles (Berliet and Unimog trucks). The helicopters were reserved for support (in a gunship role) or MEDEVAC. The Alouette III (Aérospatiale Alouette III) was the most widely-used helicopter, although the Puma (Aérospatiale Puma) was also used with great success. Other aircraft were employed: for air support the T6 (T-6 Texan), the F-86 Sabre and the Fiat G.91 were used; for reconnaissance the Dornier Do 27 was employed. In the transport role, the Portuguese Air Force originally used the Junkers Ju 52, followed by the Nord Noratlas, the C-54 Skymaster, and the C-47 (C-47 Skytrain) (all of these aircraft were also used for Paratroop drop operations). From 1965, Portugal (Estado Novo (Portugal)) began to purchase the Fiat G.91 to deploy to its African overseas territories of Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa), Guinea (Portuguese Guinea) and Angola (Portuguese West Africa) in the close-support role. Nicolli 2003, p.174 The first 40 G.91 were purchased second-hand from the Luftwaffe, out of the aircraft that had originally been produced for Greece and which differed from the rest of the Luftwaffe G.91s sufficiently to create maintenance problems. The aircraft replaced the Portuguese F-86 Sabre. Colonial War The army participated in colonial war (Portuguese Colonial War) from 1961 to 1974, in Angola, Goa, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea and Cape Verde. At the other oversees possessions, East Timor and São Tomé and Príncipe, there was a military presence but no guerrilla organizations. In 1961, the isolated and relatively small Portuguese Army suffered a defeat (Invasion of Goa) against a largely superior Indian Army in the colony of Portuguese India, which was subsequently lost to the Union of India in the same invasion. The counterinsurgency campaigns in Africa had various degrees of success ranging from almost victory in Angola to total and conventional war in Portuguese Guinea. This war ended after the Carnation Revolution military coup of April 1974 in Lisbon and subsequently independence of the colonies. Colonial War The army participated in colonial war (Portuguese Colonial War) from 1961 to 1974, in Angola, Goa, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea and Cape Verde. At the other oversees possessions, East Timor and São Tomé and Príncipe, there was a military presence but no guerrilla organizations. In 1961, the isolated and relatively small Portuguese Army suffered a defeat (Invasion of Goa) against a largely superior Indian Army in the colony of Portuguese India, which was subsequently lost to the Union of India in the same invasion. The counterinsurgency campaigns in Africa had various degrees of success ranging from almost victory in Angola to total and conventional war in Portuguese Guinea. This war ended after the Carnation Revolution military coup of April 1974 in Lisbon and subsequently independence of the colonies. thumb left A Portuguese Air Force Portuguese (File:Alouette III fazendo uma evacuação sanitária.jpg) Alouette Mk III (Aérospatiale Alouette III), seen in Portuguese Guinea during the early 1970s. The RLI used these helicopters for its Fireforce operations. Each stop had four soldiers called a "stick". Nova Colônia do Sacramento, Uruguay (1680-1777)


development studies

place on the morning of 25 April. Within a few hours Lisbon was completely occupied by troops loyal to the MFA. Prime Minister Marcello Caetano handed over power to General António de Spínola. As a consequence of 25 April 1974 the MFA mobilised the army and announced the three 'D's: Democratisation, Decolonisation and Development (Development studies). Portugal began establishing the first global trade network and empire (Portuguese Empire) under the leadership


mozambique history

Troops Centre ''Caçadores Especiais'' (Special Hunters) of the Portuguese Army, the ''Caçadores Paraquedistas'' (Parachute Troops School) (Parachute Hunters) of the Portuguese Air Force, the ''Fuzileiros Especiais'' (Portuguese Marine Corps) (Special Marines) of the Portuguese Navy, the ''Flechas'' (Arrows) of the International and State Defense Police (PIDE) and the ''Grupos Especiais'' (Special Groups (Portugal)) (Special Groups) of the Government of Mozambique. History


lisbon

22 At this time, Portugal occupied half a dozen coastal or river bases, controlling some maritime trade but few of Guinea's people. However, in 1892, Portugal made Guinea a separate military district to promote its occupation. J Barreto, (1938). ''História da Guiné 1418-1918'', Lisbon, Published by the author, p 316 Had the doctrine of Effective Occupation been as prominent in 1870 as it was after 1884, Portugal might also have lost Bolama to Britain. However

did not meet the costs of European troops used to impose taxes. Enes' policies largely failed; resistance continued in the interior, on the islands and at the coast. However, once military occupation had started, Portugal continued, hoping for future benefits. R Pélissier, (1989). ''História da Guiné: portugueses e africanos na senegambia 1841-1936'' Volume II, Lisbon, Imprensa Universitária pp 25-6, 62-4. R E Galli & J Jones (1987). ''Guinea-Bissau: Politics

to hut tax by destroying villages and seizing cattle, which caused many to flee to Senegal or the forests. The cost of his forces and the return to budget deficits led to his recall in 1915. J Barreto, (1938). ''História da Guiné'', pp. 374-6, 379-82. J Teixeira Pinto ''A occupação militar da Guiné'' Lisbon 1936, Agência Geral das Colónias pp 85-6, 120 Although the First World War increased world demand for tropical products and stimulated Guinea's

Portuguese Guinea

'''Portuguese Guinea''' ( ), called the '''Overseas Province of Guinea''' from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal (Portuguese Empire) from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.

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