Pine Ridge Indian Reservation

What is Pine Ridge Indian Reservation known for?


work contemporary

official as the Oglala Sioux Tribe had sovereignty. Ensuing open conflict between factions caused numerous deaths. The murder rate between March 1, 1973, and March 1, 1976, was 170 per 100,000; it was the highest in the country.


close range

died by friendly fire, as the shooting took place at close range in chaotic conditions. 20th century The White Clay

abstract.html?res F40616FA38551A7493CAAB178FD85F478785F9 title Shot Kills Indian At Wounded Knee publisher Select.nytimes.com date 1973-04-28 accessdate 2010-08-22 first Martin last Waldron In June 1975, two FBI agents seeking to make an armed robbery arrest at Pine Ridge Reservation were wounded in a firefight, and killed at close range. The AIM activist Leonard Peltier was sentenced in 1976 to two consecutive terms of life in prison in the FBI deaths.


quot solo

to Marshall: The Supreme Court's changing stance on tribal sovereignty" , ''Solo Magazine,'' American Bar Association '''Public Law 280''' enacted by Congress in 1953 and substantially amended in 1968 allows for states to assume jurisdiction on Indian reservations if approved by referendum by the affected reservations. In South Dakota, Public Law 280 is applied only to state highways running through reservations. Laurence French: ''Native American Justice,'' p.41, Rowman


centuries+traditional

1871 sqmi 1 , of which The '''Wounded Knee incident''' began February 27, 1973 when about 200 Oglala Lakota and followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The grassroots protest followed the failure of their effort to impeach the elected tribal president Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), whom they accused of corruption and abuse of opponents; they also protested the United States government's failure to fulfill treaties with Indian peoples and demanded the reopening of treaty negotiations. Occupation On February 27, AIM leaders Russell Means (Oglala Sioux) and Carter Camp (Ponca), together with 200 activists and Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation who opposed Oglala tribal chairman Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), occupied the town of Wounded Knee in protest against Wilson's administration, as well as against the federal government's persistent failures to honor its treaties with Native American nations. The U.S. government law enforcement, including FBI agents, surrounded Wounded Knee the same day with armed reinforcements. They gradually gained more arms. "Wounded Knee Incident." United States Marshals Service. Retrieved May 10, 2007. The video is focused on the case for Leonard Peltier, who was one of the leaders of the American Indian Movement (AIM). The band is performing live in a small venue throughout the video. During the video, footage from the Peltier case is examined and detailed with shots of Peltier and other members of AIM. There is also a reenactment of what took place on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The footage of this reenactment is from Michael Apted's 1992 documentary ''Incident at Oglala''. * After the Ghost Dance (w:Ghost Dance) spread across the Rockies to the Plains tribes it ran amok. ...The fervor attacked the Plains tribes virulently, particularly the Sioux, who were at that time the largest and the most intransigent or them all. The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. ** Peter Farb, ''Man's Rise to Civilization'' (1968) * The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts (w:Ghost shirt)) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. Despite those rejections, Archer said that the Pine Ridge Reservation (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation)'s council may "consider the proposal." A representative for the Standing Rock Reservation (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation)'s council has said that that reservation is also considering Lakotah Oyate's proposal. Lakotah Oyate have also been holding discussions with "about 150" other indigenous organizations in the U.S. and mentioned particularly the Native Hawaiians (w:Native Hawaiians).


helping+support

helping support education and social welfare efforts. The '''Wounded Knee incident''' began February 27, 1973 when about 200 Oglala Lakota and followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The grassroots protest followed the failure of their effort to impeach the elected tribal president Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), whom they accused of corruption and abuse of opponents; they also protested the United States government's failure to fulfill treaties with Indian peoples and demanded the reopening of treaty negotiations. Occupation On February 27, AIM leaders Russell Means (Oglala Sioux) and Carter Camp (Ponca), together with 200 activists and Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation who opposed Oglala tribal chairman Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), occupied the town of Wounded Knee in protest against Wilson's administration, as well as against the federal government's persistent failures to honor its treaties with Native American nations. The U.S. government law enforcement, including FBI agents, surrounded Wounded Knee the same day with armed reinforcements. They gradually gained more arms. "Wounded Knee Incident." United States Marshals Service. Retrieved May 10, 2007. The video is focused on the case for Leonard Peltier, who was one of the leaders of the American Indian Movement (AIM). The band is performing live in a small venue throughout the video. During the video, footage from the Peltier case is examined and detailed with shots of Peltier and other members of AIM. There is also a reenactment of what took place on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The footage of this reenactment is from Michael Apted's 1992 documentary ''Incident at Oglala''. * After the Ghost Dance (w:Ghost Dance) spread across the Rockies to the Plains tribes it ran amok. ...The fervor attacked the Plains tribes virulently, particularly the Sioux, who were at that time the largest and the most intransigent or them all. The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. ** Peter Farb, ''Man's Rise to Civilization'' (1968) * The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts (w:Ghost shirt)) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. Despite those rejections, Archer said that the Pine Ridge Reservation (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation)'s council may "consider the proposal." A representative for the Standing Rock Reservation (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation)'s council has said that that reservation is also considering Lakotah Oyate's proposal. Lakotah Oyate have also been holding discussions with "about 150" other indigenous organizations in the U.S. and mentioned particularly the Native Hawaiians (w:Native Hawaiians).


significant event

. Such technologies include: Solar heating and electricity; compressed earth blocks for structural use; geothermal heating; solar assisted irrigated farming, cellulose insulation, and wind generated power. Tourism at Pine Ridge thumb 300px Little Wound Chief Little Wound (File:Chief Little Wound and Family.jpg) with his wife and son. (1899 Heyn Photo) *'''History''': **'''Wounded Knee Massacre and burial site'''. The events at Wounded Knee represents a significant event in Native American


training range

The state of education on the reservation is severely lacking in multiple areas. The school drop-out rate is over 70%, and the teacher turnover rate is eight times that of the U.S. national average. Red Cloud Indian School is located in the area. In 1971 the tribe founded the Oglala Lakota College, one of the earliest tribal colleges (Tribal colleges and universities) in the nation, and part of Native American institution building of the last 40 years. First started as a two-year community college, it has expanded to offer 4-year baccalaureate degrees, as well as a master's in Lakota leadership. It is operated by tribal people, with a tribal board. In 2011, it had an enrollment of 1,400. About: "Oglala Lakota College" Official Website, 2001-2010 Since 1994, tribal colleges have been classified as land-grant colleges by the U.S. Congress. Among its courses has been "Aboriginal Restorative Justice", taught by Harley and Sue Eagle (Saulteaux and Dakota (Sioux#Linguistics)), program coordinators of the Oglala Lakota Nation Mennonite Central Committee Voluntary Service Unit. Since the early 2000s (decade), they have been called upon at the reservation to use restorative justice in many situations, as did previous coordinators. "A Journey in Aboriginal Restorative Justice", ''Conciliation Quarterly'', Vol. 20 No. 3, March 2002, reprinted with permission of Mennonite Conciliation Service at Restorative Justice Online Website, accessed 8 July 2011 The OST's commitment to using this process is reflected in its planning for a restorative justice courtroom in the new tribal justice center. ;Schools operating on the Reservation: *American Horse School (K-8) *Batesland Elementary School (preK-8th) *Crazy Horse School (K-12th) Waldorf School *Little Wound School *Loneman Day School (Isnawica Owayawa) *Porcupine School *Red Shirt School *Rockyford Elementary School *Wolf Creek Elementary School *Wounded Knee District School *Little Wound High School *Shannon County Virtual High School *Pine Ridge School (K-12) *Head Start at Oglala Lakota College ;Private schools: *Red Cloud Indian School *Our Lady of Lourdes School - (K-8th) Cloud High School - operated by the Jesuits pourier.jpg thumb left Kevin Pourier, contemporary Oglala artist, maintains a studio in the Medicine Root District of Pine Ridge As of 2011, the reservation has little economic development or industry. No banks or discount stores are located on the reservation. But, its people receive $80 million annually in federal monies, such as Social Security and veterans benefits; they spend most of this money largely in stores located off the reservation in Nebraska border towns, so it creates no benefit for the tribe. As the journalist Stephanie Woodward noted, little money changes hands within the reservation. As an example of the money that goes outside the reservation to border towns, the owner of Whiteclay's grocery store, Arrowhead Foods, said he "did more than a million dollars in business last year, with an entirely Native American clientele." Stephanie Woodward, "Gold Mines in Hell", 100Reporters, February 2012 Similarly, Nebraska State Senator LeRoy J. Louden, whose district includes Whiteclay, noted the recent construction of a Wal-Mart superstore at Chadron, Nebraska, another border town. He


quot works

; Russell Means biography, Film Reference Website He was baptized ''Oyate Wacinyapin'', which means "works for the people" in the Lakota language. His Oglala Sioux (Oglala Lakota) parents met as students at an Indian boarding school. Means starred in ''Pathfinder (Pathfinder (2007 film))'', a 2007 movie about Vikings' battling Native Americans in the New World. Recently Means co-starred in ''Rez Bomb'' from director Steven Lewis Simpson, the first feature filmed on his native Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. He stars with Tamara Feldman and Trent Ford and Chris Robinson (Chris Robinson (actor)). Plenty continues to work with Native American primary health care, midwifery, microeconomics, food and ecotourism cooperatives and alternative building programs, including the hemp house on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation with the assistance of The Farm School. The Pine Ridge Hemp Project Plenty is active in the Central American Food Security Initiative, including programs with ADIBE in Guatemala, Soynica in Nicaragua and the Huichol (Huichol people) Center in Mexico. Plenty's "Soyarias" now operated by ADIBE in Sololá and San Bartolo, Guatemala, introduced soy dairy and soy ice cream microcredit enterprise in the 1980s. The '''Wounded Knee incident''' began February 27, 1973 when about 200 Oglala Lakota and followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The grassroots protest followed the failure of their effort to impeach the elected tribal president Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), whom they accused of corruption and abuse of opponents; they also protested the United States government's failure to fulfill treaties with Indian peoples and demanded the reopening of treaty negotiations. Occupation On February 27, AIM leaders Russell Means (Oglala Sioux) and Carter Camp (Ponca), together with 200 activists and Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation who opposed Oglala tribal chairman Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), occupied the town of Wounded Knee in protest against Wilson's administration, as well as against the federal government's persistent failures to honor its treaties with Native American nations. The U.S. government law enforcement, including FBI agents, surrounded Wounded Knee the same day with armed reinforcements. They gradually gained more arms. "Wounded Knee Incident." United States Marshals Service. Retrieved May 10, 2007. The video is focused on the case for Leonard Peltier, who was one of the leaders of the American Indian Movement (AIM). The band is performing live in a small venue throughout the video. During the video, footage from the Peltier case is examined and detailed with shots of Peltier and other members of AIM. There is also a reenactment of what took place on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The footage of this reenactment is from Michael Apted's 1992 documentary ''Incident at Oglala''. * After the Ghost Dance (w:Ghost Dance) spread across the Rockies to the Plains tribes it ran amok. ...The fervor attacked the Plains tribes virulently, particularly the Sioux, who were at that time the largest and the most intransigent or them all. The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. ** Peter Farb, ''Man's Rise to Civilization'' (1968) * The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts (w:Ghost shirt)) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. Despite those rejections, Archer said that the Pine Ridge Reservation (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation)'s council may "consider the proposal." A representative for the Standing Rock Reservation (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation)'s council has said that that reservation is also considering Lakotah Oyate's proposal. Lakotah Oyate have also been holding discussions with "about 150" other indigenous organizations in the U.S. and mentioned particularly the Native Hawaiians (w:Native Hawaiians).


performing live

index.html Wounded Knee Incident ." United States Marshals Service. Retrieved May 10, 2007. The video is focused on the case for Leonard Peltier, who was one of the leaders of the American Indian Movement (AIM). The band is performing live in a small venue throughout the video. During the video, footage from the Peltier case is examined and detailed with shots of Peltier and other members of AIM. There is also a reenactment of what took place on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The footage of this reenactment is from Michael Apted's 1992 documentary ''Incident at Oglala''. * After the Ghost Dance (w:Ghost Dance) spread across the Rockies to the Plains tribes it ran amok. ...The fervor attacked the Plains tribes virulently, particularly the Sioux, who were at that time the largest and the most intransigent or them all. The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. ** Peter Farb, ''Man's Rise to Civilization'' (1968) * The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts (w:Ghost shirt)) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. Despite those rejections, Archer said that the Pine Ridge Reservation (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation)'s council may "consider the proposal." A representative for the Standing Rock Reservation (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation)'s council has said that that reservation is also considering Lakotah Oyate's proposal. Lakotah Oyate have also been holding discussions with "about 150" other indigenous organizations in the U.S. and mentioned particularly the Native Hawaiians (w:Native Hawaiians).


development studies

The '''Wounded Knee incident''' began February 27, 1973 when about 200 Oglala Lakota and followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The grassroots protest followed the failure of their effort to impeach the elected tribal president Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), whom they accused of corruption and abuse of opponents; they also protested the United States government's failure to fulfill treaties with Indian peoples and demanded the reopening of treaty negotiations. Occupation On February 27, AIM leaders Russell Means (Oglala Sioux) and Carter Camp (Ponca), together with 200 activists and Oglala Lakota (Oglala Sioux) of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation who opposed Oglala tribal chairman Richard Wilson (Dick Wilson (tribal chairman)), occupied the town of Wounded Knee in protest against Wilson's administration, as well as against the federal government's persistent failures to honor its treaties with Native American nations. The U.S. government law enforcement, including FBI agents, surrounded Wounded Knee the same day with armed reinforcements. They gradually gained more arms. "Wounded Knee Incident." United States Marshals Service. Retrieved May 10, 2007. The video is focused on the case for Leonard Peltier, who was one of the leaders of the American Indian Movement (AIM). The band is performing live in a small venue throughout the video. During the video, footage from the Peltier case is examined and detailed with shots of Peltier and other members of AIM. There is also a reenactment of what took place on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The footage of this reenactment is from Michael Apted's 1992 documentary ''Incident at Oglala''. * After the Ghost Dance (w:Ghost Dance) spread across the Rockies to the Plains tribes it ran amok. ...The fervor attacked the Plains tribes virulently, particularly the Sioux, who were at that time the largest and the most intransigent or them all. The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. ** Peter Farb, ''Man's Rise to Civilization'' (1968) * The Sioux had been forced to submit to a series of land grabs and to indignities that are almost unbelievable when read about today. ...they were being systematically starved into submission—by the White Bureaucracy—on the little that was left of their reservation in South Dakota. ...From Rosebud (w:Rosebud Indian Reservation), the Ghost Dance spread like prairie fire to the Pine Ridge (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation) Sioux and finally to Sitting Bull's people at Standing Rock (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation). The Sioux rebelled; the result was the death of Sitting Bull (w:Sitting Bull#Death and burial) and the massacre of the Indians (despite their ghost shirts (w:Ghost shirt)) at Wounded Knee (w:Wounded Knee Massacre) in 1890. Despite those rejections, Archer said that the Pine Ridge Reservation (w:Pine Ridge Indian Reservation)'s council may "consider the proposal." A representative for the Standing Rock Reservation (w:Standing Rock Indian Reservation)'s council has said that that reservation is also considering Lakotah Oyate's proposal. Lakotah Oyate have also been holding discussions with "about 150" other indigenous organizations in the U.S. and mentioned particularly the Native Hawaiians (w:Native Hawaiians).

Pine Ridge Indian Reservation

The '''Pine Ridge Indian Reservation''' ('''''Wazí Aháŋhaŋ Oyáŋke''''' in Lakota (Lakota language), also called '''Pine Ridge Agency''') is an Oglala Lakota Native American (Native Americans in the United States) reservation (Indian reservation) located in the U.S. state of South Dakota. Originally included within the territory of the Great Sioux Reservation, Pine Ridge was established in 1889 in the southwest corner of South Dakota on the Nebraska border. Today it consists of 3,468.85 sq mi (8,984.306 km 2 ) of land area and is the eighth-largest reservation in the United States, larger than Delaware and Rhode Island combined.

The reservation encompasses the entirety of Shannon County (Shannon County, South Dakota), the southern half of Jackson County (Jackson County, South Dakota) and the northwest portion of Bennett County (Bennett County, South Dakota). Of the 3,143 counties in the United States, these are among the poorest (Lowest-income counties in the United States). Only of land are suitable for agriculture. Extensive off-reservation trust lands are held mostly scattered throughout Bennett County (all of Bennett County was part of Pine Ridge until May 1910), Paul Prucha: ''Atlas of American Indian Affairs'', p. 110) "Historical Allotment Legislation", Indiana Government and also extend into adjacent Pine Ridge (Whiteclay), Nebraska (Whiteclay, Nebraska) in Sheridan County (Sheridan County, Nebraska), just south of the community of Pine Ridge, South Dakota, the administrative center and largest community within the reservation. The 2000 census (United States Census, 2000) population of the reservation was 15,521; but a study conducted by Colorado State University and accepted by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development has estimated the resident population to reach 28,787. "Indian Housing Block Grant Formula", U.S. Housing and Urban Development

Pine Ridge is the site of several events that marked tragic milestones in the history between the Sioux of the area and the United States (U.S.) government. Stronghold Table—a mesa in what is today the Oglala-administered portion of Badlands National Park—was the location of the last of the Ghost Dances. The U.S. authorities' attempt to repress this movement eventually led to the Wounded Knee Massacre on December 29, 1890. A mixed band of Miniconjou Lakota and Hunkpapa Sioux, led by Chief Spotted Elk (Spotted Elk), sought sanctuary at Pine Ridge after fleeing the Standing Rock Agency, where Sitting Bull had been killed during efforts to arrest him. The families were intercepted by a heavily armed detachment of the Seventh Cavalry, which attacked them, killing many women and children as well as warriors. This was the last large engagement between U.S. forces and Native Americans (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) and marked the end of the western frontier.

Changes accumulated in the last quarter of the 20th century; in 1971 the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) started Oglala Lakota College, a tribal college (Tribal colleges and universities), which offers 4-year degrees. In 1973 decades of discontent at the Pine Ridge Reservation resulted in a grassroots protest that escalated into the Wounded Knee Incident, gaining national attention. Members of the Oglala Lakota, the American Indian Movement, and supporters occupied the town in defiance of federal and state law enforcement in a protest that turned into an armed standoff lasting 71 days. This event inspired American Indians across the country and gradually led to changes at the reservation, with a revival of some cultural traditions. In 1981 the Lakota Tim Giago started the ''Lakota Times'' at Pine Ridge, the first independent Native American newspaper in the nation, which he published until selling it in 1998.

At the southern end of the Badlands, the reservation is part of the mixed grass prairie, an ecological transition zone between the short-grass and tall-grass prairies; all are part of the Great Plains. A great variety of plant and animal life flourishes on and adjacent to the reservation, including the endangered black-footed ferret. The area is also important in the field of paleontology; it contains deposits of Pierre Shale formed on the seafloor of the Western Interior Seaway, evidence of the marine Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary), and one of the largest deposits of fossils of extinct mammals from the Oligocene epoch (Oligocene).

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