Peru

What is Peru known for?


architectural achievements

and made architectural (Architecture of Peru) achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions. Bailey, pp. 72–74. During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cuzco School are representative. Bailey, p. 263. Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of ''Indigenismo'' in the early 20th century. Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic (Eclecticism in art) and shaped by both foreign and local art currents. Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature (Christian literature). After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma. Martin, "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820–1870", pp. 37–39. The early 20th century's ''Indigenismo'' movement was led by such writers as Ciro Alegría Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 151–152. and José María Arguedas. Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 178–179. César Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate (List of Nobel laureates in Literature) Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom. Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 186–188. thumb left ''Ceviche (File:Ceviche de pulpo.jpg)'' is a popular lime marinated seafood dish which originated in Peru Peruvian cuisine blends Amerindian (Native American cuisine#Native American cuisine of South America) and Spanish food with strong influences from Chinese, African, Arab, Italian, and Japanese cooking. Custer, pp. 17–22. Common dishes include ''anticuchos'', ''ceviche'', and ''pachamanca''. Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking. Custer, pp. 25–38. Peru's diversity of ingredients and cooking techniques is receiving worldwide acclaim. Embassy of Peru in the United States, ''The Peruvian Gastronomy''.peruvianembassy.us. Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish, and African roots. Romero, Raúl "Andean Peru", p. 385–386. In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely in each region; the ''quena'' and the ''tinya'' were two common instruments. Spaniards introduced new instruments, such as the guitar and the harp, which led to the development of crossbred instruments like the ''charango''. African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the ''cajón (Cajon)'', a percussion instrument. Romero, Raúl "La música tradicional y popular", pp. 263–265. Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, zamacueca, diablada and huayno. Romero, Raúl "La música tradicional y popular", pp. 243–245, 261–263. Commons:Category:Peru


distinctive member

the coasts of South America. The species is a very distinctive member of the storm-petrel family (family(biology)), with a dark cap, white face and underparts, forked tail and a black band across the chest. It is relatively common in the seas off Peru, Chile and Ecuador. The species is named after Admiral Sir Phipps Hornby. According to U.S. intelligence (such as CIA), the FARC-EP has purchased thousands of AK-47 rifles from Russia, through connections with the Russian mafia. Commons:Category:Peru


based culture

enough for agriculture and the desert coast is empty, while in wet periods many cultures have thrived along the rivers of the coast. The well known Inca were a mountain-based culture that expanded when the climate became more wet, often sending conquered peoples down from the mountains into unfarmed but farmable lowlands. In contrast, the Moche were a lowland culture that died out after a strong El Nino, which caused abnormally high rainfall and floods, which was followed by a long


great year

America Great year 1978 publisher Branden Books isbn 0-8283-1714-3 page 72 ; online at Google Books '''Pollution''' is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.


open shooting

in 2002. He has also participated in the World Cup in Lonato, Italy (2001). He was part of the gold-medal-winning Indian skeet team at the Singapore Open Shooting Championship in 2007. He is a member of the Governing Body of The National Rifle Association of India. ubigeo 1803 The '''Ilo Province''' is one of three provinces (Provinces of Peru) that make up the Moquegua Region in Peru. The province is the largest mining center in all of the southern Peru area. Commons:Category:Peru


unique recording

the administrative capital of Bolivia. The oldest known civilization in South America, as well as in the Western Hemisphere as a whole, the Norte Chico civilization - c.3200bc - 1800bc - comprised several interconnected settlements on the Peruvian coast, including the urban centers at Aspero and Caral. The presence of an early form of quipu (an Andean recording medium) at Caral indicates its potential influence on later Andean societies, as well as the antiquity of this unique

recording system. The stone pyramids on the sites are thought to be contemporary to the great pyramids of Giza. Unusually among Andean cities, no evidence of fortifications, or of other signs of warfare, have yet been found in the Norte Chico. '''Amazonas''' is a department of northern Peru bordered by Ecuador on the north and west, Cajamarca Department on the west, La Libertad Department on the south, and Loreto Department and San Martín Department on the east. Its capital is the city of Chachapoyas (Chachapoyas, Peru). '''Apurímac''' is a region in southern-central Peru. It is bordered on the east by the Cusco Region, on the west by the Ayacucho Region, and on the south by the Arequipa (Arequipa Region) and Ayacucho (Ayacucho Region) regions. The region's name originates from the Quechua (Quechua language) language and means ''"where the gods speak"'' in reference to the many mountains of the region (gods in the andean religion) that seems to be talking each other. '''Arequipa''' is a region in southwestern Peru. It is bordered by the Ica (Ica Region), Ayacucho (Ayacucho Region), Apurímac (Apurímac Region) and Cusco (Cusco Region) regions on the north; the Puno Region on the east; the Moquegua Region on the south; and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Its capital, also called Arequipa, is Peru's second-largest city. '''Ayacucho''' is a region (Political division of Peru) of Peru, located in the south-central Andes of the country. Its capital is the city of Ayacucho. The region was one of the hardest hit by terrorism during the 1980s during the guerrilla war (guerrilla warfare) waged by Shining Path known as the internal conflict in Peru. '''Cajamarca''' is a region in Peru. The capital is the city of Cajamarca. It is located in the north part of the country and shares a border with Ecuador. It is located in the Andes Mountain Range (Andes), the longest mountain range in the world, and partly in the Amazon Rainforest, the largest in the world. '''Cusco''' ( Commons:Category:Peru


culture early

;autogenerated2" Johnson, A.W., Behn, F., and Millie, W.R. "The South American Flamingos". ''The Condor''. 60(5), 289-99 ''' ''' The '''Moche''' civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru from about 100 AD to 800 AD, during the Regional Development Epoch (Cultural periods of Peru). While this issue is the subject of some debate, many scholars contend that the Moche


novels+place

Valley of the Incas. It is also located near a number of significant ruins of the Inca Empire, including Machu Picchu. Tourists often come through the town on their way to visit these sites. Shakespeare's novels place ordinary people against a background of significant events, as with ''The Dancer Upstairs'', which deals with Abimael Guzmán, leader of Peru's Sendero Luminoso; and ''Snowleg'', set partly during the Cold War in the German Democratic Republic


low growing

'' complex. It is named after James F. Clements. :'''Whitney''', Bret M. & '''Alonso''', José Alvarez (2005) A new species of Gnatcatcher from white-sand forests of northern Amazonian Peru, with revision of the ''Polioptila guianensis'' complex ''The Wilson Bulletin'' Vol. 117 No. 2 pp. 113-127 It is found in low-growing woodland. Its known range (range (biology)) lies within the remote Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor in Brazil and the adjacent Parque Nacional de


television+numerous

by Susana Giménez, in Peru by Gisela Valcárcel and in Brazil by Christina Rocha), with great success. Carrà hosted one such adaptation, ''¡Hola Raffaella!'' (1992–1994) for Spanish television. Numerous countries with a Catholic majority declared mourning for John Paul II. The government of the Philippines declared mourning until the day of the funeral. Gabon and Paraguay declared five days of mourning, Costa Rica four. Three days of mourning were declared by the governments of Italy, Portugal (the days preceding the funeral, although national flags in public buildings were lowered on the first Monday after the Pope's death), Bolivia, Cape Verde, Croatia, East Timor, Haiti, Malawi and the Seychelles. Peru and Spain declared one day of mourning. Commons:Category:Peru

Peru

common_name Peru image_coat Escudo de armas del Perú.svg image_flag Flag of Peru.svg image_map Peru (orthographic projection).svg national_motto "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union" national_anthem other_symbol_type National seal (Seal (device)): other_symbol 80px link Great Seal of the State (File:Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg) languages_type Official languages a languages Spanish (Spanish language) (official) 84.1% Quechua (Quechuan languages) (official) 13% Aymara (Aymara language) (official) 1.7% (2007 Census) demonym Peruvian ethnic_groups 45% Amerindian (Indigenous peoples in Peru) 37% Mestizo 15% White (Peruvians of European descent) 2% others ethnic_groups_year 2013 capital Lima latd 12 latm 2.6 latNS S longd 77 longm 1.7 longEW W largest_city Lima government_type Unitary (Unitary state) presidential (Presidential system) constitutional (Constitution of Peru) republic leader_title1 President (List of Presidents of Peru) leader_name1 Ollanta Humala leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Peru) leader_name2 Ana Jara legislature Congress (Congress of the Republic of Peru) sovereignty_type Independence (Peruvian War of Independence) established_event1 Declared (Peruvian War of Independence) established_date1 28 July 1821 established_event2 Consolidated (Battle of Ayacucho) established_date2 9 December 1824 established_event3 Recognized (Chincha Islands War) established_date3 2 May 1866 area_rank 20th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,285,216 area_sq_mi 496,225 percent_water 0.41 population_estimate 31,151,643 population_estimate_rank 41st population_estimate_year 2015 population_census 28,220,764 population_census_year 2007 population_density_km2 23 population_density_sq_mi 57 population_density_rank 191st GDP_PPP $403.322 billion GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2015 GDP_PPP_per_capita $12,638 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $217.607 billion GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2015 GDP_nominal_per_capita $6,819 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2012 Gini_change decrease Gini 45.3 Gini_ref Gini_rank 35th HDI_year 2014 HDI_change steady HDI 0.737 HDI_ref HDI_rank 82nd currency Nuevo sol (Peruvian nuevo sol) currency_code PEN time_zone PET (Time in Peru) date_format dd.mm.yyyy (CE (Common Era)) utc_offset −5 drives_on right calling_code +51 cctld .pe footnote_a Quechua (Quechua language), Aymara (Aymara language) and other indigenous languages (Languages of Peru) are co-official in the areas where they predominate.

'''Peru''' ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse (biodiversity) country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Perú: País megaviverso

Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures (Ancient Peru) spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America (Pre-Columbian). The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty (Viceroyalty of Peru) with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy later spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its Independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence (Peruvian War of Independence), the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country has undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict (Internal conflict in Peru) as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic (representative democracy) republic divided into 25 regions (Administrative divisions of Peru). It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent. UN: Peru Posts One of Region’s Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic (Multiethnic society), including Amerindians (Indigenous Peoples in Peru), Europeans (White Latin American), Africans (African Latin American) and Asians (Asian Latin American). The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua (Quechua languages) or other native languages (Indigenous languages of the Americas). This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

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