Palatinate-Zweibrücken

What is Palatinate-Zweibrücken known for?


prominent position

regularly visited (visitor) by a commission consisting of the district superintendent, the secular bailiff and a representative of the central administration in Zweibrücken. There was no bishop or church president, although the superintendent of Zweibrücken had a more prominent position than his colleagues. The parish churches of the individual districts convened regularly; sometimes all clergy in the duchy convened in a national synod. There was no institutionalized national church council


combining

;bendy lozengy" pattern, and overall a silver shield with a crowned blue lion for Zweibrücken itself. The sinister side was quarterly of six (in two rows of three), combining the lion of Jülich, the escarbuncle of Cleves, the lion of Berg, the red and silver chequy fess of Mark, the triple chevrons of Ravensberg and the bar of Moers. Georg Christian Joannis: ''Kalenderarbeiten'', Zweibrücken 1825, p. 15 ff Online<


special role

; initially this function was exercised by the secular cabinet college, assisted by the superintendent of Zweibrücken. In the 18th century, however, a national church council was created; its membership consisting of secular councillors. From the beginning, the lay element (laity) played a special role in the church in Zweibrücken. The Reformation revived the ancient office of the ''Elder (Elder (Christianity))'', lay people chosen by the community, who would supervise the lifestyle of the congregation and the pastor and the funds and property of the parish. Coat of arms thumb right 120px Coat of arms of Palatinate-Zweibrücken in 1720 (Image:Armoiries comtes palatins de Deux-Ponts.svg) Around 1720, Palatinate-Zweibrücken added the symbols of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg to its coat of arms. It was parted per pale. The dexter side was quartered, in the first and fourth quarter the Palatine Lion, in second and third the Bavarian silver and blue "bendy lozengy" pattern, and overall a silver shield with a crowned blue lion for Zweibrücken itself. The sinister side was quarterly of six (in two rows of three), combining the lion of Jülich, the escarbuncle of Cleves, the lion of Berg, the red and silver chequy fess of Mark, the triple chevrons of Ravensberg and the bar of Moers. Georg Christian Joannis: ''Kalenderarbeiten'', Zweibrücken 1825, p. 15 ff Online List of Princes thumb Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken Charles II August (Image:Charlesaugustzweibruecken.jpg) (1775-1795) House of Wittelsbach * 1410–1459: Stefan (Stefan, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken) * 1459–1489: Louis I ''the Black'' (Louis I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1489–1490: Caspar (Kaspar, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1490–1514: Alexander ''the Lame'' (Alexander, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1514–1532: Louis II ''the Younger'' (Louis II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1532–1569: Wolfgang (Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1569–1604: John I ''the Lame'' (John I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1604–1635: John II ''the Younger'' (John II, Count Palatine of Pfalz-Zweibrücken) * 1635–1661: Frederick (Frederick, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1661–1681: Frederick Louis (Frederick Louis, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1681–1697: Charles XI of Sweden, in personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden * 1697–1718: Charles XII of Sweden, in personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden * 1718–1731: Gustav Samuel Leopold (Gustav Samuel Leopold, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1731–1734: ''interregnum'' * 1734–1735: Christian III (Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1735–1775: Christian IV (Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1775–1795: Charles II August (Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken) * 1795–1825: Maximilian I (Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria), in personal union with the Electorate of Bavaria See also * House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720 References Category:1801 disestablishments Category:States and territories established in 1444 Category:History of the Electoral Palatinate (Category:House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken) (Category:House of Wittelsbach) Category:Counts Palatine of Zweibrücken Category:West Palatinate Charles Theodore's heir, Maximilian Joseph, Duke of Zweibrücken (Palatinate-Zweibrücken) (on the French border), brought all the Wittelsbach territories under a single rule in 1799. The Palatinate was dissolved in the Wars of the French Revolution. First, its left bank territories were occupied, and then annexed, by France starting in 1795; then, in 1803, its right bank territories were taken by the Margrave of Baden. The Rhenish Palatinate, as a distinct territory, disappeared. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was abolished, and all the rights and responsibilities of the electors with it. thumb left 160px Palatinate Lion (File:Wappen neustadt weinstrasse.svg) From the Middle Ages until the end of the 18th century, the Palatinate was divided into several big and small states. The most important of these was the Electoral Palatinate (''Kurpfalz''), a number of territories formerly held by the Counts palatine (Count palatine) (''Pfalzgrafen'') of Lotharingia. In the late 12th century the Counts palatine had achieved the status of a Prince-elector (''Kurfürst''), i.e. one of the seven nobles with the privilege of electing the King of the Romans, confirmed by the Golden Bull of 1356. In 1214 the Bavarian House of Wittelsbach was enfeoffed with these estates, which they ruled until 1918, together with the collateral branch of Palatinate-Zweibrücken from 1410, until the re-unification with Bavaria under Elector Maximilian I Joseph (Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria) in 1799. The major ecclesiastical territory in the region was the Bishopric of Speyer. The Imperial city (Free imperial city) of Landau to preserve its status joined the Alsacien Décapole in 1521. Nevertheless it was seized by France (Early Modern France) after the Thirty Years' War. History The town was the capital of the former Palatinate-Zweibrücken. The ducal castle is now occupied by the chief court of the Palatinate (Oberlandesgericht). There is a fine Gothic (Gothic architecture) Protestant church, the Alexander-Kirche, founded in 1493. Charles was succeeded to the Swedish throne by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. As Palatinate-Zweibrücken required a male heir, Charles was succeeded as ruler there by his cousin Gustav Leopold (Gustav, Duke of Zweibrücken). Georg Heinrich von Görtz, Charles' minister, was beheaded in 1719. Crown prince Born in Strasbourg, he was the son of Count Palatine Maximilian Joseph of Zweibrücken (Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria) (later Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria) by his first wife Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt. At the time of his birth, his father was an officer in the French army stationed at Strasbourg. He was the godson and namesake of Louis XVI of France. On 1 April 1795 his father succeeded Ludwig's uncle, Charles II (Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken), as duke of Zweibrücken (Palatinate-Zweibrücken), and on 16 February 1799 became Elector (prince-elector) of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine (Electoral Palatinate), the Arch-Steward of the Empire (Holy Roman Empire), and Duke of Berg (Berg (state)) on the extinction of the Sulzbach (Palatinate-Sulzbach) line with the death of the elector Charles Theodore (Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria). His father assumed the title of King of Bavaria on 1 January 1806. :''Grand Prince of Finland (Grand Duke of Finland), Duke of Scania, Estonia (Swedish Estonia), Livonia (Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)), Karelia, Bremen, Verden (Bremen-Verden), Stettin, Pomerania (Swedish Pomerania), Kashubia and Wendia (Wends), Prince of Rügen, Lord of Ingria (Swedish Ingria) and Wismar, Count Palatine of the Rhine (Palatinate-Zweibrücken), Duke of Bavaria, Jülich, Cleves and Berg (Berg (state))''. * House of Vasa (1521–1654) * House of Wittelsbach (Wittelsbach) or House of Palatinate (Palatinate-Zweibrücken)&ndash;Zweibrücken-Kleeburg (1654–1720) * House of Hesse (1720–1751) * The Province of Schleswig-Holstein was at first administered jointly by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) and Austria (Austrian Empire) following the 1864 Second Schleswig War until its partition according to the Gastein Convention in the next year * The County of Sponheim in the Holy Roman Empire was ruled since the 15th century by the Margraves of Baden (Margraviate of Baden), the Counts Palatine of the Rhine (Palatinate of the Rhine) and the Counts of Veldenz (County of Veldenz), later Palatinate-Simmern, Palatinate-Zweibrücken and Palatinate-Birkenfeld as heirs of Veldenz. * Togoland, formerly a German protectorate, was an Anglo-French condominium, from when the United Kingdom and France occupied it on 26 August 1914 until its partition on 27 December 1916 into French and British zones. The divided Togoland became two separate League of Nations mandates on 20 July 1922: British Togoland, which joined Gold Coast (present day Ghana) in 1956, and French Togoland, which is now the nation of Togo. ** '''Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate)''' – Karl IV Theodor (Karl Theodor of Bavaria), Elector Palatine (1742–1799) ** Palatinate-Zweibrücken - Charles II August (Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken), Duke of Zweibrücken (1775–1795) ** Passau (Prince-Bishopric of Passau) - Leopold Ernst Joseph von Firmian, Prince-Bishop of Passau (1763–1783) ** Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) – Karl IV Theodor (Karl Theodor of Bavaria), Elector Palatine (1742–1799) ** Palatinate-Zweibrücken - Carl II August (Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken), Duke of Zweibrücken (1775–1795) ** Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld - Ernst Friedrich (Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld), Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1764–1800) **'''Palatinate-Sulzbach (Sulzbach)''' – Charles Theodore (Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria), Duke of Sulzbach (1733–1799) **'''Palatinate-Zweibrücken''' – Christian IV (Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken), Duke of Zweibrücken (1735–1775) **'''Salzburg''' – Leopold Anton von Firmian, Archbishop of Salzburg (1727–1744) **'''Palatinate-Simmern''' - John I (John I, Duke of Palatinate-Simmern), Count Palatine of Simmern (Palatinate-Simmern) (1480&ndash;1509) **'''Palatinate-Zweibrücken''' - Alexander (Alexander, Duke of Palatinate-Zweibrücken), Duke of Zweibrücken (Palatinate-Zweibrücken) (1489&ndash;1514) **'''Palatine Electorate (Electoral Palatinate)''' - Philip (Philip, Elector Palatine), Elector Palatine (Electoral Palatinate) (1476&ndash;1508) 300px thumb right Map of the former département de la Sarre (Image:Dep-sarre.jpg) '''Sarre''' is the name of a department (Departments of France) of the First French Empire which is now part of Germany and Belgium. It is named after the river Saar (Saar River). It was formed in 1798, when the left bank of the Rhine was annexed by France. Prior to the occupation, its territory was divided between the Archbishopric of Trier and the Electoral Palatinate (the Duchy of Zweibrücken (Palatinate-Zweibrücken) and the County of Veldenz). Its territory is part of the present German states (Länder of Germany) Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland as well as a tiny adjacent section of the Belgian province of Liège (Liège (province)). Its capital was Trier. The département was subdivided into the following arrondissements and cantons (canton (subnational entity)): Middle Ages to 19th century In 1156, Baumholder had its first documentary mention as ''Bemondula'', then held by the Bishop of Verdun. By the 14th century, it had ended up under the Counts of Veldenz (County of Veldenz), until 1444, when it was acquired by Palatinate-Zweibrücken. Until the French Revolution, Baumholder was the seat of a Zweibrücken ''Schultheißerei''. The Duke of Zweibrücken gave Baumholder leave in 1490 to fortify the market town. The '''House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken''', a branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720. After his death Wolfgangs land was split for his five sons who then created three branches: Philip Louis (House of Palatinate-Neuburg (Palatinate-Neuburg)), John (House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Palatinate-Zweibrücken)) and Charles (House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld). Otto Henry and Frederick had no surviving sons. thumb Mediaeval view of Kastellaun (File:Stich Kastellaun.jpg) In 1437, the Counts of Sponheim died out, and the inheritance fell with the ''Amt (Amt (country subdivision))'' of Kastellaun to the Lords of Palatinate-Zweibrücken and Baden, who ruled it jointly. Frederick I (Frederick I, Count Palatine of Simmern) acquired the Principality of Simmern (House of Palatinate-Simmern) and a share of the County of Sponheim from the Veldenz (County of Veldenz) legacy, which he ruled, after the last Count of Veldenz had died, from Kastellaun. He was therefore the actual founder of the Palatinate-Simmern line. Frederick I and his brother Louis (Louis I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) divided their father’s holdings between them once again in 1459. Louis got the Duchy of Zweibrücken and Frederick resided in Simmern. The Palatinate-Simmern share of the County of Sponheim passed in 1560 to Palatinate-Zweibrücken and in 1569 to Palatinate-Birkenfeld (House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld) under Zweibrücken hegemony.


blue quot

of the congregation and the pastor and the funds and property of the parish. Coat of arms thumb right 120px Coat of arms of Palatinate-Zweibrücken in 1720 (Image:Armoiries comtes palatins de Deux-Ponts.svg) Around 1720, Palatinate-Zweibrücken added the symbols of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg to its coat of arms. It was parted per pale. The dexter side was quartered, in the first and fourth quarter the Palatine Lion, in second and third the Bavarian silver and blue &quot;bendy


personal

1719.jpg thumb Charles XII, King of Sweden (Charles XII of Sweden) (1682-1718) thumb Zweibrücken (File:Zweibrücken castle front April 2010 darker.jpg) Castle The personal union with Sweden lasted until the death of Charles XII of Sweden in 1718. When Charles XII died without children, Sweden was inherited by his sister Ulrika Eleonora (Ulrika Eleonora, Queen of Sweden) and Zweibrücken was inherited by his cousin, Gustav, Duke of Zweibrücken. From 1725 to 1778, the counts

Palatine of Zweibrücken Louis II ''the Younger'' * 1532–1569: Wolfgang (Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1569–1604: John I ''the Lame'' (John I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1604–1635: John II ''the Younger'' (John II, Count Palatine of Pfalz-Zweibrücken) * 1635–1661: Frederick (Frederick, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1661–1681: Frederick Louis (Frederick Louis, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1681–1697: Charles XI of Sweden, in personal union

with the Kingdom of Sweden * 1697–1718: Charles XII of Sweden, in personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden * 1718–1731: Gustav Samuel Leopold (Gustav Samuel Leopold, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1731–1734: ''interregnum'' * 1734–1735: Christian III (Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1735–1775: Christian IV (Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken) * 1775–1795: Charles II August (Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken) * 1795–1825: Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria


dexter

of the congregation and the pastor and the funds and property of the parish. Coat of arms thumb right 120px Coat of arms of Palatinate-Zweibrücken in 1720 (Image:Armoiries comtes palatins de Deux-Ponts.svg) Around 1720, Palatinate-Zweibrücken added the symbols of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg to its coat of arms. It was parted per pale. The dexter side was quartered, in the first and fourth quarter the Palatine Lion, in second and third the Bavarian silver and blue "


saarland

, Wachenheim (Wachenheim an der Weinstraße), Wegelnburg and Zweibrücken from Palatinate-Simmern were added. Territories held in 1784 An ''Amt (Amt (country subdivision))'' was an administrative district; an ''Oberamt'' was a larger district, subdivided into ''Unterämter''. # Oberamt Zweibrücken # Oberamt Homburg (Homburg, Saarland) (acquired in 1755 in a territorial exchange with Nassau-Saarbrücken) # Oberamt Lichtenberg at Kusel (originally part of the County of Veldenz

palatine resided in Zweibrücken Palace; they then moved to Karlsberg Castle near Homburg (Homburg, Saarland), to emphasize their claim to inherit the Duchy of Bavaria. Members of the ruling family were buried in the Castle Church in Meisenheim and later in the Alexander Church in Zweibrücken (which was badly damaged in World War II). Gustav was the last Count Palatine of the Palatinate-Kleeburg line; when he died in 1731 without a male heir, the duchy was seized by the Empire

part of Germany and Belgium. It is named after the river Saar (Saar River). It was formed in 1798, when the left bank of the Rhine was annexed by France. Prior to the occupation, its territory was divided between the Archbishopric of Trier and the Electoral Palatinate (the Duchy of Zweibrücken (Palatinate-Zweibrücken) and the County of Veldenz). Its territory is part of the present German states (Länder of Germany) Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland as well


1624

in 1544, however, Zweibrücken came under Lutheran influence, which was settled in 1577 in a Church Order (Church Order (Lutheran)) by chancellor Ulrich Sitzinger. After Wolfgang's death, his son John I joined the Reformed confession in 1588. In the year 1624, Zweibrücken was still ruled by a Reformed prince, so under the rules of the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, this became the established religion. In the period of the Chambers of Reunion French

Palatinate-Zweibrücken

'''Palatinate-Zweibrücken''' ( ) is a former state of the Holy Roman Empire. Its capital was Zweibrücken. The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was also the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.

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