PIDE

What is PIDE known for?


torture

of torture. Also in 1936, with the beginning of the Spanish Civil War and in 1937 with the attempt against Salazar's life by anarchist militants, the PVDE started focusing its battle against communism and the underground Portuguese Communist Party. During this pre-World War II period, several Italian (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)) and German (Nazi Germany) advisors came to Portugal to help the PVDE to adopt a model similar to the Gestapo. During World War II

, the PCP played a major role in the opposition to the dictatorial regime of António de Oliveira Salazar. During the five-decades-long dictatorship, the party was constantly suppressed by the political police, the PIDE, which forced its members to live in clandestine status under the threat of arrest, torture, and murder. After the bloodless Carnation Revolution in 1974, which overthrew the 48-year regime, the 36 members of party's Central Committee had, in the aggregate, experienced

with the Portuguese colonial censorship system and the surveillance of PIDE (International and State Defence Police). Subversive activities could lead to torture and to the political prison of Tarrafal, on the Island of Santiago (Santiago, Cape Verde). thumb 150px right Logo of the SIED. (Image:Novobrasao_peq.gif‎) During the New State regime (New State (Portugal)) and until its end in 1974, the main intelligence agency in Portugal was the PIDE - ''Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do


political

to 1933, the year of the inauguration of the ''Estado Novo''. Under direct orders from Salazar himself, the PVDE (''Polícia de Vigilância e de Defesa do Estado''; "State Defence and Surveillance Police") was created, with two main sections: *''Social and Political Defence section'', which was used to prevent and repress crimes of a political and social nature (see: Censorship) *''International Section'', which was used to control the entrance of immigrants, to expel

undesirable immigrants and to take care of counter-espionage and or international espionage In 1936, the prison of Tarrafal (Tarrafal camp) was created in the Portuguese colony of Cape Verde (Portuguese Cape Verde). This camp, under the direct control of the PVDE, was the destination for those political prisoners considered dangerous by the regime. Throughout the more than 40 years of the ''Estado Novo'', 32 people lost their lives in Tarrafal, which was known for its severe methods

in Portugal. There he finished his secondary studies, with the exception of the subject "political organization" that was compulsory during the regime established by António de Oliveira Salazar, so that he was unable to start studying medicine, as originally intended. Instead he became associated with students from Angola and other Portuguese colonies who were preparing themselves for anti-colonial resistance and had contacts with the clandestine Portuguese Communist Party. He


fact

then went on to the University at Fribourg for further studies. Bridgland pp. 42ff. is one source which reproduces the legend that Savimbi started studying medicine in Portugal, and concluded these studies in Geneva. In fact he never studied medicine, and obtained a degree in the social and political sciences, the nature of which was never established. However, as is customary in Portuguese-speaking countries, Savimbi was from then on addressed as "Dr.". While it was often

assumed in other countries that Savimbi (like Agostinho Neto) held a doctoral degree, his degree was in fact roughly comparable to that of the European BA. Although the regime's political police, PIDE, killed four people before surrendering, the revolution was unusual in that the revolutionaries did not use direct violence to achieve their goals. Holding red carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) (''cravos'' in Portuguese), many people joined revolutionary soldiers on the streets

the frenetic post-April 25, 1974 (Carnation Revolution) period she was falsely accused of being a covert agent of the PIDE, causing some trauma to her public life and career. In fact, during the Salazar (António de Oliveira Salazar) years, Amália had been an occasional financial supporter of some communists in need. At the same time she had occasionally expressed some admiration for Salazar himself. But as a singer she always remained above politics, before or after the Revolution


Prison

undesirable immigrants and to take care of counter-espionage and or international espionage In 1936, the prison of Tarrafal (Tarrafal camp) was created in the Portuguese colony of Cape Verde (Portuguese Cape Verde). This camp, under the direct control of the PVDE, was the destination for those political prisoners considered dangerous by the regime. Throughout the more than 40 years of the ''Estado Novo'', 32 people lost their lives in Tarrafal, which was known for its severe methods

anyone who was thought to be plotting against the State. It had two main functions: *Administrative functions (which included those related to the migration services) *Criminal prevention and repression functions thumb Former PIDE prison Vila Algarve at Corner Av. Ahmed Sekou Toure Av. dos Martires da Machava, Maputo, Nov. 2011 (File:Vila Algarve, Maputo, Nov 2011.jpg) PIDE is considered by many authors as being one of the most functional and effective secret services in history

Novo (Portugal) Estado Novo regime headed by Portuguese Prime Minister Salazar (Antonio de Oliveira Salazar), arrested him in 1951 for his separatist activism. Seven years later he was released from prison, and he finished his studies, marrying a white 23-years-old Portuguese woman who was born in Trás-os-Montes, Maria Eugénia da Silva, the same day he graduated. He returned to Angola in 1959.


years

The '''Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado''' or '''PIDE''' (''International and State Defence Police''), was a security service agency during the regime of António de Oliveira Salazar in Portugal during the ''Estado Novo (Estado Novo (Portugal))''. Although the name PIDE was only used from 1945 to 1969, the whole network of secret police forces which existed during the 40 years of the regime are commonly known as PIDE. PVDE The origins of PIDE can be traced

undesirable immigrants and to take care of counter-espionage and or international espionage In 1936, the prison of Tarrafal (Tarrafal camp) was created in the Portuguese colony of Cape Verde (Portuguese Cape Verde). This camp, under the direct control of the PVDE, was the destination for those political prisoners considered dangerous by the regime. Throughout the more than 40 years of the ''Estado Novo'', 32 people lost their lives in Tarrafal, which was known for its severe methods

(''Polícia de Informação Militar''). A commission was created for the extinction of the secret police. The remainder of the documents since 1990 are in the Torre do Tombo National Archive. They can be consulted, but the names of agents and informers are not disclosed. The only PIDE agents who faced trial were those responsible for the death of exiled opposition leader Humberto Delgado. They were tried ''in absentia'' (tried in absentia) and the case dragged on for several years. None of them


studying

in Portugal. There he finished his secondary studies, with the exception of the subject "political organization" that was compulsory during the regime established by António de Oliveira Salazar, so that he was unable to start studying medicine, as originally intended. Instead he became associated with students from Angola and other Portuguese colonies who were preparing themselves for anti-colonial resistance and had contacts with the clandestine Portuguese Communist Party. He

knew Agostinho Neto, who was at that time studying medicine and who later went on to become president of the MPLA and Angola's first state President. Under increasing pressure from the Portuguese secret police (PIDE), Savimbi left Portugal for Switzerland with the assistance of Portuguese and French communists and other sympathizers, and eventually wound up in Lausanne. Here he was able to obtain a new scholarship from American missionaries and studied social sciences. He

then went on to the University at Fribourg for further studies. Bridgland pp. 42ff. is one source which reproduces the legend that Savimbi started studying medicine in Portugal, and concluded these studies in Geneva. In fact he never studied medicine, and obtained a degree in the social and political sciences, the nature of which was never established. However, as is customary in Portuguese-speaking countries, Savimbi was from then on addressed as "Dr.". While it was often


founder

in an extremely effective espionage service which was able to fully control almost every aspect of Portuguese daily life. The PIDE intensified its actions during the Portuguese Colonial War (Colonial War), creating a successful paramilitary unit called Flechas (Arrows). Yves Guérin-Sérac, a former officer of the French Army and founder of the OAS (Organisation armée secrète) right-wing terrorist group during the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62), set up "

-behind army and trained its members in covert action techniques amounting to terrorism, including bombings, silent assassinations, subversion techniques, clandestine communication and infiltration and colonial warfare. Aginter Press was suspected of having assassinated General Humberto Delgado (1906–1965), founder of the Portuguese National Liberation Front against Salazar (Oliveira Salazar)'s dictatorship (prominent historians and several sources also claim Delgado's assassination

was performed by PIDE operational Rosa Casaco), as well as anti-colonialist leader Amilcar Cabral (1924–1973), founder of the PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) and Eduardo Mondlane leader of the liberation movement FRELIMO (''Frente de Libertação de Moçambique''), in 1969 (prominent historians and several sources also claim Cabral's assassination was performed by indivuduals within


academic life

(province) Bengo Province , Angola (Portuguese West Africa), in 1922, Neto attended high school in the capital city, Luanda; his father, also called Agostinho Neto, was a Methodist pastor. The younger Neto left Angola for Portugal, and studied medicine at the universities of Coimbra (University of Coimbra) and Lisbon (University of Lisbon). He combined his academic life with covert political activity of a revolutionary sort; and PIDE, the security police force of the Estado


quality work

over 200,000 copies combined. In 1970 the album ''Traz Outro Amigo Também'' (Bring Another Friend Too), recorded in London, in the Pye studios, was released. It is the first album without Rui Pato, forbbiden to travel by PIDE, the fascist political police. On 21 March the Portuguese press gave him an award for his "high quality work as singer and composer and for his decisive influence upon Portuguese popular music". He participated in an international festival in Cuba


prominent

, the PVDE experienced its most intense period of activity. Neutral Lisbon was the European centre of espionage and one of the favourite exile destinations. Writers such as Ian Fleming (the creator of James Bond) were based there, while other prominent people such as the Duke of Windsor and the Spanish Royal Family (Spanish monarchy) were exiled in Estoril. German spies attempted to buy information on trans-Atlantic shipping to help their submarines fight

-behind army and trained its members in covert action techniques amounting to terrorism, including bombings, silent assassinations, subversion techniques, clandestine communication and infiltration and colonial warfare. Aginter Press was suspected of having assassinated General Humberto Delgado (1906–1965), founder of the Portuguese National Liberation Front against Salazar (Oliveira Salazar)'s dictatorship (prominent historians and several sources also claim Delgado's assassination

was performed by PIDE operational Rosa Casaco), as well as anti-colonialist leader Amilcar Cabral (1924–1973), founder of the PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) and Eduardo Mondlane leader of the liberation movement FRELIMO (''Frente de Libertação de Moçambique''), in 1969 (prominent historians and several sources also claim Cabral's assassination was performed by indivuduals within

PIDE

The '''Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado''' or '''PIDE''' (''International and State Defence Police''), was a security service agency during the regime of António de Oliveira Salazar in Portugal during the ''Estado Novo (Estado Novo (Portugal))''.

Although the name PIDE was only used from 1945 to 1969, the whole network of secret police forces which existed during the 40 years of the regime are commonly known as PIDE.

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