Osh

What is Osh known for?


lively

. It is the most ancient city of Kyrgyzstan and is estimated to be more than 3000 years old. Overview Osh is a lively place, with the largest and most crowded outdoor market (Market (place)) in all of Central Asia, now named as the Great Silk Road Bazar (since it used to operate as a market during the Great Silk Road period). The city's industrial base, established during the Soviet (Soviet Union) period, largely collapsed after the break-up of the Soviet Union and has started to revive

largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south". Osh is a lively place, with the largest and most crowded outdoor market in all of Central Asia, now named as the Great Silk Road Bazar. The city is at least 3,000 years old and has served as the administrative center of Osh Province since 1939. The city has an ethnically mixed population of about 255,800, comprising 46% Uzbeks and only 43% Kyrgyz and other smaller ethnic


lively place

. It is the most ancient city of Kyrgyzstan and is estimated to be more than 3000 years old. Overview Osh is a lively place, with the largest and most crowded outdoor market (Market (place)) in all of Central Asia, now named as the Great Silk Road Bazar (since it used to operate as a market during the Great Silk Road period). The city's industrial base, established during the Soviet (Soviet Union) period, largely collapsed after the break-up of the Soviet Union and has started to revive only gradually. The proximity of the Uzbekistani border, which cuts through historically linked territories and settlements, deprives Osh of much of its former hinterland and presents a serious obstacle to trade and economic development. Daily flights from Osh Airport link Osh - and hence the southern part of Kyrgyzstan - to Bishkek and the north. Like most of Kyrgyzstan, Osh has no railway connections, although the recent upgrading of the long and arduous road through the mountains to Bishkek has greatly improved communications. The city has several monuments, including one to the southern Kyrgyz "queen" Kurmanjan Datka and one of the few remaining statues of Lenin. A Russian Orthodox church, reopened after the demise of the Soviet Union, the largest mosque in the country (situated beside the bazaar) and the 16th-century Rabat Abdul Khan Mosque can be found here. The only World Heritage Site in Kyrgyzstan, the Sulayman Mountain, offers a splendid view of Osh and its environs. The National Historical and Archaeological Museum Complex Sulayman is carved in the mountain, containing a collection of archaeological, geological and historical finds and information about local flora and fauna. Its first western-style supermarket ''Narodnyj'' opened in March 2007. In Osh opened a supermarket "Narodnyj". Population Osh is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan after the capital city of Bishkek. According to census of 2009 the city population amounted to 258,000. National Statistical Committee of Kyrgyz Republic. National Census 2009. Vol. III(tables). Regions of Kyrgyzstan. Osh City. The population of the city with its suburbs is estimated at about 500,000 inhabitants (for 2012). The city's population comprises 48% Uzbeks, 43% Kyrgyz, 3% Russians, 2% Turks and 1% Tatars. History Early history thumb 200px right The inhabitants of Osh repulse the occupiers of their city and assist Babur (File:He inhabitants of Osh (Ūsh) drive the enemy out with sticks and clubs and hold the town for Babur.jpg). The city is among the oldest settlements in Central Asia. Osh was known as early as the 8th century as a center for silk production along the Silk Road. The famous trading route crossed Alay Mountains to reach Kashgar to the east. In modern times, Osh has become also the starting point of the Pamir Highway crossing the Pamir Mountains to end in Khorog, Tajikistan. Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire and descendant of Tamerlane, was born in nearby Andijan, in the Fergana Valley, pondered his future on Sulayman Mountain and even constructed a mosque atop of the mountain. Babur somehow concludes that the confines of the Fergana would cramp his aspirations as a descendant of famous conquering warrior princes. He wrote of the city: "There are many sayings about the excellence of Osh. On the southeastern side of the Osh fortress is a well-proportioned mountain called Bara-Koh, where, on its summit, Sultan Mahmud Khan built a pavilion. Farther down, on a spur of the same mountain, I had a porticoed pavilion built in 902 (1496-7)" ''The Babur-nama'' Ed. & trans. Wheeler M. Thackston (New York) 2002 pp4-5 Russian and Soviet rule The city was occupied and annexed by the Russian Empire in 1876 when Russia overwhelmed the Central Asian khanates during the so-called "Great Game", the contest between Britain (British Empire) and Russia for dominance in Central Asia. This conquest was achieved and the inclusion to the Russian empire made by mid 1880s, with main credit to General von Kaufman and General Mikhail Skobelev, nicknamed the "White General" from his victories and achievements in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 (he wore always a white uniform and rode a white stallion in battle). The Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR of the newly formed Soviet Union in 1919, with Osh as a part. In the 1960s Osh and other towns in the south of the Kyrgyz SSR began to be industrialized. The population of Osh and other towns in the Fergana Valley that falls within Kyrgyzstan has traditionally consisted of a significant number of ethnic Uzbeks.


massive scale

to cotton production on a massive scale and the over-arching political structures meant that crossing borders was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand?'' Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought underlying tensions to a boil in the region around Andijan and Qorasuv during the May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan in which hundreds of protestors were killed by troops. Violence started to pick up again in 2010 in Kyrgyz part of the valley, heated by ethnic tensions, worsening economic conditions due to the global economic crisis, and political conflict over ousting of Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev in April 2010. In June 2010, about 200 people have been reported to be killed during clashes in Osh and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were injured. http: www.un.org apps news story.asp?NewsID 35071&Cr Kyrgyz&Cr1 Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major humanitarian crisis. The Soviet and post-Soviet periods In 1924 the new boundaries separating the Uzbek SSR and Kyrgyz SSR cut off the eastern end of the Ferghana Valley, as well as the slopes surrounding it. This was compounded in 1928 when the Tajik ASSR became a fully-fledged republic, and the area around Khujand was made a part of it. This blocked the valley's natural outlet and the routes to Samarkand and Bukhara, but none of these borders was of any great significance so long as Soviet rule lasted. The whole region was part of a single economy geared to cotton production on a massive scale and the over-arching political structures meant that crossing borders was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand?'' Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought underlying tensions to a boil in the region around Andijan and Qorasuv during the May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan in which hundreds of protestors were killed by troops. Violence started to pick up again in 2010 in Kyrgyz part of the valley, heated by ethnic tensions, worsening economic conditions due to the global economic crisis, and political conflict over ousting of Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev in April 2010. In June 2010, about 200 people have been reported to be killed during clashes in Osh and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were injured. http: www.un.org apps news story.asp?NewsID 35071&Cr Kyrgyz&Cr1 Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major humanitarian crisis. Until Soviet times and the construction of the Pamir Highway from Osh to Khorog in the 1920s the routes to Kashgaria and the Pamirs were mere bridle-paths over the mountains, crossing them by lofty passes (mountain pass). For instance, the passes of Kara-kazyk, 4,389 m (14,400 ft) and Tenghiz-bai 3,413 m (11,200 ft), both passable all the year round, lead from Marghelan to Karateghin and the Pamirs, while Kashgar is reached via Osh and Gulcha, and then over the passes of Terek-davan, 3,720 m (12,205 ft); (open all the year round), Taldyk, 3,505 m (11,500 ft), Archat, 3,536 m (11,600 ft), and Shart-davan, 4,267 m (14,000 ft). Other passes leading out of the valley are the Jiptyk, 3,798 m (12,460 ft), S. of Kokand; the Isfairam, 3,657 m (12,000 ft), leading to the glen of the Surkhab (Vakhsh River), and the Kavuk, 3,962 m (13,000 ft), across the Alai Mts. Until Soviet times and the construction of the Pamir Highway from Osh to Khorog in the 1920s the routes to Kashgaria and the Pamirs were mere bridle-paths over the mountains, crossing them by lofty passes (mountain pass). For instance, the passes of Kara-kazyk, 4,389 m (14,400 ft) and Tenghiz-bai 3,413 m (11,200 ft), both passable all the year round, lead from Marghelan to Karateghin and the Pamirs, while Kashgar is reached via Osh and Gulcha, and then over the passes of Terek-davan, 3,720 m (12,205 ft); (open all the year round), Taldyk, 3,505 m (11,500 ft), Archat, 3,536 m (11,600 ft), and Shart-davan, 4,267 m (14,000 ft). Other passes leading out of the valley are the Jiptyk, 3,798 m (12,460 ft), S. of Kokand; the Isfairam, 3,657 m (12,000 ft), leading to the glen of the Surkhab (Vakhsh River), and the Kavuk, 3,962 m (13,000 ft), across the Alai Mts. Administrative divisions In 1911 the province was divided into five districts, the chief towns of which were Fergana (New Marghelan (Fergana)), capital of the province (8,977 inhabitants in 1897), Andijan (49,682 in 1900), Kokand (86,704 in 1900), Namangan (61,906 in 1897), and Osh (37,397 in 1900); but Old Marghelan (Marghelan) (42,855 in 1900) and Chust (Chust, Uzbekistan) (13,686 in 1897) were also towns of importance. Later that year the IMU conducted its first verifiable operations, with an incursion into the Batken region of southern Kyrgyzstan - a region populated mainly by ethnic Uzbeks, and lying between Tavildara in Tajikistan and the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. Insurgents seized the Mayor of Osh (the regional capital) and successfully extorted a ransom from the ill-prepared Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan) government in Bishkek, as well as a helicopter to transport them to Afghanistan. Further incursions into Batken followed, with one raid seeing a number of Japanese geologists kidnapped - although denied by Japan, their subsequent release almost certainly followed a significant ransom payment. The results of the elections were disputed, with allegations of vote-rigging. Two of Akayev's children won seats. Serious protests broke out in Osh and Jalal-Abad, with protesters occupying administration buildings and the Osh airport. The government declared that it was ready to negotiate with the demonstrators. However an opposition leader said talks would only be worthwhile if the President himself took part. - Osh Oш Osh (Osh Province) 208,520 city - Transportation The Pamir Highway, the world's second highest international road, runs from Dushanbe in Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan through the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, and is the isolated region's main supply route. The Great Silk Road crossed a number of Pamir Mountain ranges.


prominent local

?'' Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen

was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought underlying tensions to a boil in the region around Andijan and Qorasuv during the May 2005 unrest


48'A=0

area_metro_km2 area_metro_sq_mi population_as_of 2012 population_footnotes population_total 255,900 population_urban population_metro population_density_sq_mi population_density_km2 timezone utc_offset timezone_DST utc_offset_DST latd 40 latm 31 lats 48 latNS N longd 72 longm 48 longs 0 longEW E elevation_footnotes elevation_m elevation_ft postal_code_type postal_code area_code website http: oshcity.kg footnotes '''Osh


difficult

. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand

was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered

visa: it is possible to take an unmetalled road around the enclave. The southern mountains offer excellent, but very difficult climbing with many sheer rock faces. Summits are Pyramid Peak . The southern edge of the province is part of the Ferghana Valley. The rest of the province is mountainous. M41, the main north-south highway from Bishkek to Osh, takes a very crooked route down the center


causing'

to cotton production on a massive scale and the over-arching political structures meant that crossing borders was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road

during clashes in Osh and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were injured. http: www.un.org apps news story.asp?NewsID 35071&Cr Kyrgyz&Cr1 Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major humanitarian crisis. The Soviet and post-Soviet periods In 1924 the new boundaries separating the Uzbek SSR and Kyrgyz SSR cut off the eastern end of the Ferghana Valley, as well as the slopes

was not a problem. Since 1991 this has changed, for the worse. Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing immense difficulties for trade and for those who live in the region. Travellers from Khujand to Dushanbe, unable to take the route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered


major population

population centers of the country—the Chui Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the South. An offshoot of this road branches off across a 3,500 meter pass (mountain pass) into the Talas Valley in the northwest. Plans are now being formulated to build a major road from Osh into the People's Republic of China. Army The Army of Kyrgyzstan includes the 1st Motor Rifle Brigade (Mountain) at Osh, a brigade at Koy-Tash, in the Bishkek area, the 25th Special Forces Brigade, independent battalions at Karakol and Naryn, a brigade at Balykchi, and other units. Uzbekistan dominates southern Kyrgyzstan both economically and politically, based on the large Uzbek population in that region of Kyrgyzstan and on economic and geographic conditions. Much of Kyrgyzstan depends entirely on Uzbekistan for natural gas; on several occasions, Karimov has achieved political ends by shutting pipelines (Pipeline transport) or by adjusting terms of delivery. In a number of television appearances broadcast in the Osh and Jalal-Abad provinces of Kyrgyzstan, Karimov has addressed Akayev with considerable condescension; Akayev, in turn, has been highly deferential to his much stronger neighbor. Although Uzbekistan has not shown overt expansionist tendencies, the Kyrgyz government is acutely aware of the implications of Karimov's assertions that he is responsible for the well-being of all Uzbeks, regardless of their nation of residence. Tajikistan has an estimated 30,000 kilometers of roads, nearly all of which were built before 1991. One main north-south artery runs across the mountains between the northwestern city of Khujand and Dushanbe. A second main artery runs east from Dushanbe to Khorog in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, then northeast across the mountains to the Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan) city of Osh. Because the Khujand–Dushanbe route is closed in winter, the Anzob Tunnel was built to bypass the mountain crossing and open a route connecting Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and points north with Afghanistan and Pakistan to the south, via Tajikistan. In 1989 ethnic animosities came to a head in the Fergana Valley, where local Meskhetian Turks were assaulted by Uzbeks, and in the Kyrgyz city of Osh, where Uzbek and Kyrgyz youth clashed. Moscow's response to this violence was a reduction of the purges and the appointment of Islam Karimov as first secretary of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan. The appointment of Karimov, who was not a member of the local party elite, signified that Moscow wanted to lessen tensions by appointing an outsider who had not been involved in the purges. * 35px link European route E006 (File:Tabliczka E006.svg) – Ayni (Ayni, Tajikistan) – Kokand * 35px link European route E007 (File:Tabliczka E007.svg) – Tashkent – Kokand – Andijan – Osh – Irkeshtam * 35px link European route E008 (File:Tabliczka E008.svg) – Dushanbe - Kulob - Kalaikhumb - Khorugh – Murghab (Murghab, Tajikistan) - Kulma - border of China (see Pamir Highway) * 35px link European route E009 (File:Tabliczka E009.svg) – Jirgatal – Khorugh – Ishkoshim (Ishkoshim, Tajikistan) – Lyanga – China * 35px link European route E010 (File:Tabliczka E010.svg) – Osh – Bishkek * 35px link European route E011 (File:Tabliczka E011.svg) – Kokpek - Kegen – Tyup The Dungan in the former Soviet republics are Hui (Hui people) who fled China in the aftermath of the Hui Minorities' War in the nineteenth century. According to Rimsky-Korsakoff (1992), three separate groups of the Hui people fled to the Russian Empire across the Tian Shan Mountains during the exceptionally severe winter of 1877 78: # The first group, of some 1000 people, originally from Turpan in Xinjiang, led by Ma Daren (马大人, 'the Great Man Ma'), also known as Ma Da-lao-ye (马大老爷, 'The Great Master Ma'), reached Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan. # The second group, originally from Didaozhou (Lintao county) (狄道州) in Gansu, led by ''ahong'' Ma Yusu (马郁素夫), As per Ma Tong (2003) also known as Ah Yelaoren (阿爷老人, 'the Old Man Ah Ye'), were settled in the spring of 1878 in the village of Yrdyk (

Republic of China , but the cost of construction would be enormous. thumb Most of the intercity travelers having switched from the big state-run buses to minivans, the palatial halls of Bishkek's West Bus Terminal remain mostly deserted (Image:E8103-Bishkek-West-Bus-Terminal.jpg) With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the north and southwest from Bishkek to Osh has recently been completed. This considerably eases communication between the two major


independent international

Kyrgyzstan has traditionally consisted of a significant number of ethnic Uzbeks.


attitude

. Similarly communications between Bishkek and Osh pass through difficult mountainous country and are endangered by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand

by the attitude of President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan. Ethnic tensions also flared at one stage, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh, where were Uzbek-Kyrgyz riots in 1990 (Osh riots (1990)). There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quietened down for several years. Weisbrode, K. (2001) ''Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand?'' Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which

Osh

'''Osh''' ( ) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south". The city is at least 3,000 years old, and has served as the administrative center of Osh Province since 1939. The city has an ethnically mixed population of about 255,800 (in 2012), comprising Kyrgyz (Kyrgyz people), Uzbeks, Russians, Tajiks (Tājik people), and other smaller ethnic groups.

It is the most ancient city of Kyrgyzstan and is estimated to be more than 3000 years old.

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