What is Okhrana known for?

numerous quot

. He is credited with the destruction of numerous "People's Will" terrorist groups. Alexander Pedachenko '''Alexander Pedachenko''' (alleged dates 1857–1908) was named in the 1923 memoirs of William Le Queux, ''Things I Know about Kings, Celebrities and Crooks''. Le Queux claimed to have seen a manuscript in French written by Rasputin stating that Jack the Ripper was an insane Russian doctor named Alexander Pedachenko, an agent of the Okhrana (the Secret Police


, Michael and Natalia holidayed in Western Europe. After shaking off agents of Nicholas II's secret police, the Okhrana, Michael and Natalia married in Vienna on 16 October 1912 in a Serbian Orthodox Church. Crawford and Crawford, pp. 125–126 They had successfully planned the wedding without either Nicholas II's or the Okhrana's knowledge. Crawford and Crawford, pp. 126–128 On their eventual arrival in Cannes, after a few days travelling

of Stalin''. This story held that NKVD agents had discovered papers in the Tsarist Okhrana archives which proved Stalin had once been an informer. On the basis of this knowledge, the NKVD agents had planned a coup d'état with Marshal Tukhachevsky and other senior officers in the Red Army. Roman Brackman

in the United States for fifteen years without their knowledge. Orlov was interrogated by the FBI and twice appeared before Senate Sub-Committees, but he always downplayed his role in events and continued to conceal the names of Soviet agents in the West. In 1956 he wrote an article for Life Magazine entitled, ''The Sensational Secret Behind the Damnation of Stalin''. This story held that NKVD agents had discovered papers in the Tsarist archives which proved Stalin had once been an Okhrana agent


. Secret Services of Imperial Russia *Okhrana, secret police of Imperial Russia *Special Corps of Gendarmes In 1902 Struve secretly left Tver and went abroad, but by then the radicals had abandoned the idea of a joint magazine and Struve's further evolution from socialism to liberalism would have made collaboration difficult anyway. Instead he founded an independent liberal semi-monthly magazine ''Osvobozhdenie'' (''Liberation'') with the help of liberal intelligentsia


after the February Revolution and made it very dangerous to be a political policeman. That fact, along with the St. Petersburg (now Petrograd) Soviet (Petrograd Soviet)’s insistence on the dissolution of the regular Tsarist police force, as well as the political police, meant that the Okhrana quickly and quietly disappeared. Hingley, Russian Secret Police, 111 Use of torture Some historians have claimed that despite the reforms in the early 19th century, the practice

of torture was never truly abolished. It has been argued that the creation of Okhrana led to increasing use of torture, Patterns of Torture due to the Okhrana using methods

such as arbitrary arrest, detention and torture to gain information. Russia and the Soviet Union 1917–1941: Glossary ''Charles Sturt University'' Following the revolution, communists claimed the Okhrana had operated torture chambers in places like Warsaw, Riga, Odessa and in a majority of the urban centres.

controversial activities

in fact this was unproven), and Pyotr Rutenberg (Pinhas Rutenberg). Other controversial activities included alleged fabrication of ''The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'' hoax (many historians maintain that Matvei Golovinski, a writer and Okhrana agent, compiled the first edition on the instructions of Pyotr Rachkovsky) and fabrication of the antisemitic (History of anti-Semitism) Beilis trial (Menahem Mendel Beilis). Suspects captured by the Okhrana

poetic writings

. He graduated from a Dominican (Dominican Order) school in Navahrudak and then joined the Vilna Academy (Vilnius University) in 1816. Z Mickiewiczem pod rękę czyli Życie i twórczość Jana Czeczota Stanisław Świrko. Warszawa : 1989 There, he made friends with many of the predecessors of Polish romanticism, among them Adam Mickiewicz, who is said to support Czeczot's early poetic writings. A. Witkowska, Rówieśnicy Mickiewicza. Życiorys jednego pokolenia


of the sources named in the manuscript was a London-based Russian journalist called Nideroest, who was known for inventing sensational stories. Reviewers of Le Queux's book were aware of Nideroest's background, and unabashedly referred to him as an "unscrupulous liar". Quoted in Rumbelow, p.198 Pedachenko was promoted as a suspect by Donald McCormick, who may have developed the story by adding his own inventions. Woods and Baddeley, p. 147 ref>

created special

of the later Okhrana. The Imperial Gendarmerie still operated as security police in the rest of the country through their Gubernial (Guberniya) and Uyezd Directorates. The Tsar also created Special Conference under the MVD (1881), which had the right to declare a State of Emergency Security in various parts of the Empire (which was actively used in the time of 1905's Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1905)), and subordinated all of the imperial police forces to the Commander of the Gendarmes

publications books

library center-for-the-study-of-intelligence csi-publications books-and-monographs okhrana-the-paris-operations-of-the-russian-imperial-police art1.pdf Paris Okhrana 1885–1905 CIA historical review program (Approved for release 22 September 1993) External links * Okhrana records at the Hoover Institution Archives * Official history of the MVD of Russia

: 1857–1879 1880–1904 1905–1916 (in Russian) * Okhrana in Spartacus Educational Encyclopedia *publications books-and-monographs okhrana-the-paris-operations-of-the-russian-imperial-police 5474-1.html Okhrana: The Paris Operations


were passed to the Russian judicial system. The Okhrana never received more than 10% of the police budget, the most it ever received being five million rubles in 1914. Ian D. Thatcher, Late Imperial Russia: problems and prospects, page 50 History The first special security department was ''Department on Protecting the Order and Public Peace'' under the Head of St. Petersburg (Saint Petersburg), created in 1866 after a failed assassination attempt on Alexander II

of Russia Alexander II , with a staff of 12 investigators. Its street address, Fontanka, 16, was publicly known in the Russian Empire. After another failed attempt, on August 6, 1880 the Emperor, acting on proposals made by Count Loris-Melikov, created the '''Department of State Police''' under Ministry of the Interior (MVD) (MVD) and transferred part of the Special Corps of Gendarmes and the Third Section of the Imperial Chancellery to the new body. The position of ''Chief

of Gendarmes'' was merged with the Minister and ''Commander of the Corps'' was assigned ''Deputy of the Minister''. Still, these measures did not prevent the assassination of Alexander II in March 1881. In an attempt to implement preventive security measures, Emperor Alexander III (Alexander III of Russia) immediately created two more '''Security and Investigation'' (охранно-розыскные) secret police stations, supervised by Gendarme officers, in Moscow and Warsaw; they became the basis


The '''Department for Protecting the Public Security and Order''' ( ), usually called "guard department" (''okhrannoye otdelenie'') and commonly abbreviated in modern sources as '''Okhrana''' "Okhrana" literally means "the guard" or '''Okhranka''' "Okhranka" is a Russian language form of abbreviation of phrases when the main meaning is defined by an adjective in Russia, Evtuhov & Kotkin 2003, p. 137 was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the police department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) (MVD) in the late 19th century, aided by the Special Corps of Gendarmes.

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