Northern Qi

What is Northern Qi known for?


national strength

. Emperor Wen first defeated the combined forces of Northern Qi and Wang Lin before preventing the forces of Northern Wei from entering the South at Yueyang. Furthermore, through Emperor Wen's extensive efforts at good governance, the economic situation of the South was greatly improved, restoring his kingdom's national strength. thumb right A limestone statue of a bodhisattva (Image:Bodhisattva, sandstone with polychrome and gilt, Northern Qi Dynasty.JPG), from the Northern Qi era


quot temple

, Northern Qi court ladies were out of tinder and needed a way to start fires for cooking and heating. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907–960), a book called the ''Records of the Unworldly and the Strange'' written by Chinese author

name was changed to 'fire inch-stick'. 陶谷《清异录·器具》篇载:“夜中有急,苦于作灯之缓,有智者批杉条,染硫黄,置之待用,一与火遇,得焰穗然,既神之,呼引光奴,今遂有货者,易名火寸。” 。 thumb left 1500-year-old iron lion in Cangzhou (File:IronLion.jpg) After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, the chaos of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern and Southern Dynasties ensued. Hebei, firmly in North China and right at the northern


496

(承光 chéng guāng) 577 - Emperors family tree

the sinicized surnames introduced by Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei in 496 to apply to events long before, making it difficult for readers to know what the actual names of historical personages were. In addition, Wei Shou was criticized in that, as an official of the Eastern Wei (Eastern Wei Dynasty) and its successor state Northern Qi, he included the sole emperor of Eastern Wei, Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei), among his imperial lists while intentionally omitting


events long

the sinicized surnames introduced by Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei in 496 to apply to events long before, making it difficult for readers to know what the actual names of historical personages were. In addition, Wei Shou was criticized in that, as an official of the Eastern Wei (Eastern Wei Dynasty) and its successor state Northern Qi, he included the sole emperor of Eastern Wei, Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei), among his imperial lists while intentionally omitting


art location

, and columnar in shape. A jar has been found in a Northern Qi tomb, which was closed in 576 CE, and is considered as a precussor of the Tang Sancai style of ceramics.


558

; (?-578; r.576) Yi Gao Yin 高殷 (545-561) '''Fei (Emperor Fei of Northern Qi)''' (r. 559-560) Sy Gao Shaoyi 高紹義 (b. 546; r.578-580) Ho Gao Wei 高緯 (557–577) '''Houzhu (Gao Wei)''' (r. 565-577) Ya Gao Yan (Gao Yan (Northern Qi prince)) 高儼 (558–571)

began his conquest of the empire with Taiyuan as a base and using the support of its local aristocracy. It was periodically designated as the Tang's northern capital and grew into a heavily fortified military base. Xiao Fangzhi 蕭方智 xiāo fāng zhì 555-557 In 558, a year after Emperor Jing had yielded the throne to Chen Baxian (and had been killed by Chen), his nephew Xiao Zhuang the Prince of Yongjia, with support from Northern Qi, was proclaimed the emperor of Liang

by his princely title of '''Prince of Yongjia''' (永嘉王), was a grandson of Emperor Yuan of Liang, who was declared by the general Wang Lin to be the legitimate emperor of Liang Dynasty in 558, under military assistance by Northern Qi. He thus was one of the three claimants to the Southern dynasties throne, competing with Emperor Xuan of Western Liang, who was supported by Northern Zhou, and Chen Dynasty's founder Emperor Wu of Chen and later his nephew


establishing

In that same year of 523 a revolt of several military garrisons was caused by a food shortage far north of Luoyang. After this was suppressed, the government had 200,000 surrendered garrison rebels deployed to Hebei, which proved later to be a mistake when a former garrison officer organized another rebellion in the years 526–527. The Wei court was betrayed by one of their own generals, who had the empress dowager and the young emperor thrown into the Yellow River, while establishing

his own puppet ruler to maintain authority. As conflict swelled in the north between successive leaders, Gao Huan took control of the east and Luoyang (holding Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei as a puppet ruler) by 534, while his rival Yuwen Tai took control of the west and the traditional Chinese capital of Chang'an by 535. Eventually, Gao Huan's son Gao Yang forced the Eastern Wei emperor to abdicate in favor of his claim to the throne, establishing the Northern Qi

Dynasty (551–577 AD). Afterwards, Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue seized the throne of power from Emperor Gong of Western Wei, establishing the Northern Zhou Dynasty (557–580 AD). The Northern Zhou Dynasty was able to defeat and conquer Northern Qi in 577, reunifying the north. However, this success was short-lived, as the Northern Zhou was overthrown in 581 by Yang Jian, who became Emperor Wen of Sui. With greater military power and morale, along


largest construction'

the largest construction scale and best quality among all sections of Great Wall. Background Wei Zheng was born in 580, shortly before the founding of Sui Dynasty in 581. His family was from Julu Commandery (鉅鹿, roughly modern Xingtai, Hebei). His father Wei Changxian (魏長賢) was a county magistrate during Northern Qi. Wei lost his father early in life and was poor, but had great expectations, not caring about making wealth. At one point, he became a Taoist monk. He favored studying, and as he saw that the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui was beginning to make Sui fall into a state of confusion, he particularly paid attention to strategic works. Background Feng Deyi was born in 568, when his grandfather Feng Longzhi (封隆之) was a high level official for Northern Qi. His father Feng Zixiu (封子繡) served as a provincial governor for Northern Zhou, but was captured by the Chen Dynasty general Wu Mingche in a battle, probably in 573, during Wu's main offensive against Northern Qi. Sometime after Northern Qi was destroyed by Northern Zhou in 577, Feng Zixiu fled back north, and was made a provincial governor by Emperor Wen of Sui, whose Sui Dynasty succeeded Northern Zhou in 581. Feng Deyi's mother Lady Lu was probably Feng Zixiu's wife rather than a concubine, as she was the sister of the official Lu Sidao. In Feng Deyi's youth, Lu Sidao often said, with regard to Feng Deyi, "This child is more intelligent than other people, and one day will surely be a highly-ranked official, even chancellor." In 554, Western Wei forces attacked Emperor Yuan's new capital Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei) and captured it, putting Emperor Yuan to death around new year 555. Western Wei declared Emperor Yuan's nephew Xiao Cha (Emperor Xuan of Western Liang) emperor (as Emperor Xuan), but Wang and Chen Baxian refused to recognize Xiao Cha as emperor. They welcomed Emperor Yuan's only surviving son Xiao Fangzhi (Emperor Jing of Liang) the Prince of Jin'an to Jiankang, declaring him the Prince of Liang and preparing to declare him emperor. However, after Wang's forces suffered several defeats at the hands of Northern Qi forces, Wang accepted the proposal of Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi to make Emperor Yuan's cousin Xiao Yuanming emperor, and he declared Xiao Yuanming emperor in summer 555. Chen Baxian was displeased with Xiao Yuanming's ascension, and in fall 555, with Chen Qian as one of his confidants, he launched a surprise attack on Jiankang, killing Wang and deposing Xiao Yuanming. He declared Xiao Fangzhi emperor (as Emperor Jing). Northern Zhou's basis of power was established by Yuwen Tai, who was paramount general of Western Wei, following the split of Northern Wei into Western Wei and Eastern Wei in 535. After Yuwen Tai's death in 556, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuwen Hu forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Tai's son Yuwen Jue (Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou) (Emperor Xiaomin), establishing Northern Zhou. The reigns of the first three emperors (Yuwen Tai's sons) -- Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Ming (Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou), and Emperor Wu (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) were dominated by Yuwen Hu, until Emperor Wu ambushed and killed Yuwen Hu in 572 and assumed power personally. With Emperor Wu as a capable ruler, Northern Zhou destroyed rival Northern Qi in 577, taking over Northern Qi's territory. However, Emperor Wu's death in 578 doomed the state, as his son Emperor Xuan (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) was an arbitrary and violent ruler whose unorthodox behavior greatly weakened the state. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580 (when he was already titularly retired emperor (''Taishang Huang''), Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) seized power, and in 581 seized the throne from Emperor Xuan's son Emperor Jing (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou), establishing Sui. The imperial Yuwen clan, including the young Emperor Jing, was subsequently slaughtered by Yang Jian. He maintained tense but relatively peaceful relations with the Göktürks and the various Chinese dynasties, briefly battling the Northern Zhou at the Liaodong Peninsula in 577. He frequently sent tributes to the Chen Dynasty, Northern Qi, Northern Zhou and Sui Dynasty. As the Sui Dynasty united China, King Pyeongwon prepared for the impending war. As emperor Emperor Jianwen was formally recognized by the governors of the provinces not under Hou's control, but they saw his edicts as coerced and not binding on them, and they continued to resist Hou, and yet at the same time fought each other for territorial control and were largely ineffective when Hou attacked them, allowing Hou to seize additional territory. Eastern Wei (and its successor state Northern Qi, established in 550 as Gao Cheng's brother Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi) seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing (Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei)) largely seized the Liang provinces north of the Yangtze. Emperor Jianwen himself tried to foster a relationship with Hou, to ensure his own safety, and in 550, he married his daughter the Princess Liyang to Hou as Hou's wife. Hou favored the princess greatly, and for the time being, the emperor appeared safe. He created his oldest son Xiao Daqi crown prince. However, Hou still kept the emperor under heavy guard, and only several officials, including his cousin Xiao Zi (蕭諮) the Marquess of Wulin, Wang Ke (王克), and Yin Buhai were allowed to see him. Meanwhile, most of the provincial governors eventually accepted the command of Emperor Jianwen's brother Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, the governor of Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)) (荊州, modern western Hubei). In 577, after Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu conquered Northern Qi and seized its territory, Emperor Ming went to greet Emperor Wu at Northern Qi's former capital Yecheng (Ye, China). Initially, while Emperor Wu treated Emperor Ming with ceremonial respect, he did not consider Emperor Ming as an important vassal. Emperor Ming sensed this, and, at a feast, discussed how Emperor Ming's father Emperor Xuan owed much to Emperor Wu's father, Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and in doing so was so emotional that he wept bitterly. Emperor Wu was impressed, and treated him with greater respect. Emperor Ming also spent much effort to flatter Emperor Wu—including comparing him to the mythical emperors Emperor Yao (Yao (ruler)) and Shun (Emperor Shun). Emperor Wu was flattered, and rewarded Emperor Ming with much treasure, as well as some of the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei's concubines.


634

and Lin Xiaogong were given imperial patronage for their services in craftsmanship of devices for the court. Needham (1986), Volume 3, 633. By the time of the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), it was acknowledged that all devices previously made were preserved, except for that of the seismometer. Needham (1986), Volume 3, 633–634. This was discussed by the scholar Zhou Mi

around 1290, who remarked that the books of Xindu Fang and Lin Xiaogong detailing their seismological devices were no longer to be found. Horwitz, Kreitner, and Needham speculate if Tang Dynasty (618–907) era seismographs found their way to contemporary Japan; according to Needham, "instruments of apparently traditional type there in which a pendulum carries pins projecting in many directions and able to pierce a surrounding


art title

, and columnar in shape. A jar has been found in a Northern Qi tomb, which was closed in 576 CE, and is considered as a precussor of the Tang Sancai style of ceramics.

Northern Qi

The '''Northern Qi''' ( ) was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577.

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