''') is the leading North Korean government information technology research center. It was founded on October 24, 1990. http: www.naenara.com.kp en kcc '''Songam Cavern''' is a major tourist venue in North Korea. It consists of 17 well-lit karst caves full of picturesque stone formations including stalactites and stalagmites. !-- specifics?: Parts of Songam Cavern have important mythological and legendary value. -->
altitude, it initially proved its worth as an escort for long-range USAF (United States Air Force) bomber formations. As the war progressed, USN and USMC fighters were primarily assigned to ground attack missions, including close air support of ground troops and destruction of the North Korean army's supply lines. Jackson, Robert. ''Air War Korea 1950-1953''. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-85310-880-4. The North Korean
massacres the summary execution of more than 200 inmates during prison riots in Lurigancho, San Juan Bautista (El Frontón) and Santa Bárbara in 1986. According to an official inquiry, an estimated 1,600 forced disappearances took place during García's presidency. His own personal involvement in these events is not clear. García was allegedly tied to the paramilitary Rodrigo Franco Command, which is accused of carrying out political murders in Peru during García's presidency. A U.S. declassified (classified information) report, written in late 1987, said that García's party, APRA, and top government officials were running a paramilitary group, responsible for the attempted bombing of the ''El Diario'' newspaper, then linked to Shining Path, had sent people to train in North Korea and may have been involved in executions. Lucy Komisar, Peru: US Gov’t Document Links García to 1980s Death Squads, Inter Press Service, 5 December 2007. According to investigative journalist Lucy Komisar, the report made it clear that it believed García had given the orders. In the Korean War M24s were the initial U.S. tanks directed to combat the North Korean T-34-85s (T-34). The M24 fared poorly against these better armed and better armored medium tanks. M24s were more successful later in the war in their reconnaissance role, supported by heavier tanks such as the M4 (Sherman tank), M26 (Pershing tank), and M46 (M46 Patton). Names South Koreans call Koreans ''Hanguk-in'' ( Commons:Category:North Korea WikiPedia:North Korea Dmoz:Regional Asia North Korea
was written with adapted Chinese characters called hanja, complemented by phonetic systems like ''hyangchal, gugyeol,'' and ''idu (Idu script)''. In the 15th century, a national writing system called hangul was commissioned by Sejong the Great, but it only came into widespread use in the 20th century, because of the ''yangban'' aristocracy's preference for hanja. Korean is spoken by the Korean people (Koreans) in North Korea and South Korea and by the Korean
in the center and Pyongyang in the north (currently North Korea), because of its advantageous location. Some of the large, traditional markets like Seomun Market are still flourishing in the city. These Jurchen pirates lived in what is today Hamgyŏngdo, North Korea. They frequently attacked the eastern coast of the Korean peninsula. In particular, Ulleungdo was abandoned because of their massive attacks. The invasion in 1019 was one of those incidents. The current political
; ref Korean Religions (Religion in Korea) North (North Korea) and South Korea - Juche Calendar The North Korean government and associated organizations use a variation of the Gregorian calendar with a '''Juche year''' based on April 15, 1912 CE (Common Era), the date of birth of Kim Il-sung, as year 1. There is no Juche year 0. The calendar was introduced in 1997. Months are unchanged from those in the standard Gregorian calendar. In many instances, the Juche year
; The Republic of Korea also purchased several second-hand Patriot systems from Germany after North Korea test-launched ballistic missiles to the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea) (Sea of Japan) and proceeded with underground nuclear testing in 2006.
and the foundation of the country at the beginning of the Cold War. '''Baengnyeong Island''' (sometimes spelled '''Baekryeong'''; wide island in Ongjin County (Ongjin County, Incheon), Incheon, South Korea, located near the Northern Limit Line.
of Vietnam (North Vietnam), and Albania. Chinese military cooperation with North Korea and North Vietnam stemmed from security considerations. Chinese military assistance to Third World countries arose from attempts to extend Chinese influence and counteract Soviet and United States influence. China became increasingly anti-Soviet in the 1970s. In the 1980s China developed close military ties and provided considerable military assistance to Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka in South Asia; Egypt in the Middle East; and Tanzania, Sudan, Somalia, Zaire, and Zambia in Africa. '''Kang Yong-Gyun''' (born July 23, 1974) is a North Korean wrestler (Sport wrestling) who competed in the Men's Graeco-Roman 54 kg (Wrestling at the 2000 Summer Olympics) at the 2000 Summer Olympics and won the bronze medal. He finished 4th at the 1996 Summer Olympics (Wrestling at the 1996 Summer Olympics) at 48 kg. Olympic results He was two-time gold medallist at the World Military Games and two-time silver medallist at the 1998 (1998 Asian Games) and 2002 Asian Games. Biography Kim Eun Kook, a naturalized U.S. citizen, was born in 1932 in Hamhung, South Hamgyong, a city in what is now North Korea. He was raised first in Korea, then Manchukuo, and then Korea again. His childhood consisted of living during the tail end of Japanese occupation. After serving in the Republic of Korea Marine Corps and Army (Republic of Korea Army), 1950–54, he was honorably discharged as first lieutenant, Infantry in 1954 and came to the United States in 1955. Abe was chief negotiator (negotiation) for the Japanese government (Government of Japan) on behalf of the families of Japanese abductees (kidnapping) taken to North Korea. As a part of the effort, he accompanied Koizumi to meet Kim Jong-il in 2002. He gained national popularity when he demanded that Japanese abductees visiting Japan remain, in defiance of North Korea. The Abe Enigma Time Magazine North Korea Shinzō Abe has generally taken a hard-line stance with respect to North Korea, especially regarding the North Korean abductions of Japanese. On the day following the Asahi Shimbun report, Akira Nagai, the chief producer and primary person responsible for the program, held a press conference and ensured the report of the Asahi Shimbun. Abe stated that the content "had to be broadcasted from a neutral point of view" and 'what I did is not to give political pressure.' Abe said "It was a political terrorism by Asahi Shimbun and it was tremendously clear that they had intention to inhume me and Mr. Nakagawa politically, and it is also clear that it was complete fabrication." He also characterized the tribunal as a "mock trial" and raised objection to the presence of North Korean prosecutors singling them out as agents of North Korean government. 安倍晋三氏の事実歪曲発言について, Violence Against Women in War Network Japan, 17 January 2005. Abe's actions in the NHK incident have been criticized as being both illegal (violating the Broadcast Law) and unconstitutional (violating the Japanese Constitution). War and Japan's Memory Wars, ZNet, 29 January 2005. Commons:Category:North Korea WikiPedia:North Korea Dmoz:Regional Asia North Korea
search?q cache:gWsW26NXDioJ:news.yeosu.go.kr bbs download.php%3Ftable%3Dbbs_4%26idxno%3D3812%26file_extension%3Dhwp%26filename%3D%25C5%25EB%25BD%25C5%25BA%25B8%25B5%25B5%25C3%25B6%280723%29.hwp+%22%EC%84%A0%EC%9B%90%EA%B1%B4%EC%84%A4%22+site:go.kr&cd 30&hl en&ct clnk&client firefox non-ferrous metallurgy,program history history.php?num 3249&search &_view view&d1 1&d2 9 http
image_map North Korea (orthographic projection).svg map_caption Area controlled by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea shown in green capital Pyongyang latd 39 latm 2 latNS N longd 125 longm 45 longEW E largest_city Pyongyang official_languages Korean (Korean language) languages_type Official script languages Chosŏn'gŭl ethnic_groups ethnic_groups_year demonym government_type Single-party state (various interpretations) (North Korea#Political ideology) leader_title1 leader_name1 Kim Jong-un leader_title2 leader_name2 Kim Yong-nam leader_title3 Premier (Premier of North Korea) leader_name3 Pak Pong-ju legislature Supreme People's Assembly established_event1 Liberation (Victory over Japan Day) established_date1 15 August 1945 established_event2 Provisional People's Committee for North Korea established established_date2 February 1946 established_event3 DPRK established established_date3 9 September 1948 area_rank 98th area_magnitude 1 E11 area_km2 120,540 area_sq_mi 46,528 percent_water 4.87 population_estimate 24,895,000 population_estimate_rank 48th population_estimate_year 2013 population_census 24,052,231 population_census_year 2011 population_density_km2 198.3 population_density_sq_mi 513.8 population_density_rank 63rd GDP_PPP $40 billion North Korea, CIA World Factbook, accessed on 31 March 2013. GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year 2011 GDP_PPP_per_capita $1,800 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank GDP_nominal $15,4 billion National Accounts Main Aggregate Database, United Nations Statistics Division, December 2012. GDP_nominal_rank GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_per_capita $621 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank Gini_year 2007 Gini_change decrease Gini 31 Gini_ref List of countries by income equality currency North Korean won (₩) currency_code KPW time_zone Korea Standard Time utc_offset +9 time_zone_DST DST_note utc_offset_DST antipodes date_format drives_on right iso3166code calling_code +850 (Telephone numbers in North Korea) cctld .kp footnote_a Kim Jong-un holds four concurrent positions: First Secretary of the Workers' Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, First Chairman of the National Defence Commission and Supreme Commander of the People's Army, serve as the "supreme leader" of the DPRK. footnote_b Kim Yong-nam is the "head of state (Head of State) for foreign affairs". The position of president (formerly head of state) was written out of the constitution in 1998. Kim Il-sung, who died in 1994, was given the appellation "Eternal President (Eternal President of the Republic)" in its preamble.
'''North Korea''' ( The Korean Demilitarized Zone marks the boundary between North Korea and South Korea. The legitimacy of this border is not accepted by either side, as both states claim to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula.
Korea was annexed by the Empire of Japan (Korea under Japanese rule) in 1910. In 1945, when Japan was defeated (surrender of Japan) in World War II, Korea was divided (Division of Korea) into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union (Soviet Civil Authority) and the south by the United States (USAMGIK). Negotiations on unification failed, and in 1948 two separate governments were formed: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the Republic of Korea in the south. The conflicting claims of sovereignty led to the Korean War in 1950. An armistice (Korean Armistice Agreement) in 1953 committed both to a cease-fire, but the two countries remain officially at war because a formal peace treaty was never signed.
The DPRK holds elections (Elections in North Korea) and describes itself as a self-reliant socialist state, Constitution of North Korea (wikisource:Constitution of North Korea (1972)) but it is widely considered a dictatorship and has been described as totalitarian and Stalinist, url http: www.telegraph.co.uk news main.jhtml?xml news 2007 08 28 wnkorea128.xml title North Korea power struggle looms accessdate 31 October 2007 last Spencer first Richard authorlink date 28 August 2007 work The Telegraph (online version of United Kingdom's national newspaper) quote A power struggle to succeed Kim Jong-il as leader of North Korea's Stalinist dictatorship may be looming after his eldest son was reported to have returned from semi-voluntary exile. location London url http: www.timesonline.co.uk tol news world asia article2388356.ece title North Korea's nuclear 'deal' leaves Japan feeling nervous accessdate 31 October 2007 last Parry first Richard Lloyd authorlink Richard Lloyd Parry date 5 September 2007 work The Times (online version of United Kingdom's national newspaper of record) quote The US Government contradicted earlier North Korean claims that it had agreed to remove the Stalinist dictatorship’s designation as a terrorist state and to lift economic sanctions, as part of talks aimed at disarming Pyongyang of its nuclear weapons. location London url http: socialistworld.net eng 2003 02 08korea.html title The Korean crisis accessdate 31 October 2007 last Walsh first Lynn authorlink Lynn Walsh date 8 February 2003 work CWI online: Socialism Today, February 2003 edition, journal of the Socialist Party, CWI England and Wales publisher socialistworld.net, website of the committee for a worker’s international quote Kim Jong-il's regime needs economic concessions to avoid collapse, and just as crucially needs an end to the strategic siege imposed by the US since the end of the Korean war (1950–53). Pyongyang's nuclear brinkmanship, though potentially dangerous, is driven by fear rather than by militaristic ambition. The rotten Stalinist dictatorship faces the prospect of an implosion. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, which deprived North Korea of vital economic support, the regime has consistently attempted to secure from the US a non-aggression pact, recognition of its sovereignty, and economic assistance. The US's equally consistent refusal to enter into direct negotiations with North Korea, effectively ruling out a peace treaty to formally close the 1950–53 Korean War, has encouraged the regime to resort to nuclear blackmail. url http: www.nytimes.com 2003 10 02 international asia 02CND-KORE.html?ex 1380513600&en a29d7f1e49aabee0&ei 5007&partner USERLAND title North Korea Says It Is Using Plutonium to Make A-Bombs accessdate 31 October 2007 last Brooke first James authorlink James Brooke (journalist) date 2 October 2003 work The New York Times quote North Korea, run by a Stalinist dictatorship for almost six decades, is largely closed to foreign reporters and it is impossible to independently check today's claims. url http: timesofindia.indiatimes.com Let_The_Music_Play_On articleshow 2859521.cms title Leader Article: Let The Music Play On accessdate 27 March 2008 last Buruma first Ian authorlink Ian Buruma date 13 March 2008 work The Times of India quote North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is one of the world's most oppressive, closed, and vicious dictatorships. It is perhaps the last living example of pure totalitarianism – control of the state over every aspect of human life. url http: freedomhouse.org template.cfm?page 22&year 2006&country 6993 title Freedom in the World, 2006 publisher Freedom House accessdate 13 February 2007 quote Citizens of North Korea cannot change their government democratically. North Korea is a totalitarian dictatorship and one of the most restrictive countries in the world. url http: www.economist.com media pdf DEMOCRACY_TABLE_2007_v3.pdf title Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006 accessdate 9 October 2007 year 2007 format PDF publisher Economist Intelligence Unit North Korea ranked in last place (167) url http: www.economist.com world asia displaystory.cfm?story_id 11465278 title A portrait of North Korea's new rich accessdate 18 June 2009 date 29 May 2008 work The Economist quote EVERY developing country worth its salt has a bustling middle class that is transforming the country and thrilling the markets. So does Stalinist North Korea.
Over time North Korea has gradually distanced itself from the world Communist movement. ''Juche'', an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution (Constitution of North Korea) as a "creative application of Marxism–Leninism" in 1972. last Martin first Bradley K. authorlink coauthors title Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty publisher Thomas Dunne Books year 2004 location New York City, New York page 111 quote Although it was in that 1955 speech that Kim gave full voice to his arguments for ''juche'', he had been talking along similar lines as early as 1948. doi id isbn 0-312-32322-0 In 2009, the constitution was amended again, quietly removing the brief references to communism (Chosŏn'gŭl (Hangul): )
The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms (Collective farming), and most services such as healthcare, education, housing and food production are state funded or subsidized.
North Korea follows ''Songun'', or "military-first" policy. H. Hodge (2003). "North Korea’s Military Strategy", ''Parameters'', U.S. Army War College Quarterly. It is the world's most militarized (List of countries by number of troops) society, with a total of 9,495,000 active, reserve, and paramilitary personnel. Its active duty army of 1.21 million is the 4th largest in the world, after China, the U.S., and India.