North German Confederation

What is North German Confederation known for?


year incorporating

free to form the North German Confederation the next year, incorporating all the German states north of the Main River (Main (river)). Prussia chose not to seek Austrian territory for itself, and this made it possible for Prussia and Austria to ally in the future, since Austria was threatened more by Italian and Pan-Slavic irredentism than by Prussia. The war left Prussia dominant in Germany, and German nationalism would compel the remaining independent states to ally with Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, and then to accede to the crowning of King Wilhelm as German Emperor (German Empire). The united German states (German Empire) would become one of the most influential of all the European countries. From 1864 to 1920, the region was part of Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), in the Province of Schleswig-Holstein, and as such part of the North German Confederation and, from 1871 onwards, part of the German Empire. It was formerly the seat of, respectively the German Kreis Apenrade and the Danish Aabenraa County. German Empire The rapid victory of the Prussians and the wise moderation of Bismarck paved the way for a complete revolution in Bavaria's relation to Prussia and the German question. The South German Confederation, contemplated by the 6th article of the Treaty of Prague (Treaty of Prague (1866)), never came into being; and, though Prussia, in order not to excite the alarm of France, opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North German Confederation, the bonds of Bavaria (as of the other southern states) with the north were strengthened by an offensive and defensive alliance with Prussia, as the result of Napoleon's demand for "compensation" in the Palatinate. This was signed at Berlin on 22 August 1866, on the same day as the signature of the formal treaty of peace between the two countries. The separatist ambitions of Bavaria were thus formally given up; she had no longer "need of France"; and during the Franco-Prussian War, the Bavarian army marched, under the command of the Prussian crown prince, against Germany's common enemy. It was on the proposal of King Ludwig II (Ludwig II of Bavaria) that the imperial crown was offered to King Wilhelm I (Wilhelm I of Germany) of Prussia. thumb Bavaria and the German Empire (Image:Map-DR-Bavaria.svg) For nearly 100 years, from 1829 to 1924, Colditz was a sanitorium (sanatorium), generally reserved for the wealthy and the nobility of Germany. The castle thus functioned as a hospital during a long period of massive upheaval in Germany, from slightly after the Napoleonic Wars destroyed the Holy Roman Empire and created the German Confederation, throughout the lifespan of the North German Confederation, the complete reign of the German Empire, throughout the First World War, and until the beginnings of the Weimar Republic. Between 1914 and 1918, the castle was home to both psychiatric and tuberculosis patients, 912 of whom died of malnutrition. The castle was home to several notable figures during its time as a mental institution, including Ludwig Schumann, the second youngest son of the famous composer Robert Schumann, and Ernst Baumgarten, one of the original inventors of the airship. By this ceremony, the North German Confederation (1867–1871) was transformed into the German Empire ("Kaiserreich", 1871–1918). This Empire was a federal (Federation) state; the emperor was head of state and president (''primus inter pares'' – first among equals) of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria), Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg), Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony), the grand dukes of Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden), Mecklenburg, Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt), as well as other principalities, duchies and the senate (Senate#Alternative meanings)s of the free cities (free city) of Hamburg, Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Bremen (Bremen (state))). Germany is another nation-state that has switched between confederal, federal and unitary rule, since the German Confederation was founded in 1815. The North German Confederation, the Weimar Republic and West Germany were federations. History At the unwinding of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 the Free Imperial City of Bremen (as of 1646, after earlier privileges of autonomy of 1186) was not mediatised (Mediatisation) but became a sovereign state officially titled ''Free Hanseatic City (Hanseatic League) of Bremen''. Its currency was the Bremen thaler (until 1873). In 1811 the First French Empire annexed the city-state. Upon the first, however only preliminary defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte, Bremen resumed its pre-1811 status as city-state in 1813. The Vienna Congress of 1815 confirmed Bremen's - as well as Frankfurt's (Free City of Frankfurt), Hamburg's (Hamburg), and Lübeck's (Free City of Lübeck) - independence after pressuring by Bremen's emissary, and later burgomaster, Johann Smidt. Bremen became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation. In 1827 the state of Bremen bought the tract of land from the Kingdom of Hanover, where future Bremerhaven would be established. Bremen became part of the North German Confederation in 1867 and became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire in 1871 and stayed with Germany in its following forms of government. The two remaining Reuss principalities went on to join in turn the German Confederation (in 1815). Henry XXII of Reuss Elder line is notable among the more modern princes of this house for his enmity to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), which he opposed in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, when the Prussian troops occupied his domain. Henry joined the North German Confederation and the new German Empire (1871). He alone of all the confederate princes remained until his death (1902) an implacable enemy of Prince Bismarck and of the conditions created in Germany by the foundation of the empire. His son, Heinrich XXIV (Henry XXIV, Prince of Reuss) (1878–1927), being incapable of ruling, the regency passed to the princes of the younger line of Reuss. Towards the German Empire Grand Duke Frederick I (Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden) (ruled 1856 - 1907) had from the first opposed the war with Prussia, but had perforce yielded to popular resentment at the policy of Prussia in the Schleswig-Holstein question. The ministry, now at one, resigned; Baden announced her withdrawal from the German Confederation; and on August 17, 1866 signed a treaty of peace and alliance with Prussia. Bismarck (Otto von Bismarck) himself resisted the adhesion of Baden to the North German Confederation: he had no wish to give Napoleon III of France so good an excuse for intervention; but the opposition of Baden to the formation of a South German confederation made the ultimate union inevitable. The troops of Baden took a conspicuous share in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870; and it was Grand Duke Frederick of Baden, who, in the historic assembly of the German princes at Versailles, was the first to hail the king of Prussia as German emperor. However, regional mobility was low, especially in the countryside, which generally did not attract newcomers, but experienced rural exodus, so that today's denominational make-up in Germany and Switzerland still quite well represents the former boundaries among territories ruled by Calvinist, Catholic, or Lutheran rulers in the 16th century. In a major departure, the legislature of the North German Confederation instituted the right of irreligionism in 1869, permitting the declaration of secession from all religious bodies. government_type Principality status_text State (States of the Holy Roman Empire) of the Holy Roman Empire State (States of the Confederation of the Rhine) of the Confederation of the Rhine State (States of the German Confederation) of the German Confederation State (States of the North German Confederation) of the North German Confederation State (States of the German Empire) of the German Empire government_type Principality status_text State (States of the Holy Roman Empire) of the Holy Roman Empire, State (States of the Confederation of the Rhine) of the Confederation of the Rhine, State (States of the German Confederation) of the German Confederation, State (States of the North German Confederation) of the North German Confederation, State (States of the German Empire) of the German Empire year_start 1180 ''Bundesrath'' (from 1901 on: Bundesrat, according to a general spelling reform) was already the name of similar bodies in the North German Confederation (1867) and the German Empire (1871). In 1919-1933 1934 the name was ''Reichsrat''. The German Bundesrat was first founded, together with the German Empire, in 1871, replacing a body of the same name and with the same functions in the North German Confederation. With the Weimar Constitution, it was replaced in 1919 by the Reichsrat (Reichsrat (Germany)) (1919–1934). Background As a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, which involved German states on both sides as well as emerging Italy (Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)), Prussia had increased its power, as Bismarck had founded the North German Confederation. France did not participate in that short war decided by the decisive Prussian victory in the Battle of Königgrätz (or Sadowa), which led to French demands for a "Revanche pour Sadova" (Revenge for Sadowa). with a population at that era of 1,500,000 inhabitants; under these conditions it became a member of the German Confederation that was founded in 1815. King John (John I of Saxony) (1854–73) sided with Austria in the struggle between Prussia and Austria as to the supremacy in Germany. Consequently in the War of 1866, when Prussia was successful, the independence of Saxony was once more in danger; only the intervention of the Austrian Emperor saved Saxony from being entirely absorbed by Prussia. The kingdom, however, was obliged to join the North German Confederation of which Prussia was the head. In 1871 Saxony became one of the states of the newly-founded German Empire. King John was followed by his son King Albert (Albert, King of Saxony) (1873–1902); Albert was succeeded by his brother George (George of Saxony) (1902–04); the son of George is King Frederick Augustus III (Frederick Augustus III of Saxony). Prince Maximilian (b. 1870), a brother of the present king, became a priest in 1896, was engaged in parish work in London and Nuremberg, and since 1900 has been a professor of canon law and liturgy in the University of Freiburg in Switzerland. The Kingdom of Saxony is the fifth state of the German Empire in area and third in population; in 1905 the average population per square mile was 778.8. Saxony is the most densely peopled state of the empire, and indeed of all Europe; the reason is the very large immigration on account of the development of manufactures. In 1910 the population amounted to 5,302,485; of whom 218,033 were Catholics; 4,250,398 Evangelican Lutherans; 14,697 Jews; and a small proportion of other denominations. The Catholic population of Saxony owes its present numbers largely to immigration during the nineteenth century. Catholicism that can be traced back to the period before the Reformation is found only in one section, the governmental department of Bautzen. Even here there is no continuous Catholic district, but there are a number of villages where the population is almost entirely Catholic, and two cities (Ostritz and Schirgiswalde) where Catholics are in the majority. It should also be mentioned that about 1.5 of the inhabitants of Saxony consists of the remains of a Slavonic tribe called by the Germans Wends, and in their own language "Serbjo". These Wends, who number about 120,000 persons and live in Saxon and Prussian Lusatia, are entirely surrounded by a German population; consequently owing to German influence the Wendic language, manners, and customs are gradually disappearing. About 50,000 Wends live in the Kingdom of Saxony; of these about 12,000 belong to the Catholic Church; some fifty Wendic villages are entirely Catholic. There is also a large Wendic population in the city of Bautzen, where among 30,000 inhabitants 7,000 are Wends. - bgcolor #E5E5FF The '''North German Confederation''' supersedes the German Confederation. Berlin is the capital. - During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, the Château de Ferrières was seized by the Germans (Germany) and was the site of negotiations between Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the North German Confederation, and the French Minister of Foreign Affairs (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)), Jules Favre. The Germans again seized the château during the occupation of France in World War II and this time, looted its vast art collections. The château remained empty until 1959 when Guy de Rothschild and his new wife, Marie-Hélène de Zuylen van Nyeve (Marie-Hélène de Rothschild) set about refurbishing it. Their efforts saw it once again became the place where European nobility mingled with Hollywood movie stars at grand soirées. In 1975, Guy de Rothschild and his wife charitably donated the château to the chancellery of the University of Paris, and it is now open to the public for guided tours and special events. After Prussias victory over Denmark in 1864 and the founding of the North German Confederation in 1867 Halstenbek and the district of Pinneberg were under Prussian administration. The direct administration (Drostei) was located in the city of Pinneberg. 1883 Halstenbek received a connection to the railway network with its own freight yard, which promoted the marketing of trees and plants from the Halstenbek prant nurseries substantially. The First World War brought the next big economical break. The neighboring Kiel in 1867 was declared Baltic Naval Station of the North German Confederation and later of the German Empire in 1871. This resulted in the set up of businesses like the Imperial Shipyard Kiel (Kaiserliche Werft Kiel) and its ancillary and supply industries, e.g. foundries, dockyards and other defence industries. The factories' demand for workers led to a rapid increase in population in the city of Kiel but also in the villages in its vicinity such as Schönkirchen.


main period

and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 then the German Empire. The main period of time considered covers 1835 to 1877, and thus includes some of the most dramatic episodes of 19th-century German history: the Revolutions of 1848, the Austro-Prussian War, the North German Confederation, and the establishment of the German Empire). However, in agreement with the above-mentioned remarks, these events play only a peripheral role and thus in this sense


traditional version

called the ''Reichsadler''. After the Nazi party came to power in Germany, they forced the replacement of the traditional version of the German eagle with their modified party symbol throughout the country and all its institutions. As Minister President (Minister President of Prussia) of Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) from 1862–90, Bismarck supervised wars that made Prussia dominant over Austria and France. In 1867 he also became Chancellor of the North German Confederation. Bismarck designed and created the German Empire in 1871, becoming its first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany) and largely controlling its affairs until he was removed by Kaiser (Emperor) William II (William II, German Emperor) in 1890. His diplomacy of Realpolitik and powerful rule gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". As Henry Kissinger has noted, "The man of 'blood and iron' wrote prose of extraordinary directness and lucidity, comparable in distinctiveness to Churchill (Winston Churchill)'s use of the English language." with a population at that era of 1,500,000 inhabitants; under these conditions it became a member of the German Confederation that was founded in 1815. King John (John I of Saxony) (1854–73) sided with Austria in the struggle between Prussia and Austria as to the supremacy in Germany. Consequently in the War of 1866, when Prussia was successful, the independence of Saxony was once more in danger; only the intervention of the Austrian Emperor saved Saxony from being entirely absorbed by Prussia. The kingdom, however, was obliged to join the North German Confederation of which Prussia was the head. In 1871 Saxony became one of the states of the newly-founded German Empire. King John was followed by his son King Albert (Albert, King of Saxony) (1873–1902); Albert was succeeded by his brother George (George of Saxony) (1902–04); the son of George is King Frederick Augustus III (Frederick Augustus III of Saxony). Prince Maximilian (b. 1870), a brother of the present king, became a priest in 1896, was engaged in parish work in London and Nuremberg, and since 1900 has been a professor of canon law and liturgy in the University of Freiburg in Switzerland. The Kingdom of Saxony is the fifth state of the German Empire in area and third in population; in 1905 the average population per square mile was 778.8. Saxony is the most densely peopled state of the empire, and indeed of all Europe; the reason is the very large immigration on account of the development of manufactures. In 1910 the population amounted to 5,302,485; of whom 218,033 were Catholics; 4,250,398 Evangelican Lutherans; 14,697 Jews; and a small proportion of other denominations. The Catholic population of Saxony owes its present numbers largely to immigration during the nineteenth century. Catholicism that can be traced back to the period before the Reformation is found only in one section, the governmental department of Bautzen. Even here there is no continuous Catholic district, but there are a number of villages where the population is almost entirely Catholic, and two cities (Ostritz and Schirgiswalde) where Catholics are in the majority. It should also be mentioned that about 1.5 of the inhabitants of Saxony consists of the remains of a Slavonic tribe called by the Germans Wends, and in their own language "Serbjo". These Wends, who number about 120,000 persons and live in Saxon and Prussian Lusatia, are entirely surrounded by a German population; consequently owing to German influence the Wendic language, manners, and customs are gradually disappearing. About 50,000 Wends live in the Kingdom of Saxony; of these about 12,000 belong to the Catholic Church; some fifty Wendic villages are entirely Catholic. There is also a large Wendic population in the city of Bautzen, where among 30,000 inhabitants 7,000 are Wends. - bgcolor #E5E5FF The '''North German Confederation''' supersedes the German Confederation. Berlin is the capital. - During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, the Château de Ferrières was seized by the Germans (Germany) and was the site of negotiations between Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the North German Confederation, and the French Minister of Foreign Affairs (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)), Jules Favre. The Germans again seized the château during the occupation of France in World War II and this time, looted its vast art collections. The château remained empty until 1959 when Guy de Rothschild and his new wife, Marie-Hélène de Zuylen van Nyeve (Marie-Hélène de Rothschild) set about refurbishing it. Their efforts saw it once again became the place where European nobility mingled with Hollywood movie stars at grand soirées. In 1975, Guy de Rothschild and his wife charitably donated the château to the chancellery of the University of Paris, and it is now open to the public for guided tours and special events. After Prussias victory over Denmark in 1864 and the founding of the North German Confederation in 1867 Halstenbek and the district of Pinneberg were under Prussian administration. The direct administration (Drostei) was located in the city of Pinneberg. 1883 Halstenbek received a connection to the railway network with its own freight yard, which promoted the marketing of trees and plants from the Halstenbek prant nurseries substantially. The First World War brought the next big economical break. The neighboring Kiel in 1867 was declared Baltic Naval Station of the North German Confederation and later of the German Empire in 1871. This resulted in the set up of businesses like the Imperial Shipyard Kiel (Kaiserliche Werft Kiel) and its ancillary and supply industries, e.g. foundries, dockyards and other defence industries. The factories' demand for workers led to a rapid increase in population in the city of Kiel but also in the villages in its vicinity such as Schönkirchen.


events+play

and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 then the German Empire. The main period of time considered covers 1835 to 1877, and thus includes some of the most dramatic episodes of 19th-century German history: the Revolutions of 1848, the Austro-Prussian War, the North German Confederation, and the establishment of the German Empire). However, in agreement with the above-mentioned remarks, these events play only a peripheral role and thus in this sense ''Buddenbrooks'' is also not a historical novel. During the three Wars of German Unification – the 1864 Prussian-Danish War (Second Schleswig War), the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, and the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War – Victoria and Frederick strongly identified with the cause of Prussia and the North German Confederation. Their sympathies created a rift among Queen Victoria's extended family, since Victoria's younger brother, the Prince of Wales (Edward VII), was married to Princess Alexandra of Denmark, the elder daughter of Christian IX of Denmark, who was also reigning duke of the disputed territories of Schleswig and Holstein. At Versailles on 18 January 1871, the victorious princes of the North German Confederation proclaimed a German Empire with King William I of Prussia as the hereditary German Emperor (''Deutscher Kaiser'') with the style ''Imperial and Royal Majesty (Kaiserliche und Königliche Majestät)''; Frederick and Victoria became German Crown Prince and German Crown Princess with the style ''Imperial and Royal Highness (Kaiserliche und Königliche Hoheit)''. Nevertheless, from this time on he began to write extensively on the issue of homosexuality, motivated, he said, by an "anthropological interest" combined with a sense of justice and a concern for the "rights of man." In 1869, he anonymously published a pamphlet entitled ''Paragraph 143 of the Prussian Penal Code of 14 April 1851 and Its Reaffirmation as Paragraph 152 in the Proposed Penal Code for the North German Confederation. An Open and Professional Correspondence to His Excellency Dr. Leonhardt (:de:Adolph Leonhardt), Royal Prussian Minister of Justice''. Bebel was elected to the North German (North German Confederation) Reichstag as a member from Saxony in that same year. After 1810 Prussia dominated Germany politically, economically, and in population, and was the core of the unified North German Confederation formed in 1867, which became part of the German Empire or ''Deutsches Reich'' in 1871. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the town was close to the borders of both Russian (Russian Empire)-controlled Congress Poland, and the Kingdom of Prussia. In the 1866 war between Austria and the Prussian-led North German Confederation, a cavalry skirmish was fought at the town, with a population at that era of 1,500,000 inhabitants; under these conditions it became a member of the German Confederation that was founded in 1815. King John (John I of Saxony) (1854–73) sided with Austria in the struggle between Prussia and Austria as to the supremacy in Germany. Consequently in the War of 1866, when Prussia was successful, the independence of Saxony was once more in danger; only the intervention of the Austrian Emperor saved Saxony from being entirely absorbed by Prussia. The kingdom, however, was obliged to join the North German Confederation of which Prussia was the head. In 1871 Saxony became one of the states of the newly-founded German Empire. King John was followed by his son King Albert (Albert, King of Saxony) (1873–1902); Albert was succeeded by his brother George (George of Saxony) (1902–04); the son of George is King Frederick Augustus III (Frederick Augustus III of Saxony). Prince Maximilian (b. 1870), a brother of the present king, became a priest in 1896, was engaged in parish work in London and Nuremberg, and since 1900 has been a professor of canon law and liturgy in the University of Freiburg in Switzerland. The Kingdom of Saxony is the fifth state of the German Empire in area and third in population; in 1905 the average population per square mile was 778.8. Saxony is the most densely peopled state of the empire, and indeed of all Europe; the reason is the very large immigration on account of the development of manufactures. In 1910 the population amounted to 5,302,485; of whom 218,033 were Catholics; 4,250,398 Evangelican Lutherans; 14,697 Jews; and a small proportion of other denominations. The Catholic population of Saxony owes its present numbers largely to immigration during the nineteenth century. Catholicism that can be traced back to the period before the Reformation is found only in one section, the governmental department of Bautzen. Even here there is no continuous Catholic district, but there are a number of villages where the population is almost entirely Catholic, and two cities (Ostritz and Schirgiswalde) where Catholics are in the majority. It should also be mentioned that about 1.5 of the inhabitants of Saxony consists of the remains of a Slavonic tribe called by the Germans Wends, and in their own language "Serbjo". These Wends, who number about 120,000 persons and live in Saxon and Prussian Lusatia, are entirely surrounded by a German population; consequently owing to German influence the Wendic language, manners, and customs are gradually disappearing. About 50,000 Wends live in the Kingdom of Saxony; of these about 12,000 belong to the Catholic Church; some fifty Wendic villages are entirely Catholic. There is also a large Wendic population in the city of Bautzen, where among 30,000 inhabitants 7,000 are Wends. - bgcolor #E5E5FF The '''North German Confederation''' supersedes the German Confederation. Berlin is the capital. - During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, the Château de Ferrières was seized by the Germans (Germany) and was the site of negotiations between Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the North German Confederation, and the French Minister of Foreign Affairs (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)), Jules Favre. The Germans again seized the château during the occupation of France in World War II and this time, looted its vast art collections. The château remained empty until 1959 when Guy de Rothschild and his new wife, Marie-Hélène de Zuylen van Nyeve (Marie-Hélène de Rothschild) set about refurbishing it. Their efforts saw it once again became the place where European nobility mingled with Hollywood movie stars at grand soirées. In 1975, Guy de Rothschild and his wife charitably donated the château to the chancellery of the University of Paris, and it is now open to the public for guided tours and special events. After Prussias victory over Denmark in 1864 and the founding of the North German Confederation in 1867 Halstenbek and the district of Pinneberg were under Prussian administration. The direct administration (Drostei) was located in the city of Pinneberg. 1883 Halstenbek received a connection to the railway network with its own freight yard, which promoted the marketing of trees and plants from the Halstenbek prant nurseries substantially. The First World War brought the next big economical break. The neighboring Kiel in 1867 was declared Baltic Naval Station of the North German Confederation and later of the German Empire in 1871. This resulted in the set up of businesses like the Imperial Shipyard Kiel (Kaiserliche Werft Kiel) and its ancillary and supply industries, e.g. foundries, dockyards and other defence industries. The factories' demand for workers led to a rapid increase in population in the city of Kiel but also in the villages in its vicinity such as Schönkirchen.


influential literary

Confederation Germany in 1868. He spent time in Paris, where he was among the writers and artists who attended the Tuesday soireés held by the poet Stéphane Mallarmé. He began to publish poetry in the 1890s, while in his twenties. George founded and edited an important literary magazine called ''Blätter für die Kunst''. He was also at the center of an influential literary and academic circle known as the ''George-Kreis'', which included many of the leading young writers of the day


political world

German Confederation State of the North German Confederation, State (States of the German Empire) of the German Empire In 1870 he left the government service, and in 1873 was appointed to an administrative post in the service of the city of Berlin. He had been brought to the notice of the political world by some articles he wrote from 1861 to 1864, which were afterwards published under the title ''Zur Verfassungsgeschichte Preussens'' (Leipzig, 1874), and in 1865 he


years history

and the new constitution of the Evangelical Church with a population at that era of 1,500,000 inhabitants; under these conditions it became a member of the German Confederation that was founded in 1815. King John (John I of Saxony) (1854–73) sided with Austria in the struggle between Prussia and Austria as to the supremacy in Germany. Consequently in the War of 1866, when Prussia was successful, the independence of Saxony was once more in danger; only the intervention of the Austrian Emperor saved Saxony from being entirely absorbed by Prussia. The kingdom, however, was obliged to join the North German Confederation of which Prussia was the head. In 1871 Saxony became one of the states of the newly-founded German Empire. King John was followed by his son King Albert (Albert, King of Saxony) (1873–1902); Albert was succeeded by his brother George (George of Saxony) (1902–04); the son of George is King Frederick Augustus III (Frederick Augustus III of Saxony). Prince Maximilian (b. 1870), a brother of the present king, became a priest in 1896, was engaged in parish work in London and Nuremberg, and since 1900 has been a professor of canon law and liturgy in the University of Freiburg in Switzerland. The Kingdom of Saxony is the fifth state of the German Empire in area and third in population; in 1905 the average population per square mile was 778.8. Saxony is the most densely peopled state of the empire, and indeed of all Europe; the reason is the very large immigration on account of the development of manufactures. In 1910 the population amounted to 5,302,485; of whom 218,033 were Catholics; 4,250,398 Evangelican Lutherans; 14,697 Jews; and a small proportion of other denominations. The Catholic population of Saxony owes its present numbers largely to immigration during the nineteenth century. Catholicism that can be traced back to the period before the Reformation is found only in one section, the governmental department of Bautzen. Even here there is no continuous Catholic district, but there are a number of villages where the population is almost entirely Catholic, and two cities (Ostritz and Schirgiswalde) where Catholics are in the majority. It should also be mentioned that about 1.5 of the inhabitants of Saxony consists of the remains of a Slavonic tribe called by the Germans Wends, and in their own language "Serbjo". These Wends, who number about 120,000 persons and live in Saxon and Prussian Lusatia, are entirely surrounded by a German population; consequently owing to German influence the Wendic language, manners, and customs are gradually disappearing. About 50,000 Wends live in the Kingdom of Saxony; of these about 12,000 belong to the Catholic Church; some fifty Wendic villages are entirely Catholic. There is also a large Wendic population in the city of Bautzen, where among 30,000 inhabitants 7,000 are Wends. - bgcolor #E5E5FF The '''North German Confederation''' supersedes the German Confederation. Berlin is the capital. - During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, the Château de Ferrières was seized by the Germans (Germany) and was the site of negotiations between Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the North German Confederation, and the French Minister of Foreign Affairs (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)), Jules Favre. The Germans again seized the château during the occupation of France in World War II and this time, looted its vast art collections. The château remained empty until 1959 when Guy de Rothschild and his new wife, Marie-Hélène de Zuylen van Nyeve (Marie-Hélène de Rothschild) set about refurbishing it. Their efforts saw it once again became the place where European nobility mingled with Hollywood movie stars at grand soirées. In 1975, Guy de Rothschild and his wife charitably donated the château to the chancellery of the University of Paris, and it is now open to the public for guided tours and special events. After Prussias victory over Denmark in 1864 and the founding of the North German Confederation in 1867 Halstenbek and the district of Pinneberg were under Prussian administration. The direct administration (Drostei) was located in the city of Pinneberg. 1883 Halstenbek received a connection to the railway network with its own freight yard, which promoted the marketing of trees and plants from the Halstenbek prant nurseries substantially. The First World War brought the next big economical break. The neighboring Kiel in 1867 was declared Baltic Naval Station of the North German Confederation and later of the German Empire in 1871. This resulted in the set up of businesses like the Imperial Shipyard Kiel (Kaiserliche Werft Kiel) and its ancillary and supply industries, e.g. foundries, dockyards and other defence industries. The factories' demand for workers led to a rapid increase in population in the city of Kiel but also in the villages in its vicinity such as Schönkirchen.


alsace

of the North German Confederation.svg symbol Coat of arms of Germany#North German Confederation symbol_type Coat of arms image_map Map-NDB.svg image_map_caption The North German Confederation (red). The southern German states that joined in 1870 (Unification of Germany) to form the German Empire are in orange. Alsace-Lorraine, the territory annexed following the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, is in a paler orange. The red territory in the South marks the original

King Wilhelm I of Prussia (Wilhelm I, German Emperor). It also marked the downfall of Napoleon III (Napoleon III of France) and the end of the Second French Empire, which was replaced by the French Third Republic. As part of the settlement (Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)), the territory of Alsace and part of Lorraine (Lorraine (region)) was taken by Prussia to become a part of Germany, which it would retain until the end of World War I when it was returned to France in the Treaty

. The preliminary peace treaty was signed at Versailles and the final peace treaty was signed with the Treaty of Frankfurt (Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)) on May 10, 1871. Otto von Bismarck was able to secure Alsace-Lorraine from France as part of the German Empire under the Treaty of Frankfurt. In 1868 Gneist became a member of the North German (North German Confederation) parliament, and acted as a member of the commission for organizing the federal army, and also of that for the settlement


quot abstract/'

Riding" (Abstract); see Table 1: 4-5. thumb right Sailors of the Imperial Navy in Kiautschou Tsingtau (Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 116-424-042, China, Tsingtau.jpg), ca 1912 The Marines (marine (military)) were referred to as '''Seebatallione''' (sea battalions). They served in the Prussian navy, the navy of the North German Confederation, the Imperial German Navy and briefly in the modern Federal German Navy (Bundesmarine), the Bundesmarine. Party symbols


national liberal

of controversial ecclesiastical questions. On the establishment of German unity his mandate was renewed for the Reichstag (Reichstag (German Empire)), and there he served as an active and prominent member of the National Liberal party, until 1884. In the Kulturkampf he sided with the government against the attacks of the Clericals, whom he bitterly denounced, and whose implacable enemy he ever showed himself. In 1879, together with his colleague, Hänel (Albert Hänel), he violently

was elected member to the Prussian House of Representatives. He joined the radical German Progress Party, and in 1867 was also elected to the German parliament, but he helped to form the National Liberal Party (National Liberal Party (Germany)), and in consequence lost his seat in Berlin, which remained faithful to the radicals; after this he represented Magdeburg and Frankfurt in the Prussian, and Meiningen in the German parliament. He threw himself with great energy into his parliamentary duties, and quickly became one of its most popular and most influential members. An optimist and idealist, he joined to a fervent belief in liberty an equal enthusiasm for German unity and the idea of the German state. His motion that Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden) should be included in the North German Confederation in January 1870 caused much embarrassment to Otto von Bismarck, but was not without effect in hastening the crisis of 1870. with a population at that era of 1,500,000 inhabitants; under these conditions it became a member of the German Confederation that was founded in 1815. King John (John I of Saxony) (1854–73) sided with Austria in the struggle between Prussia and Austria as to the supremacy in Germany. Consequently in the War of 1866, when Prussia was successful, the independence of Saxony was once more in danger; only the intervention of the Austrian Emperor saved Saxony from being entirely absorbed by Prussia. The kingdom, however, was obliged to join the North German Confederation of which Prussia was the head. In 1871 Saxony became one of the states of the newly-founded German Empire. King John was followed by his son King Albert (Albert, King of Saxony) (1873–1902); Albert was succeeded by his brother George (George of Saxony) (1902–04); the son of George is King Frederick Augustus III (Frederick Augustus III of Saxony). Prince Maximilian (b. 1870), a brother of the present king, became a priest in 1896, was engaged in parish work in London and Nuremberg, and since 1900 has been a professor of canon law and liturgy in the University of Freiburg in Switzerland. The Kingdom of Saxony is the fifth state of the German Empire in area and third in population; in 1905 the average population per square mile was 778.8. Saxony is the most densely peopled state of the empire, and indeed of all Europe; the reason is the very large immigration on account of the development of manufactures. In 1910 the population amounted to 5,302,485; of whom 218,033 were Catholics; 4,250,398 Evangelican Lutherans; 14,697 Jews; and a small proportion of other denominations. The Catholic population of Saxony owes its present numbers largely to immigration during the nineteenth century. Catholicism that can be traced back to the period before the Reformation is found only in one section, the governmental department of Bautzen. Even here there is no continuous Catholic district, but there are a number of villages where the population is almost entirely Catholic, and two cities (Ostritz and Schirgiswalde) where Catholics are in the majority. It should also be mentioned that about 1.5 of the inhabitants of Saxony consists of the remains of a Slavonic tribe called by the Germans Wends, and in their own language "Serbjo". These Wends, who number about 120,000 persons and live in Saxon and Prussian Lusatia, are entirely surrounded by a German population; consequently owing to German influence the Wendic language, manners, and customs are gradually disappearing. About 50,000 Wends live in the Kingdom of Saxony; of these about 12,000 belong to the Catholic Church; some fifty Wendic villages are entirely Catholic. There is also a large Wendic population in the city of Bautzen, where among 30,000 inhabitants 7,000 are Wends. - bgcolor #E5E5FF The '''North German Confederation''' supersedes the German Confederation. Berlin is the capital. - During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, the Château de Ferrières was seized by the Germans (Germany) and was the site of negotiations between Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the North German Confederation, and the French Minister of Foreign Affairs (Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)), Jules Favre. The Germans again seized the château during the occupation of France in World War II and this time, looted its vast art collections. The château remained empty until 1959 when Guy de Rothschild and his new wife, Marie-Hélène de Zuylen van Nyeve (Marie-Hélène de Rothschild) set about refurbishing it. Their efforts saw it once again became the place where European nobility mingled with Hollywood movie stars at grand soirées. In 1975, Guy de Rothschild and his wife charitably donated the château to the chancellery of the University of Paris, and it is now open to the public for guided tours and special events. After Prussias victory over Denmark in 1864 and the founding of the North German Confederation in 1867 Halstenbek and the district of Pinneberg were under Prussian administration. The direct administration (Drostei) was located in the city of Pinneberg. 1883 Halstenbek received a connection to the railway network with its own freight yard, which promoted the marketing of trees and plants from the Halstenbek prant nurseries substantially. The First World War brought the next big economical break. The neighboring Kiel in 1867 was declared Baltic Naval Station of the North German Confederation and later of the German Empire in 1871. This resulted in the set up of businesses like the Imperial Shipyard Kiel (Kaiserliche Werft Kiel) and its ancillary and supply industries, e.g. foundries, dockyards and other defence industries. The factories' demand for workers led to a rapid increase in population in the city of Kiel but also in the villages in its vicinity such as Schönkirchen.

North German Confederation

thumb upright 1.3 The North German Confederation (borders in red; Kingdom of Prussia in blue). (File:NB 1866-1871.99.svg)

The '''North German Confederation''' ( as a state (sovereign state), although technically the Empire was a new foundation.

After several unsuccessful proposals from several sides to reform the German Confederation (founded in 1815), the North German major power Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) left the German Confederation with some allies. It came to war between those states on one hand and states such as Austria (Empire of Austria) on the other. After a quick decision in the Austro-Prussian War of July 1866, Prussia and its allies founded the North German Federation. At first, it was a military alliance between independent states (''August-Bündnis''), but the states already had the intention to form later a federation or confederation with a constitution. This was realised in 1867. The North German Confederation is historically important for the economic and judicial unification of Germany; many of its laws were taken over by the German Empire.

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